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Methods for the calculation of physical effects



Publicatiereeks Gevaarlijke Stoffen 2

Methods for the calculation of Physical Effects

Due to releases of hazardous materials (liquids and gases)

Methods for the calculation of physical effects

due to releases of hazardous materials (liquids and gases)

Yellow Book

Editors: C.J.H. van den Bosch, R.A.P.M. Weterings

This report was prepared under the supervision of the Committee for the Prevention of Disasters and is published with the approval of The Director-General for Social Affairs and Employment The Director-General for Environmental Protection The Director-General for Public Order and Security The Director-General for Transport The Hague, 1996 The Director-General for Social Affairs and Employment Committee for the Prevention of Disasters Third edition First print 1997 Third edition Second revised print 2005

Research performed by TNO - The Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research List of authors

Chapter 1.

General introduction

Ir. C.J.H. van den Bosch Dr. R.A.P.M. Weterings Ir. C.J.H. van den Bosch Ir. N.J. Duijm Ir. C.J.H. van den Bosch

Chapter 2.

Outflow and Spray release

Chapter 3.

Pool evaporation

Chapter 4.

Vapour cloud dispersion

Dr. E.A. Bakkum Ir. N.J. Duijm Ir. W.P.M. Mercx Ir. A.C. van den Berg dIr. W.F.J.M. Engelhard

Chapter 5.

Vapour cloud explosion

Chapter 6.

Heat flux from fires

Chapter 7.

Ruptures of vessels

Mrs. Ir. J.C.A.M. van Doormaal Ir. R.M.M. van Wees Ir. C.J.H. van den Bosch

Chapter 8.

Interfacing of models


Physical properties of chemicals

Ir. C.J.H. van den Bosch


Preamble Preface Revision history 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Annex General introduction Outflow and Spray release Pool evaporation Vapour cloud dispersion Vapour cloud explosion Heat flux from fires Rupture of vessels Interfacing of models Physical properties of chemicals



When the first edition of this Yellow Book was issued, it contained calculation methods to be performed on pocket calculators. Although the second edition in 1988 presumed that personal computers would be available to perform the required calculations, only part of the report was updated. Today more powerful computers are generally available, thus enabling the use of more complex and more accurate computing models. This third edition is a complete revision by TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation. It is based on the use of these powerful PCs and includes the application of proven computing models. Special attention is paid to provide adequate directions for performing calculations and for the coupling of models and calculation results. The revision of the Yellow Book was supervised by a committee in which participated: Dr. E.F. Blokker, chairman Mr.Ir. K. Posthuma, secretary Dr. B.J.M. Ale Drs. R. Dauwe Ir. E.A. van Kleef Mrs. Ir. M.M. Kruiskamp Dr. R.O.M. van Loo Ing. A.J. Muyselaar Ing. H.G. Roodbol Drs.Ing. A.F.M. van der Staak Ing. A.W. Peters Ir. M. Vis van Heemst Dienst Centraal Milieubeheer Rijnmond Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu DOW Benelux N.V. Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken Dienst Centraal Milieubeheer Rijnmond Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer Rijkswaterstaat Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat AKZO Nobel Engineering B.V.

With the issue of this third edition of the Yellow Book the Committee for the Prevention of Disasters by Hazardous Materials expects to promote the general use of standardised calculation methods of physical effects of the release of dangerous materials (liquids and gases). The Hague, 1996 THE COMMITEE FOR THE PREVENTION OF DISASTERS BY HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, Drs. H.C.M. Middelplaats, chairman


