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PENDEKATAN BARU DALAM RISET GEOLOGI

Studi Kasus: Kutai Basin East Kalimantan By: ERY ARIFULLAH Geology Specialist

Monday, December 24, 2012

Penemuan terbesar dari generasi kita adalah bahwa manusia dapat mengubah kehidupan mereka dengan mengubah cara berpikir mereka.
William James
Monday, December 24, 2012

V.I.S.I.O.N
Nothing Happens Unless First A Dream
Carl Sanburg
Monday, December 24, 2012

Objectives and Targets

Monday, December 24, 2012

Objectives and Targets


Objectives:

Monday, December 24, 2012

Objectives and Targets


Objectives: - new insight: conceptual framework and knowledges.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Objectives and Targets


Objectives: - new insight: conceptual framework and knowledges. - practical informations of Kutai Basin geology and their relationship to fossil fuel and mineral resources.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Objectives and Targets


Objectives: - new insight: conceptual framework and knowledges. - practical informations of Kutai Basin geology and their relationship to fossil fuel and mineral resources. - to straight geological principles, applications and opportunity

Monday, December 24, 2012

Objectives and Targets


Objectives: - new insight: conceptual framework and knowledges. - practical informations of Kutai Basin geology and their relationship to fossil fuel and mineral resources. - to straight geological principles, applications and opportunity - to optimize using geological data and thinking with new solutions in exploration.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Objectives and Targets


Objectives: - new insight: conceptual framework and knowledges. - practical informations of Kutai Basin geology and their relationship to fossil fuel and mineral resources. - to straight geological principles, applications and opportunity - to optimize using geological data and thinking with new solutions in exploration. Targets : students, lecturer, and stake holder.
Monday, December 24, 2012

LATAR BELAKANG: Kesalahan Praktis Dalam Eksplorasi

Monday, December 24, 2012

THE FACTS
Petroleum Exploration: Very complex reservoir heterogenity, quality and geometry. Detailed facies analysis. Detailed and optimize stratigraphic correlations. Understanding petroleum system due with basin analysis. Optimize old data (geochemistry, petrophysics, cutting, geophysics: logging,

Monday, December 24, 2012

PROBLEMS IN COAL EXPLORATION


Abrubt change of lithology type, terminated seams. Why the coals have different quality (ash, S), geometry and distribution. How to use and optimize new or old available data (ash, S and thickness) to reconstuct the paleogeographic, isopach and iso-ash, iso-S and etc. How to optimize the wireline logging data?
Monday, December 24, 2012

Mendefinisikan Formasi
HANYA BERDASARKAN ciri litologi. Tidak ada unsur TAFSIRAN!!! Mencampuradukkan antara ciri litologi dan tafsiran umur geologi mengakibatkan:
Kesalahan dalam pembuatan peta geologi dan korelasi bawah permukaan. Kesalahan PROSPEKSI!!!

Monday, December 24, 2012

Basic principles in geology

Monday, December 24, 2012

Basic principles in geology


Time and space correlation NOT process and physical correlation lithostratigraphy NOT absolute with some exceptions Uniformitarianism actualism analogues study examples: Modern and Miocene Mahakam Delta.

Monday, December 24, 2012

NW SE cross section of Lower Kutai Basin

E
S. Jembayan Kiri Tmp Tmpb Tmp Tmb Tmp Tmpb Tmp Tmb Tmp Tmpb S. Kedak Tmp Tmpb S. Loahaur Tmp Tmpb Tpkb Tmbp Tmbp Tmpb Tmbp S. Bambangan Tpkb Tmbp Tpkb

10

15

20

25

30 KILOMETER

KETERANGAN
Tpkb Tmbp Tmpb Tmb Tmp

0O

106O30

Formasi Kampung Baru Formasi Balikpapan Formasi Pulau Balang Formasi Bebulu Formasi Pamaluan
F 106O30 E

Lithostratigraphic terminology used in a geological cross section in Lower Kutai Basin (modified from Supriatna et al., 1995)

