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Exam Name___________________________________

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion. 1) WhichstatementisgenerallyNOTtrue? A) Microbialcellsexistassinglecells. B) Microbialcellsexcludethecellsofplantsandanimals. C) Microbialcellsincludebothbacteriaandviruses. D) Microbialcellscarryouttheirlifeprocessesofgrowthindependently. 2) Basicmicrobiologycanbeusedto A) modelourunderstandingofcellularprocessesinmulticellularorganisms,includinghumans. B) probethefundamentalprocessesoflife. C) studycharacteristicsofcellsofmulticellularorganisms. D) doalloftheabove. 3) Appliedmicrobiologydealswithimportantpracticalproblemsin A) medicine. B) industry. C) agriculture. D) alloftheabove. 4) ThelargestmassoflivingmaterialonEarthcomesfrom A) animals. B) plants. C) microorganisms. D) plantsandanimalstogether. 5) Differentialselectionandreproductionofphenotypesoccursduringaprocesscalled A) cellulardifferentiation. B) growth. C) transformation. D) evolution. 6) Inwhat/whichdomain(s)oflifeis/aremicroorganismsrepresented? A) Bacteria B) Archaea C) Eukarya 1)

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7) Aspecificmolecule,usedespeciallybyevolutionarybiologists,thatisuniquetoaparticular taxonomicalgroupiscalleda A) biomarker. B) taxon. C) metabolictracer. D) genome. 8) Proteincatalystsinvolvedintheaccelerationoftherateofchemicalreactionsarecalled A) enzymes. B) growthagents. C) evolutionarymolecules. D) catalyticconverters. 9) RegardingearlylifeonEarth, A) microbiallifeexistedforbillionsofyearsbeforeplantandanimallife. B) microbiallife,plantlife,andanimallifeallappearedataboutthesametime. C) microbiallifeexistedlongbeforeanimalsbuthasbeenaroundforaboutthesameamountof timeasplants. D) itisimpossibletodeterminewhichtypeoflifefirstappeared.

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10) Mostprokaryoticcellsreside A) intheoceanicandterrestrialsubsurfaces. B) inlakes,rivers,andoceans. C) inandonnonprokaryoticorganisms(includinghumansandotheranimals). D) onEarthssurface. 11) Thepersonwhodescribedtheweeanimalculeswas A) LouisPasteur. B) FerdinandCohn. C) RobertHooke. D) AntonivanLeeuwenhoek. 12) FannieHesseiscreditedwithgiving________theideatouseagarasasolidifyingagent. A) SergeiWinogradsky B) RobertKoch C) LouisPasteur D) FerdinandCohn 13) Whichofthefollowingis/arecharacteristicofcellularorganisms? A) regenerationandreproduction B) communication C) metabolism D) alloftheabove 14) WhichofthefollowingisNOTamajorecosystem? A) otherorganisms,suchasplantsandanimals B) terrestrial C) aquatic D) atmospheric 15) WhichstatementisTRUE? A) Microbialcommunitiesareassemblagesofpopulations. B) Populationsareassemblagesofhabitats. C) Populationsareassemblagesofmicrobialcommunities. D) Habitatsareassemblagesofmicrobialcommunities. 16) LouisPasteurdevelopedthevaccine(s)for A) anthrax. C) fowlcholera.

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16) B) rabies. D) alloftheabove. 17)

17) Thediscoveryofantibioticsandotherimportantchemicalsledtothefieldof A) aquaticmicrobiology. B) agriculturalmicrobiology. C) industrialmicrobiology. D) marinemicrobiology. 18) Microbialsterilizationisusedto A) killallmicrobesinoronobjects. B) killbacteriabutnotnecessarilyvirusesorothermicrobes. C) cleanaworkarea. D) decreasethepossibilityofcontaminantsgrowinginaculture. 19) Transparentdouble-sideddishesusedforgrowingmicrobesaremostcommonlycalled A) bakerdishes. B) Petridishes. C) culturemediumplates. D) sterilizationplates.