Preface to the PGS 2 edition of the Yellow Book

Starting from June 1st 2004, the Advisory Council on Dangerous Substances (Adviesraad Gevaarlijke Stoffen - AGS) was installed by the Cabinet. At the same time the Committee for the Prevention of Disasters (Commissie voor de Preventie van Rampen- CPR) was abolished. CPR issued several publications, the so-called CPR-guidelines (CPR-richtlijnen), that are often used in environmental permits, based on the Environmental Protection Law, and in the fields of of labour safety, transport safety and fire safety. The CPR-guidelines have been transformed into the Publication Series on Dangerous Substances (Publicatiereeks Gevaarlijke Stoffen PGS). The aim of these publications is generally the same as that of the CPR-guidelines. All CPR-guidelines have been reviewed, taking into account the following questions: 1. Is there still a reason for existence for the guideline or can the guideline be abolished; 2. Can the guideline be reintroduced without changes or does it need to be updated. The first print (1997) of the 3rd edition Yellow Book contained typographical errors that occurred during the conversion of the Yellow Book documents from one word processing system to another. Most of these conversion errors occurred especially with formulas, leading to erroneous and non-reproducible results when calculation examples and formulas were recalculated. This PGS 2 edition (2005) is a second print that has been thoroughly checked for errors. Every chapter starts with a condensed summary of changes to give the user an idea about what was changed and where it was changed. Despite all effort, it might be possible that errors still persist. If this is the case, or if you have any other remarks about the Yellow Book, please send a mail to: info@infomil.nl. Hard copies of this PGS-2 edition can be obtained from Frank van het Veld, TNO Department of Industrial & External Safety: YellowBook@tno.nl, or fax +31 55 549 3390. Also on behalf of my colleagues at the Ministries of Transport, Social Affairs and of the Interior, The State Secretary of Housing Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM).

Drs. P.L.B.A van Geel

november 2005

CPR 14E Revision history of the Yellow Book

Revision history

Date 19 April 2005

Release 3rd edition 2nd print, version 1 3rd edition 2nd print, version 2

Comments Please refer to the modification paragrahs of all chapters. The appendix of chapter 6 was missing and has now been included. Table 6.A.2 and Figure 6.A.11 were not corresponding and has been corrected.

25 July 2005

Chapter 1 General introduction C.J.H. van den Bosch, R.A.P.M. Weterings


Table of contents of chapter 1

1.1 1.2 1.3

1.4 1.5

Introduction to chapter 1 .............................................................. 1.3 Educational objectives and target groups ....................................... 1.4 Contents of the Revised Yellow Book ............................................ 1.5 1.3.1 General remarks ................................................................. 1.5 1.3.2 Remarks on the individual chapters ..................................... 1.6 User instructions .......................................................................... 1.8 References.................................................................................... 1.9


CPR 14E Chapter 1 of the Yellow Book


Introduction to chapter 1

For designers, manufacturers of industrial equipment, operators and responsible authorities it is essential to have models available for assessing the physical effects of accidental releases of hazardous materials. For this purpose the handbook Methods for the calculation of physical effects of the release of dangerous materials (liquids and gases), was issued by the Directorate General of Labour in 1979. In the past decade the handbook has been widely recognised as an important tool to be used in safety and risk assessment studies to evaluate the risks of activities involving hazardous materials. Because of its yellow cover, the handbook is world-wide known as the Yellow Book. The Yellow Book, originating from 1979, was partially revised in 1988. However, it can be stated that the Yellow Book issued in 1988 was almost entirely based on literature published before 1979. The current version of the Yellow Book results from an extensive study and evaluation of recent literature on models for the calculation of physical effects of the release of dangerous materials. The Committee for the Prevention of Disasters, Subcommittee Risk Evaluation started this project in June 1993 and it was completed in March 1996. This project was carried out by TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation, TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory and TNO Centre for Technology and Policy Studies. The project was supervised by a steering commitee with representatives from governmental organisations and proces industries with the following members: B.J.M. Ale, E.F. Blokker (chairman), R. Dauwe, E.A. van Kleef, Mrs. M. Kruiskamp, R.O.M. van Loo, A.J. Muyselaar, A.W. Peters, K. Posthuma (secretary), H.G. Roodbol, A.F.M. van der Staak, M. Vis van Heemst. The revision had the following three objectives: 1. to update individual models from a scientific point of view, and to complete the book with models that were lacking, 2. to describe the interfacing (coupling) of models, 3. to meet educational requirements. This general introduction starts with a description of the educational objectives pursued by the Yellow Book. A general description of the target groups is envisioned (in section 1.2). The differences between this edition and the previous edition are elucidated in section 1.3. Finally (in section 1.4), guidance will be given to the reader regarding how to use the Yellow Book.