Monday, December 24, 2012

UTARA
A
N5

BUSANG-1 (PROJ.) TD 7021


N5 N5

SEBULU-1 (PROJ.) TD 4910 M


N8

SEPARI-1 (PROJ.) TD 5816


N8

PRANGAT-1 TD 11025 PRANGAT-2 TD 11486

SEMBERAH-6

A'
G N10
N8

N7 N6 N5 N5

N7 N6

N7

F
G

N10
N8

TENGAH
B
N4 ?
KUTAI RIDGE (GRAVITY HIGH) KAHALA-1 TD 10061 SINKLIN DANAU KUTAI MURUNG-1 TD 5155 SINKLIN PERIAN ANTIKLIN PEMBULAN SINKLIN BUAT BUAT-1 TD 12063 SINKLIN GITAN SINKLIN TALUANG SINKLIN SAKA KANAN ANTIKLIN PELARANG SOUTH S. NANGKA-1 TD 5472 ANTIKLIN MUTIARA PUNAN-1 MUTIARA-2 TD 13481 TD 9458 HANDIL KERBAU-4 TD 11680 BEKAPAI-11 TD 15098

B'

N4 N4
N5 N5 BASEMENT

N6

N7 N6 N5

N7

N10 N8

F
G N10

N4

N8

SELATAN DAN WAIN Legenda:


A A'

C
N4

MENTAWIR-1 TD 5620
G

RADEN-1 TD 11867

TEMPAYAN-1 TD 13493

C'

GARIS PENAMPANG A - A STRUKTUR PATAHAN

N5

N6
N7 N6

N10

BA
G N1

NG SA

N8

LU

NCO

NF. EQU IV. F

N7
N7

N7

GARIS MARKER LOKASI SUMUR DENGAN KEDALAMAN TD BATUAN BERUMUR N8 DAN LEBIH MUDA BATUAN BERUMUR N7 - N8 BATUAN BERUMUR N6 - N7 BATUAN BERUMUR N5 - N6 BATUAN BERUMUR N4 - N5 BATUAN BERUMUR N4 DAN LEBIH TUA BATUAN DASAR 6 KM 0 20 KM 3 0

N8

Geological cross section of northern part Lower Kutai Basin, Center part and South-Wain.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Deskripsi batuan/singkapan
Murni berdasarkan pengamatan. Urutan pendiskripsian tidak mutlak. Kebebasan mengamati sangat tergantung pada si pengamat. Nama tidak penting yang penting adalah deskripsinya. Untuk singkapan batuan, pertama tama adalah metode Bird eye view

Monday, December 24, 2012

Geology is science NOT engineering. Geology is earth science study of interior, architectural, processes and history of the earth

Monday, December 24, 2012

Penggunaan data log tidak optimum


Melihat log seperti melihat batuan. Memahami karakteristik fisis log.

Monday, December 24, 2012

CYLINDER SHAPE = bed

Adapted from SHELLs documents


Monday, December 24, 2012

Motif log:

Monday, December 24, 2012

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Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Sifat fisik litologi


Monday, December 24, 2012

Interpretasi litologi dari data log

Sifat fisik litologi


Monday, December 24, 2012

Interpretasi litologi dari data log

Membaca log seolah-olah anda melihat batunya. Log hanyalah instrumen untuk merekam sifat fisik batuan secara tidak langsung. Indera adalah instrumen dalam merekam sifat fisik batuan secara langsung.

Sifat fisik litologi


Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Motif log: sungai dan sekitarnya

Monday, December 24, 2012

Motif log: sungai dan sekitarnya

Monday, December 24, 2012

Motif log: sungai dan sekitarnya

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Log Correlation

Monday, December 24, 2012

Log & Seismic Integration

Monday, December 24, 2012

Log Correlation based

Monday, December 24, 2012

Facies Correlation based on log data

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Template
Coal = delta??? Interpretasi lingkungan pengendapan hanya berdasarkan model atau mirip dengan model yang ada. Struktur sedimen sama BELUM TENTU lingkungan pengendapan sama. Struktur sedimen sama PASTI proses sedimentasi sama. Proses sedimentasi sama BELUM TENTU lingkungan pengendapan sama.
Monday, December 24, 2012

Pemahaman yang kurang terhadap geologi regional


Memahami geologi regional, ie: Geologi Cekungan Kutai. Tektonik Stratigrafi Sedimentologi kurangnya penghargaan terhadap process-response.

