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x < y

x x > 0 R +

R + = {x R; x > 0}.

x x x = 0 x x x x x + x = 0 x x x < 0 x < y y x x < y y > x x, y R x < y x = y y < x x < y y < z x < z x < y z R x + z < y + z x < y z xz < yz y x x < y x = y y < x x < y

 y < z y − x z − y z − x

(y x) + (z y) x < z

x < y x < y y x y x = (y + z) (x + z) x + z < y + z

x < y x < y x + x < y + y

< y x

y x + x < y + x y + x < y + y x + x < y + y

x < y z y x > 0 z > 0 (y x)z > 0 yz xz > 0 xz < yz

x, y, x , y xx < yy

x < y x x < y y xx < yx yx < yy xx < yy

x

<

y

x

x < y x < y

x x y y x y x < y y > 0

x

= 0 x 2 > 0

x > 0

(x)(x) > 0 (x)(x) = x 2 x 2 > 0

1/y

x < y 1/xy x/xy < y/xy 1/y < 1/x

x < y z xz > yz

x = x · ( x ) 2

x > 0

x 2 > 0

0

< x < y

0 <

< 1/x

1

1

y x z (y x)(z) > 0 xz yz > 0 xz > yz

x < c x > c

x y y < x x y x < y x = y 3 3 5 7

x < y x y

x < y y x

x = a 0 , a 1

a

n

e

y = b 0 , b 1

b

n

x < y x < y a 0 < b 0 a 0 = b 0

a 1 < b 1 a 0 = b 0 a 1 = b 1 a 2 < b 2

k > 0 a 0 = b 0 a 1 = b 1 a k1 = b k1 a k < b k x 0 < y x < y x y x < y y x

x < y a 0 < b 0

x < y d = y x x < y d y = x + d

x < y

a b a b R

[a, b] = {x R; a x b},

(a, b) = {x R; a < x < b},

[a, b) = {x R; a x < b},

(a, b] = {x R; a < x b},

(−∞, b] = {x R; x b},

(−∞, b) = {x R; x < b},

[a, +) = {x R; a x},

(a, +) = {x R; a < x},

(−∞, +) = R

a, b [a, b] (a, b) [a, b) (a, b] (−∞, b] b a = b [a, b] ]a, b[ (a, b) [a, b[ + −∞ N, Z Q R

R

a < b a b

R

x |x|

|x| =

  x,

x,

x 0 x < 0.

|x| = max{x, x},

x x x

x = 0 x = x = |x| = 0

|x 3| = x 3 x 3 x < 3

| |

|x 3| = 3 x

|x| = x 2

a 0 a a

x y X Y R |x y| X Y

|x y| x y

|x 2| = 3 x x = 5 x x = 1

|x a| < > 0 x a x a a + {x R; |x a| < } (a , a + )

|x| x x

N

N R (x 1 , x 2 ,

(x n ) nN (x n )

n x n n

1 x 1 , 2 x 2 ,

,

x n ,

x n ,

.)

, n

x 1 ,

x 2 ,

.

.

.

, x n ,

.

.

.

x n+1 = x n + r r (x n ) r x n+1 x n = r n N (x n )

x 2 = x 1 + r, x 3 = x 2 + r

= x 1 + 2r, x 4 = x 1 + 3r,

x n+1 = x 1 + nr n N (x n ) m < n x m < x n . m < n x n < x m

 x 1 , x 1 , x 1 , I n = {1, 2, , n}

(x 1 , x 2 ,

n

(x 1 , x 2 ) n

(x 1 ,

, x n ) x 2 x 1 = x 3 x 2 = ··· = x n x n1 = r

, x n )

x 1 ,

x 2 ,

.

.

.

, x n ,

.

.

.

x n+1 = x n · r r

x 2 = x 1 · r,

x 3 = x 2 · r = x 1 · r 2 ,

, x n+1 = x n · r

(1 r)(1 + r + · · · + r n1 ) = 1 r n

1, r, r 2 ,

,

r n

1 + r + r 2 + ··· + r n = 1 r n1

1 r

r

= 1

 x 1 , x 2 , , x n r = 1 x 1 + x 2 + + x n = x 1 (1 + r + · · · + r n−1 ) = x 1

1 r n1 = x 1 x n r

1 r

1 r

(1, 2] E = (0, 2] ((A B) (C D)) E

A = [1, 3),

B

=

[1, 4],

C

=

[2, 3),

D

=

5x + 3

2x + 1

2x 2 + x

x 2 + 1

> 2

< 2

 5x + 3 > 4x + 2 ⇒ x > −1 2x 2 + x < 2x 2 + 2 ⇒ x < 2

a, b, c, d > 0

a

b <

c

d

a

b

< a + c b + d <

c

d .

a b c d

|x 1| = 4 |x + 1| < 2

|x 1| < |x 5| |x 2| + |x + 4| = 8 |x 2| + |x + 4| = 1

a b

a + b 2 < a 2 + b 2

2

2

.

x y 1, 4587 < x < 1, 4588 0, 1134 < y < 0, 1135 x y xy x/y