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20) Microbesplayingaroleinnitrogenfixationinplantslivein________,whilethoseplayingarolein thedigestivetractofcertainherbivoreslivein________. A) nodules/fortrans B) rumens/nodules C) nodules/rumens D) fortrans/rumens 21) WhichofthefollowingisNOTanaccomplishmentofLouisPasteur? A) developedthefirstrabiesvaccineandtreatedthousandsofindividuals B) developedheatsterilizationtechniquesthatinvolvedthecreationofaspecialized swan-neckedflask C) developedenrichmentculturetechniques D) determinedthatthealcohol-makingprocesswasmediatedbymicrobialfermentationand thusrefutedthetheoryofspontaneousgeneration 22) Thetheoryofspontaneousgenerationwasrefutedbytheworkof A) LouisPasteur. B) AntonivanLeeuwenhoek. C) RobertKoch. D) RobertHooke. 23) APasteurflaskhasa(n) A) secondaryopeningatthebasetoallowfordrainage. B) invertedupperedgetopreventspillagewhileswirling. C) doublenecksotwosubstancesmaybeaddedatthesametime. D) swannecktopreventparticulatematterfromgettingintothemainbodyoftheflask. 24) RobertKochsgreatestaccomplishmentinthefieldofmedicalbacteriologywaswith A) Escherichiacoli. B) Mycobacteriumtuberculosis . C) Bacilluscereus. D) Bacillussubtilis. 25) Apureculture A) ismadeofaclearlydefinedchemicalmedium. B) wasculturedforacertifiedstockculture. C) issterile. D) isapopulationofidenticalcells. 26) MartinusBeijerinckwasthefirsttoisolate A) certainnitrogen-fixingrootnodulebacteria. B) greenalgae. C) certainsulfate-reducingbacteria. D) alloftheabove. 27) Chemolithotrophyinvolves A) reductionoforganiccompounds. C) metabolicautotrophy.

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27) B) oxidationoforganiccompounds. D) oxidationofinorganiccompounds. 28)

28) Developmentsinthefieldsofimmunologyandmedicalmicrobiologywerepracticalextensionsof theworkof A) SergeiWinogradsky. B) AntonivanLeeuwenhoek. C) RobertKoch. D) JosephLister.

29) Microbialcontrolinwastewaterswouldmostlogicallybeapartof A) bacterialenergetics. B) aquaticmicrobiology. C) microbialtechnology. D) microbialgenetics. 30) RobertKochcontributedtothefieldofmicrobiologybybeingthefirstpersonto A) formulatefourpostulatesfordefinitivelylinkingaspecificmicroorganismtoaspecific disease. B) useagarasasolidifyingagentingrowthmedia. C) developthetuberculintest. D) alloftheabove. 31) Thescienceofgroupingandclassifyingmicroorganismsisknownas A) metabolomics. B) microbialphysiology. C) proteomics. D) microbialsystematics. 32) Mycobacteriumtuberculosisisverydifficulttostainbecauseofthe A) lackofacellwall. B) largeamountsofawaxylipidpresentinitscellwall. C) locationoftheDNAwithinthecell. D) presenceofribosomesinthecytoplasm. 33) LouisPasteursmostfamoussuccesswashisworkon A) Mycobacteriumtuberculosis. B) fermentationinthewinemakingprocess. C) therabiesvaccine. D) opticalisomers. 34) Microorganismsplaykeyrolesinthecyclingofimportantnutrientsinplantnutrition,particularly thoseof A) sulfur. B) carbon,nitrogen,andsulfur. C) nitrogen. D) carbon. 35) Microbialecologyisthestudyof A) thediversityandactivitiesofmarinemicroorganisms. B) thegroupingandclassifyingofmicroorganisms. C) microorganismsintheirnaturalenvironments. D) microbialprocessesinthesoilthatbenefitplantgrowth. 36) Thestructurethatconfersstructuralstrengthonthecellisknownasthe A) cellwall. B) cytoplasmicmembrane. C) ribosome. D) cytoplasm. 37) Whichpartofthehumanbodydoesnotcontainasignificantnormalmicrobialflora? A) stomach B) oralcavity C) skin D) largeintestine TRUE/FALSE.WriteTifthestatementistrueandFifthestatementisfalse. 38) Withoutmicroorganisms,allhigherlifeformsonEarthwouldceasetoexist. 39) Mostmicroorganismsarepathogenic. 40) Allmicroorganismsrequiremolecularoxygentocarryonlifefunctions. 4