Monday, December 24, 2012

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART

Monday, December 24, 2012

PRELIMINARY STUDY

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART

Monday, December 24, 2012

PRELIMINARY STUDY

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART

PROSPECTING

Monday, December 24, 2012

PRELIMINARY STUDY

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART

PROSPECTING

Monday, December 24, 2012

PRELIMINARY STUDY

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART


YES

PROSPECTING

NO

Monday, December 24, 2012

PRELIMINARY STUDY

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART


YES

PROSPECTING

NO

DETAILED STUDY

Monday, December 24, 2012

PRELIMINARY STUDY

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART


YES

PROSPECTING

NO

Surface geological mapping DETAILED STUDY

Monday, December 24, 2012

PRELIMINARY STUDY

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART


YES

PROSPECTING

NO

Surface geological mapping DETAILED STUDY

Monday, December 24, 2012

PRELIMINARY STUDY

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART


YES

PROSPECTING

NO

Surface geological mapping DETAILED STUDY

Monday, December 24, 2012

PRELIMINARY STUDY

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART


YES

PROSPECTING

NO

Surface geological mapping DETAILED STUDY Subsurface geological mapping

Monday, December 24, 2012

PRELIMINARY STUDY

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART


YES

PROSPECTING

NO

Surface geological mapping DETAILED STUDY Subsurface geological mapping

Monday, December 24, 2012

PRELIMINARY STUDY

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART


YES

PROSPECTING

NO

Surface geological mapping DETAILED STUDY Subsurface geological mapping Integrated & overlay data

Monday, December 24, 2012

PRELIMINARY STUDY

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART


YES

PROSPECTING

NO

Surface geological mapping DETAILED STUDY Subsurface geological mapping Integrated & overlay data

Monday, December 24, 2012

PRELIMINARY STUDY

EXPLORATION FLOW CHART


YES

PROSPECTING

NO

Surface geological mapping DETAILED STUDY Subsurface geological mapping COMMERCIAL PROGRAM Integrated & overlay data

Monday, December 24, 2012

History perspective of geological research in East Kalimantan

Monday, December 24, 2012

History perspective of geological research in East Kalimantan


Late 1800s Dutch geologist

Monday, December 24, 2012

History perspective of geological research in East Kalimantan


Late 1800s Dutch geologist 1931 Leopold & van der Vlerk: stratigraphic nomenclature for Kutai Basin.

Monday, December 24, 2012

History perspective of geological research in East Kalimantan


Late 1800s Dutch geologist 1931 Leopold & van der Vlerk: stratigraphic nomenclature for Kutai Basin. 1940s Japan geologist.

Monday, December 24, 2012

History perspective of geological research in East Kalimantan


Late 1800s Dutch geologist 1931 Leopold & van der Vlerk: stratigraphic nomenclature for Kutai Basin. 1940s Japan geologist. 1950s BPM/Shell geologist.

Monday, December 24, 2012

History perspective of geological research in East Kalimantan


Late 1800s Dutch geologist 1931 Leopold & van der Vlerk: stratigraphic nomenclature for Kutai Basin. 1940s Japan geologist. 1950s BPM/Shell geologist. 1960s Union oil, Huffco geologist. New born of plate tectonic paradigm.

Monday, December 24, 2012

History perspective of geological research in East Kalimantan


Late 1800s Dutch geologist 1931 Leopold & van der Vlerk: stratigraphic nomenclature for Kutai Basin. 1940s Japan geologist. 1950s BPM/Shell geologist. 1960s Union oil, Huffco geologist. New born of plate tectonic paradigm. 1970s 1980s oil booming, significance sedimentological and stratigraphic research in deltaic deposit: Modern and Miocene Mahakam Delta by George Allen. New born of sequence stratigraphic concept and their application world wide. Development of Samarinda Area litostratigraphy by Land & Jones (coal geologist).