Educational objectives and target groups

In the first phase of the process of developing this update of the Yellow Book, an educational framework was formulated [Weterings, 1993] and a set of educational objectives was defined. Studying the Yellow Book the reader may expect to: a. gain knowledge of the phenomena relevant to estimating the physical effects of the release of hazardous materials, b. gain knowledge of the models that have been developed to describe these phenomena, c. gain understanding of the general principles of the selection of these models, and of the conditions under which these models can be applied, d. gain understanding of the procedure according to which the selected models should be applied, e. be able to apply the selected models in practical situations, and to interface them adequately to related models for estimating physical effects of hazardous releases, according to more complex release scenarios. The Yellow Book has been written in such a manner as to meet the requirements of: chemical industry, technical consultancy bureaus, engineering contractors, authorities and government services (national and regional level), institutes for advanced research and education. It should be kept in mind that these target groups will use the models for estimating physical effects of hazardous releases for different purposes. Table 1.1 presents some of the purposes for which specialists from industry, government agencies or consultancy may use the presented models. The number of stars gives some indication of the frequency in which the models are used in practice.

Table 1.1 Purpose

Selected target groups and purposes in estimating physical effects Target groups Companies Authorities * ** * ** Consultants ** *** *

Design of installations Quantified risk assessment Workers safety Emergency planning

*** *** * **


CPR 14E Chapter 1 of the Yellow Book


Contents of the Revised Yellow Book


General remarks

In the past decade, considerable progress has been made in modelling physical effects resulting from accidental releases of a hazardous material. The current revision has been based on available data in the open literature and known state-of-the-art models, and maintains more or less the same structure as the former version:

Chapter 1. General Introduction

Author C.J.H. van den Bosch and R.A.P.M. Weterings


Outflow and Spray Release C.J.H. van den Bosch and N.J. Duijm Pool Evaporation Vapour Cloud Dispersion Vapour Cloud Explosions C.J.H. van den Bosch N.J. Duijm and E. Bakkum W.P.M. Mercx and A.C. van den Berg W.J.F.M. Engelhard R.M.M. van Wees and J.C.A.M. van Doormaal C.J.H. van den Bosch

3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

Heat Fluxes from Fires Ruptures of Vessels


Interfacing of Models

The strongly increased availability of powerful (personal) computers has caused a shift in the application of analytical models and physical correlations towards complex computerised numerical models. We aimed to collect models that combine a good scientific performance with ease of application in practice. It appears that the optimal combination of models varies for different classes of physical effect models; some models are simple correlations, many models consist of a straight forward numerical scheme, but few models are unavoidably complex as the related physical phenomena have a complex nature. The selected models are described in a way to make computerisation by the reader possible in principle, yet prices of available software packages are relatively low. An inventory of the applicable models available in the field of safety and hazard assessment studies has shown the white spots left in this area. Guidelines on how to deal with white spots in the revised Yellow Book have been based on engineering judgement, which may lead to simple rules of the thumb.


Although the Yellow Book focuses on liquids and gases, under certain conditions some models may be applied for solids. In particular, atmospheric dispersion models may be used to estimate concentrations of non-depositing dust in the atmosphere, or concentrations of volatile reaction products of burning solids.