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41) Metabolismiscommontoallcellularorganisms. 42) Accordingtoourpresentunderstanding,eachofthemajordomainshaswhatisknownasitsown universalancestor. 43) Microbiologyasadistinctsciencedidnotdevelopuntiltheeighteenthcentury. 44) Theenvironmentinwhichamicrobialpopulationlivesisitshabitat. 45) Differentiationoccursonlyinmulticellularorganisms. 46) Thedisciplineofmicrobiologyisintimatelyassociatedwithbiochemistryandgenetics,because cellsarebothbiochemicalcatalystsandgeneticcodingdevices. 47) Smallpoxisamajorkillerinpartsofthedevelopingworld. 48) SergeiWinogradskyworkedwithbacteriainvolvedincyclingnitrogenandsulfur. 49) Treponemapallidum,abacteriumassociatedwithsyphilis,isnotconsideredapathogenbecauseto dateitremainsunculturableinthelab,and,therefore,Kochspostulatesareunabletobefulfilled. 50) Marinemicroorganismslikelycontrolmanyimportantglobalparameters,includingclimateand atmosphericchemistry. SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion. 51) Amicrobialcellsmembraneisconsidered________,becauseitsinternalconstituentsare maintainedwithinthecell,howeveritalsoimportsandexportsothermoleculesin responsetoitsenvironment. 52) Somemicroorganismscanundergo________inwhichvariouscelltypescanbecome specializedandarisefromoneparentcelltype. 53) Cyanobacteriaandpurplebacteriabothobtainenergyfromlight,howeveronlythe ________arecapableofreleasing________. 54) Theprocesswherebymicroorganismsareusedtohelpcleanuppollutioncreatedby humanactivitiesisknownas________. 55) Anecosystemcouldbedefinedas________alongwiththeir________. 56) RobertKochreceivedthe1905NobelPrizeforPhysiologyorMedicinefor________. 57) Thethreemajorbioenergyproductsofmicroorganismsare________,________,and ________. 58) Microbialbiochemistryinvolvesthediscoveryof________andthe________. 51)

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59) DNAsequencingtostudyorganismsentirenucleotidesequencesinitiallybroughtabout thefieldof________,whichhasitselfspawnedthesubdisciplinesof________and ________thatrepresentmorefunctional -basedapproaches. 60) The________isthefundamentalunitoflife. 61) Thediseaseanthraxiscausedbythepathogenicbacterium________,whichproduces heat-resistantstructuresknownas________. 62) Groupsofcellsderivedfromasingleparentcellbysuccessivecelldivisionsareknownas ________andwhichliveinenvironmentsknownas________. 63) Thefirstdocumenteddescriptionofamicroorganismwasofa________by________. 64) ________producedbymicrobialfermentationofglucosefromsugarcaneorcornstarchis becomingamoreimportantcomponentofbiofuelsintheUnitedStates,andspecialized ________microbiologistsareneededtomakethisacommerciallyavailableproduct. 65) ________wasthefirsttodescribemicroorganisms,while________wasthefirstpersonto seebacteria. 66) Apopulationofidenticalcellsisknownasa(n)________. 67) ________describedthefirstvirusandthebasicprinciplesofvirology. 68) ThediscoveriesofMartinusBeijerinckandSergeiWinogradskyledtopracticaladvances inthefieldof________. 69) Bioremediation________byintroducingpollutant -consumingmicroorganismsorspecific nutrientsthathelpmicroorganismsdegradepollutants. 70) ________wasthefirsttoidentifyanewformofautotrophyinwhichenergyisobtained fromoxidizinginorganiccompoundscalled________. ESSAY.Writeyouranswerinthespaceprovidedoronaseparatesheetofpaper. 71) Explainthenatureandfunctionofanenrichmentculture. 72) Whyisitincorrecttosaythatanobjectispartiallysterile?

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73) Microbeswerefirstformallyobservedduringthemid-1600s,butthecelltheorywasnotenunciateduntil1839. WriteabriefessayexplainingwhymicrobiologydidnotbecomeaformallyrecognizedscienceuntilLouis PasteursandRobertKochstime. 74) ListthreecontributionsofFerdinandCohntothedevelopmentofmicrobiology. 75) CompareandcontrasttheworksofLouisPasteurandRobertKochintermsofbothappliedandbasicscience.

76) Explainwhymicrobialcellsareexcellentmodelsforunderstandingcellfunctioninhigherorganisms. 77) Compareandcontrasttheleadingcausesofdeathin1900withtheleadingcausesofdeathtoday.Whatroles havemicrobiologistsplayedinthedramaticchangesthatareevident? 78) ExplainhowyouwoulduseRobertKochspostulatestodeterminethatStreptococcuspyogenes isthecausative agentofstreptococcalpharyngitis(strepthroat). 79) Thetextstatesthatantibioticsarederivedfrommicroorganisms.Whatisthebenefittoanantibiotic -producing microorganismofproducinganantibioticinitsnaturalhabitat? 80) Describebeneficialandharmfulwaysinwhichmicroorganismsinteractwithagriculturalcrops. 81) Provideevidencesupportingthestatementthatanecosystemiscontrolledbymicrobialactivities. 82) ExplainwhyonlyanaerobicbacteriainhabitedEarthforthefirsttwobillionyearsofitsexistence. 83) HowwouldthepresenceofendosporesinLouisPasteursnutrientsolutionshaveaffectedhisconclusions aboutspontaneousgeneration? 84) Usingspecificexamples,explainwhyitissometimesimpossibletosatisfyRobertKochspostulates. 85) Explainwhyinfectiousdiseasesaremuchlesslethalindevelopedcountriesthaninunderdevelopedcountries. 86) Describetwocapabilitiesofmicrobesthatexemplifytheirdynamicnature. 87) Compareandcontrastthefunctionsmicrobesserveinthedigestivesystemsofbothhumansandrumens(e.g., cattle).