Monday, December 24, 2012

History perspective of geological research in East Kalimantan


Late 1800s Dutch geologist 1931 Leopold & van der Vlerk: stratigraphic nomenclature for Kutai Basin. 1940s Japan geologist. 1950s BPM/Shell geologist. 1960s Union oil, Huffco geologist. New born of plate tectonic paradigm. 1970s 1980s oil booming, significance sedimentological and stratigraphic research in deltaic deposit: Modern and Miocene Mahakam Delta by George Allen. New born of sequence stratigraphic concept and their application world wide. Development of Samarinda Area litostratigraphy by Land & Jones (coal geologist). 1990s 2000s

Monday, December 24, 2012

History perspective of geological research in East Kalimantan


Late 1800s Dutch geologist 1931 Leopold & van der Vlerk: stratigraphic nomenclature for Kutai Basin. 1940s Japan geologist. 1950s BPM/Shell geologist. 1960s Union oil, Huffco geologist. New born of plate tectonic paradigm. 1970s 1980s oil booming, significance sedimentological and stratigraphic research in deltaic deposit: Modern and Miocene Mahakam Delta by George Allen. New born of sequence stratigraphic concept and their application world wide. Development of Samarinda Area litostratigraphy by Land & Jones (coal geologist). 1990s 2000s - renaissance in deltaic sedimentology

Monday, December 24, 2012

History perspective of geological research in East Kalimantan


Late 1800s Dutch geologist 1931 Leopold & van der Vlerk: stratigraphic nomenclature for Kutai Basin. 1940s Japan geologist. 1950s BPM/Shell geologist. 1960s Union oil, Huffco geologist. New born of plate tectonic paradigm. 1970s 1980s oil booming, significance sedimentological and stratigraphic research in deltaic deposit: Modern and Miocene Mahakam Delta by George Allen. New born of sequence stratigraphic concept and their application world wide. Development of Samarinda Area litostratigraphy by Land & Jones (coal geologist). 1990s 2000s - renaissance in deltaic sedimentology - detailed deep water deposit Kutai Basin has been one of a pioneer in deep water geological research in the world.

Monday, December 24, 2012

History perspective of geological research in East Kalimantan


Late 1800s Dutch geologist 1931 Leopold & van der Vlerk: stratigraphic nomenclature for Kutai Basin. 1940s Japan geologist. 1950s BPM/Shell geologist. 1960s Union oil, Huffco geologist. New born of plate tectonic paradigm. 1970s 1980s oil booming, significance sedimentological and stratigraphic research in deltaic deposit: Modern and Miocene Mahakam Delta by George Allen. New born of sequence stratigraphic concept and their application world wide. Development of Samarinda Area litostratigraphy by Land & Jones (coal geologist). 1990s 2000s - renaissance in deltaic sedimentology - detailed deep water deposit Kutai Basin has been one of a pioneer in deep water geological research in the world. - first time in ichnological research for modern and outcrop analogues

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

The Geology of Kutai Basin

Monday, December 24, 2012

The Main Significance of Kutai Basin

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

KUTAI BASIN:
One of the center for geological research in the world and places for geological education and training

Monday, December 24, 2012

AAPG field trip KUTAI BASIN:


One of the center for geological research in the world and places for geological education and training

Monday, December 24, 2012

AAPG field trip KUTAI BASIN:


One of the center for geological research in the world and places for geological education and training

IAGI field trip


Monday, December 24, 2012

ITB/UPN field trip

AAPG field trip KUTAI BASIN:


One of the center for geological research in the world and places for geological education and training

IAGI field trip


Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

The future research solving the geological problems, support new theories and new ideas and practices.

Monday, December 24, 2012

The future research solving the geological problems, support new theories and new ideas and practices.