Remarks on the individual chapters

Below, the major improvements and differences in this version of the Yellow Book in relation to the former edition are outlined. In chapter 2 Outflow and Spray Release a rather fast model for two-phase flow in pipes is given as well as several models about non-stationary outflow from long pipe lines. Much attention is given to the dynamic behaviour of the content of vessels due to the release of material. An adequate model for spray release is presented, explaining amongst others why light gases such as ammonia can behave like a heavy gas under certain circumstances. In chapter 3 Pool Evaporation a model for the evaporation of a (non-)spreading boiling and non-boiling liquid pool on land or on water is described. This model overcomes many numerical boundary problems encountered in the past, but is also quite complex. In addition a model for the evaporation of volatile solved chemicals in water is given. Chapter 4 Vapour Cloud Dispersion reflects the major scientific progress that has been made on modelling heavy gas dispersion. The plume rise model has been extended for heavy gases. Also a new description is given for the atmospheric boundary layer stability. In chapter 5 Vapour Cloud Explosions a new method for the prediction of blasts resulting from confined vapour cloud explosions is described. This so-called MultiEnergy-Method is an improvement to earlier methods. Although not fully developed yet, it is able to incorporate results of future experiments on vapour cloud explosions. In chapter 6 Heat Fluxes from Fires a new model for gas flares and a model for confined pool fires on land and water are included. In chapter 7 Ruptures of Vessels models are described for several different types of vessel ruptures leading to blast and fragmentation. Although these models are much more adequate than previous models, they are not yet able to render very accurate predictions. In chapter 8 Interfacing of Models attention is given to the interfacing of the physical effect models described in the previous chapters. Often (subsequent) physical effects are involved in between the release of hazardous material and the actual impact on people and properties causing damage. So, physical effect models may have to be coupled, meaning that their results, i.e. the predictions of these models (output data), have to be adapted and transferred to serve as input to other subsequent


CPR 14E Chapter 1 of the Yellow Book

models. The procedure of adaptation and transfer of data is usually addressed by interfacing. The remainder of this chapter deals with the physical effects of BLEVEs. A BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) causes several physical effects: heat radiation, pressure waves and fragmentation, that may cause damage. These phenomena will be treated in different chapters. In order to present an overall picture of the BLEVE an integral calculation example is given in chapter 8.



User instructions

The educational design provides a framework according to which this version of the Yellow Book has been structured. This framework defines the topics to be considered in separate sections, and reflects a causal chain of effects to be a logical argument in determining the sequence in which these topics should be addressed. As a result the Yellow Book starts with a section on outflow and spray release (chapter 2), then addresses evaporation (chapter 3) and dispersion (chapter 4), before addressing several other specific aspects, such as vapour cloud explosion (chapter 5), heat load (chapter 6) and the rupture of vessels (chapter 7). Finally a section on interfacing related models (chapter 8) illustrates how to proceed in applying a sequence of models in estimating physical effects, according to a few selected scenarios. Using the Yellow Book, it is helpful to keep in mind that all chapters are structured in a similar manner. Each of the chapters 2 to 7 contains the following sections: section 1 provides an introduction and positions the chapter in relation to other chapters, section 2 provides a general introduction and defines relevant phenomena, section 3 gives a general overview of existing (categories) of models for the phenomena addressed, section 4 describes criteria according to which a limited number of models has been selected, section 5 provides a detailed description of the selected models: the general principles and assumptions on which they have been based, the procedure according to which these models should be applied as well as some considerations on their potential and limitations in practice, section 6 illustrates the practical application of the selected models by means of calculation examples, section 7 addresses relevant issues in relation to interfacing the selected models with other models, section 8 provides some discussion on the state-of-the art in the field addressed, which is relevant in view of assumptions and limitations of the selected models. In conclusion, for background information the reader is referred to the sections 1 to 4 of each chapter. However, if the reader has already mastered the general principles of the selected models, it is advised to concentrate on the sections 5 and 6 and if necessary also sections 7 and 8 in which a detailed description is given of how to use the most relevant models for estimating the physical effects of hazardous releases.


CPR 14E Chapter 1 of the Yellow Book



YellowBook (1988), Methods for the calculation of physical effects of the release of dangerous materials (liquids and gases) 2nd ed.,1988), published by Directorate General of Labour; English version, 1992). Weterings (1993), R.A.P.M. Weterings, The revised Yellow Book - educational concept, TNO Centre for Technology and Policy Studies (STB), Apeldoorn, October 1993.


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