AnswerKey Testname:UNTITLED1

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C D D C D D A A A A D B D D A D C A B C C A D B D D D C B D D B C B C A A TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE 8

AnswerKey Testname:UNTITLED1

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semi-permeable cellulardifferentiation cyanobacteria/oxygen bioremediation livingorganisms(biotic)/chemicalandphysicalenvironments(abiotic) hiscontributionsontuberculosis biodiesel/methane/ethanol(anyorder) microbialenzymes/chemicalreactionstheyperform genomics/proteomics/metabolomics(secondandthirdineitherorder) cell Bacillusanthracis/endospores (microbial)populations/(microbial)habitats mold/RobertHooke Ethanol/industrial RobertHooke/AntonivanLeeuwenhoek pureculture MartinusBeijerinck agriculturalmicrobiology acceleratesthenaturalcleanupprocess SergeiWinogradsky/chemolithotrophy Answerswillvary,butanenrichmentcultureusesmedia,chemicals,orcultureconditionstoselectfororenhance specificcharacteristicsofanorganism. Answerswillvary,butsterilemeanstheabsenceoflivingorganisms.Somethingiseithersterileoritisnot. Answerswillvary,butathemeshouldbethelackofpowerfulmicroscopytools. Answerscouldpossiblyinclude:foundingbacteriologyasaseparatescience,studyingBeggiatoa,discoveringthegenus Bacillus(alongwithitsendosporeformationanditslifecycle),devisingmethodstopreventcontamination,and foundingamajorscientificjournal. Answerswillvary,butshouldhighlightthedifferencesbetweenbasicscientificresearchinwhichfundamentalideas arediscoveredopposedtotheusageofmicrobiologicalprinciplestosolvelargerquestions.ExamplesofPasteursbasic sciencecontributionsarehisworkshowingthatfermentationwasmediatedbymicroorganismsandthepreferential metabolismofparticularopticalisomersbymicrobes.Pasteuralsoappliedhisideastodevelopsterilization techniques.RobertKochfocusedmoreontheapplicationofmicrobiologytoidentifythecauseoftuberculosisby developingpureculturingtechniquesandthefourpostulatestolinkmicrobestoadisease. Answerswillvarybutshouldincludecommonalityoffunction,biochemicalandgeneticsimilarities,andeaseand speedwithwhichtheycanbegrowninlargequantities. Answerswillvary,butafocusshouldbethatpathogensthatkilledpeopleintheearly1900sarenowtreatabledueto knowledgelearnedfrommicrobiologists. AnswerswillvarybutwillneedtodetailhowS.pyogenes willbesubjectedtoallfourpostulates. Answerswillvary,butitmustfirstbestatedtheantibiotic-producingmicrobewouldneedtoberesistanttothe antibiotic.Thisshouldthenfollowintoadiscussiononhowantibioticproductioncouldbeviewedasawaytopersist intheenvironment,suchasmaintainingdominanceinacommunityoverothers. Certainmicrobesarebeneficialtocropswhentheyproducenutrients(e.g.,NH 4 + ,SO 4 2- )usablebyacropfroma

substratethatwasunusable.Othermicrobescancausediseasesinplants,muchlikepathogenscausediseasein humans. 81) Answerswillvary,butoneexamplecouldbeoxygendepletion,wherealossofoxygenwouldthenfavoranaerobic microorganisms. 82) Answerswillvary,butthekeyideaisananoxicenvironmentwillnotallowaerobicorganismstosurvive. 83) Answerswillvary,butultimatelythiscouldhaveconfoundedPasteuriftheendosporessometimeswentintoa vegetativegrowthphaseandothertimesnogrowthwasobserved. 9

AnswerKey Testname:UNTITLED1

84) Answerswillvary,butoneissueistheconsiderationforamodelanimalhostthatwillreacttothe(human)pathogen inthesamemannerasinahumanhost.Forexample,achickenwouldnotshowflu -likesymptomswheninfected withtheinfluenzavirus. 85) Answerswillvarybutshouldemphasizewaysinwhichincreasedknowledgeaboutmicrobialpathogenesishas influencedpreventativecare(e.g.,sanitation)andtreatment(e.g.,antimicrobialdrugs). 86) Answerscouldpossiblyincludecell-cellcommunication,abilitytomove(motility),andexchangeofmaterials(any two). 87) Answerswillvarybutshouldfocusonhumanshavingahighcelllocalizeddensityinthecolon(largeintestine), whereasrumenshavehighermicrobialpopulationsintherumen.

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