Monday, December 24, 2012

The future research solving the geological problems, support new theories and new ideas and practices.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Environmental Forecasting

Monday, December 24, 2012

Environmental Forecasting
Climates evolutions Volcanic activity, tectonic earthquake. River, delta, coastal dinamics; example: river/fluvial flood quantity. Modern and Miocene Mahakam Delta

Monday, December 24, 2012

Environmental Forecasting
Climates evolutions Volcanic activity, tectonic earthquake. River, delta, coastal dinamics; example: river/fluvial flood quantity. Modern and Miocene Mahakam Delta

UNIFORMITARIANISM

Monday, December 24, 2012

14,4 millions years ago

Examples of river (red) and fluvial flood deposit (yellow)

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Modern river in Mahakam Delta

Monday, December 24, 2012

Modern river in Mahakam Delta

Monday, December 24, 2012

Modern river in Mahakam Delta

Monday, December 24, 2012

GEOLOGI
Geologi Umum

Monday, December 24, 2012

GEOLOGI
Geologi Umum

Kerangka tektonik lempeng Cekungan Kutai (Bachtiar, 2004)


Monday, December 24, 2012

GEOLOGI
Geologi Umum
Pertemuan 3 lempeng: -Eurasia -Pasifik -India-Australia

Kerangka tektonik lempeng Cekungan Kutai (Bachtiar, 2004)


Monday, December 24, 2012

GEOLOGI
Geologi Umum
Pertemuan 3 lempeng: -Eurasia -Pasifik -India-Australia

Kerangka tektonik lempeng Cekungan Kutai (Bachtiar, 2004)


Monday, December 24, 2012

GEOLOGI
Geologi Umum
Pertemuan 3 lempeng: -Eurasia -Pasifik -India-Australia

Mempengaruhi prosesproses pembentukan, pengisian dan modifikasi cekungan


Kerangka tektonik lempeng Cekungan Kutai (Bachtiar, 2004)
Monday, December 24, 2012

N
South China Sea

KUTAI BASIN:
Indonesia 2nd most prolic basin

KUCHING OROGENIC COMPLEX

Celebes Sea

KUTAI BASIN
Mahakam Delta Samarinda
Balikpapan

with its own, unique Mahakam Delta

Java Sea

>11 BBOE reserve Mid Miocene & younger

Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Umum

Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Umum

Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Umum

Batas-batas Cek. Kutai:


Barat: Tinggian Kuching Timur : Selat Makassar Utara : Tinggian Mangkalihat Selatan : Peg. Maratus

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Umum

Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Umum

Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Umum

Wave & tidal dominated delta study

Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Umum

Fluvial dominated delta study Wave & tidal dominated delta study

Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Umum

Kolom stratigrafi daerah Samarinda (Chambers & Daley, 1995)


Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Umum

Fluvial dominated delta study

Kolom stratigrafi daerah Samarinda (Chambers & Daley, 1995)


Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Umum

Fluvial dominated delta study

Wave & tidal dominated delta study

Kolom stratigrafi daerah Samarinda (Chambers & Daley, 1995)


Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Delta Mahakam Modern

Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Delta Mahakam Modern

Pembagian jenis delta (Galloway, 1975)


Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Delta Mahakam Modern

Pembagian jenis delta (Galloway, 1975)


Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologi Delta Mahakam Modern

Delta Mahakam Modern

Pembagian jenis delta (Galloway, 1975)


Monday, December 24, 2012

460000

500000

540000

BUS-01

U
0 10 20 KM

BAT-01

GEOLOGICAL MAP OF STUDY AREA


9980000

SEP-01

Monday, December 24, 2012

9980000
MUR-01 PEMBLN 2 PEMBLN 3 JONGGON BUA-01 LJN 2 PEMBLN 4

SEB-01 SEG-01 PRT-02

MUM-01

Showing stratigraphic units based on Blow Zonation ages

BIN V-1A

PERJUANGAN

WARE HOUSE

9940000
CAMP 88

9940000

LJN 1 PEL-01

ANG-01

BEL-01

JBYN

NAN-01

CAMP SPK2 LOA-01 SEPAKU SUN-01

AMD

TNG-01

SPK 1-7

MID MIOCENE & YOUNGER N8 N 810 N 850 N 8A N7

9900000 9860000
RIK-01

9900000

TNG

SPK 14 SKN-01 SPK 8+100 SAM-01

KETERANGAN:
MIOSEN TENGAH N8 N 810
SAM-02 RDN-01

SEGRET

MENTAWIR SM-01 MEN-01

N 850 N 8A N7

RDN-02

LAM-01

N6
LAM-02 BON-01 GNB-01

N5 N4 SUMUR MINYAK DAN GAS DAERAH PENELITIAN KHUSUS DENGAN LINTASAN GEOLOGI LOKASI SINGKAPAN

9860000

N6 N5 N4

WLW-01

SWL-01

JALUR SEISMIK

460000

500000

540000

Historical Geology
Monday, December 24, 2012

Historical Geology
Monday, December 24, 2012

Innovative Field Work in Geology

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Geologists was walking on Peat Ridges Modern Mahakam Delta

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

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Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Sketsa arsitektur & karakteristik ichnologi tidal bar-interdistributary area


Monday, December 24, 2012

Profil lateral P. Lantang

Monday, December 24, 2012

Profil lateral P. Lantang

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Wave dominated delta

Monday, December 24, 2012

Wave dominated delta


Litofacies assemblages: St, Sh, Sc, Shcs, Sr, Hm, Mm,

Monday, December 24, 2012

Wave dominated delta


Litofacies assemblages: St, Sh, Sc, Shcs, Sr, Hm, Mm,

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

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Monday, December 24, 2012

healthy

healthy

stressed

stressed

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

Monday, December 24, 2012

healthy

stressed

Monday, December 24, 2012

healthy

stressed

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model wave dominated delta

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model wave dominated delta

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model wave dominated delta

indeks & keragaman tertinggi dibandingkan dengan tipe delta yang lain.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model wave dominated delta

indeks & keragaman tertinggi dibandingkan dengan tipe delta yang lain. longshore drift, storm bertanggung jawab menciptakan kondisi healthy.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model wave dominated delta

indeks & keragaman tertinggi dibandingkan dengan tipe delta yang lain. longshore drift, storm bertanggung jawab menciptakan kondisi healthy. 17 ichnogenera.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model tidal dominated delta

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model tidal dominated delta

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model tidal dominated delta

karakteristik ichnologi lebih baik sedikit dari delta dominasi fluvial kondisi stressed.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model tidal dominated delta

karakteristik ichnologi lebih baik sedikit dari delta dominasi fluvial kondisi stressed. high fluvial discharge.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model tidal dominated delta

karakteristik ichnologi lebih baik sedikit dari delta dominasi fluvial kondisi stressed. high fluvial discharge. 10 icnogenera, ada ichnogenera yang dominan.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model fluvial dominated delta

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model fluvial dominated delta

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model fluvial dominated delta

karakteristik ichnologi menunjukkan kondisi stressed

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model fluvial dominated delta

karakteristik ichnologi menunjukkan kondisi stressed high fluvial discharge.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model fluvial dominated delta

karakteristik ichnologi menunjukkan kondisi stressed high fluvial discharge. 9 ichnogenera, tidak ada ichnogenera yang dominan.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model distributary channel

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model distributary channel

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model distributary channel

karakteristik ichnologi menunjukkan kondisi stressed : variasi kecepatan sedimentasi tinggi, fluktuasi salinitas/salinitas rendah

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model distributary channel

karakteristik ichnologi menunjukkan kondisi stressed : variasi kecepatan sedimentasi tinggi, fluktuasi salinitas/salinitas rendah high fluvial discharge

Monday, December 24, 2012

Model distributary channel

karakteristik ichnologi menunjukkan kondisi stressed : variasi kecepatan sedimentasi tinggi, fluktuasi salinitas/salinitas rendah high fluvial discharge 8 ichnogenera.

Monday, December 24, 2012