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0 General The frame structure should be divided into structural members in order to reasonable transmission conditions and erection. Both points of view may be satisfied if the frame is divided into straight members such as columns and beams. In this case the following joints should be designed Column bases Beam-to-column joints Beam-to-beam joint

The column bases can be rigid or pinned. Rigid column bases are favorable from steel structural point of view, but the cost of the basement may be higher. The beam-to-column joints are located at the maximum of the in-plane bending moment. The beam-to-beam joint is located at the ridge point.

Theoretically there are three types of column bases: Simple (pinned) Semi-rigid Rigid

1.2.1 Simple (pinned) column base Figure2 shows the construction of the simple column base. The base plate is connected to the concrete basement by two anchor bolts. This construction may be used for hot-rolled or welded I or H sections as well as for tapered columns. The following sizes may lead to the optimal solution: 12-16 mm thick base plate 4.6, 4.8 or 5.6 grade of anchor bolt 20, 24 or 30 mm diameter of anchor bolt. This column base has been assumed as pinned connection in the static calculation for many years. According to EC3-1-8 this column bases construction belongs to the class of semi rigid joints. However, the previous assumption (such as the simple column base is pinned) has

not been led to any degradation or structural failure. For favorable practice we can ,declare that the simple column base can be considered as pinned joint. The resistance of the frame with simple column bases is higher than the resistance of the same frame with real pinned column bases. In case of relatively high depth sections (more than 400-500 mm) and thick base plate (thicker than 16 mm) the construction is not suggested applying. The moment resistance of the column base may be relatively large due to the considerable distance between the rotational point (compressed flange) and the anchor bolts. This constructional response may lead to considerable tension force in the anchor bolts. The tension force may destroy the anchor bolts or/and the base plate.

1.2.2 Semi-rigid column base Figure 3 shows the typical construction of the semi-rigid column base. This column base may be applied for hot-rolled or welded columns. Basically, this construction leads to semi rigid class. The rigid class may not be reached due to the following reasons: the cross-sectional area of the tensioned anchor bolts is relatively small the 8.8 or 10.9 grade of anchor bolts may lead large elongation too large base plate would be required. The moment resistance of this column base depends on the diameter and the grade of the anchor bolts, and the thickness and the extension of the base plate. Relatively large extension of base plate may disturb the architectural construction of the wall system. However, any construction with reasonable design parameters may lead to semi-rigid behavior, and the initial elastic stiffness of the joint should be taken in the analysis of the frame into consideration. Because of these problems this column base construction is not suggested using within the present design project.

1.2.3 Rigid column base Figure 4 shows a special construction for rigid column bases. In the lack of design specifications the design of this construction requires special consideration. The stiffness classification of this construction is not performed, but it can be assumed that this column bases is rigid. Following design guidelines may lead to adequate and economical construction: First the design forces and moments should be defining (the quadratic equation for the length of the compressed concrete area can not be solved for excessive or extremely low design moment). The optimal height of the stiffener plates is about 200-300 mm, depending on the depth of the column section. The thickness of the stiffeners should be equal to, or grater than, the thickness of the flanges of the column section. The optimal size of the base plate has at least 100-100 mm extensions. The width of the base plate should be the minimum which is possible. The optimal thickness of the base plate is 20-30 mm, depending on the size of the column section. The grade of the anchor bolts should be 4.6, 4.8 or 5.6. The optimal diameter of the bolts depends on the thickness of the base plate. Extremely the diameter can be 48 or 56 mm. The type of the welds connecting the base plate to the stiffener is basically double fillet welds. In case of sections with narrow flanges (ex. IPE 300-400) a single fillet

weld is used outside of the stiffener. For the safe the program takes the welds which located at the extended part of the base plate into consideration.

1.3

1.3.1 Types of joint construction From constructional point of view there are two solutions for the beam-to-column joint: end-plated end-plated with haunch. The aim of the design is a rigid and full strength joint excepting the situation where the construction does not allow full strength behavior. For example the beam-to-column joint with tapered structural members is normally partial strength joint. Figure 5 shows the joint construction with end-plate. The end-plate has 10-15 mm extension to ensure room for the double fillet welds. The extension may be neglected using deep penetration fillet or but welds, but the solution may be expensive.

Figure 6 shows the beam-to-column solution with haunch. From the joint design point of view it does not matter that the haunch is short or long. The haunch is made from a piece of beam section which is cut across as it is illustrated in the figure.

1.3.2 Stiffeners Stiffeners are the important parts of the joint. The types of the stiffener can be the following: Web stiffener Flange stiffener Shear stiffener.

The web stiffener is welded to the web of the column in the line of the beam flanges, see Figure 7. Stiffeners mean higher cost but basically they are needed to get rigid and full strength joint. (a) (b)

Fig 7 Web stiffeners in the beam-to-column joints (a) end-plated joint; (b) haunched joint

The flange of the hot-rolled column may be reinforced by flange stiffener (backing plate), see Figure 8. The backing plate can be considered in the calculation if the plate is connected to the web of the column with appropriate size of weld.

The resistance of the sheared column panel may be reinforced by shear stiffener, see Figure 9. The shear stiffeners may lead to much labor work.

(a)

(b)

Fig 9 : Column web panel with shear stiffener (a) end-plated joint; (b) haunched joint

1.3.3 Design parameters The construction of the joint may lead to rigid and full strength joint if the next guidelines are followed: The Lb beam length may be taken as the distance between the two columns. The thickness of the end-plate should be equal to (or greater than) the thickness of the column flange. Thicker end-plate may be inefficient. The grade of bolts should be 10.9 rather than 8.8. The diameter of the bolts should exceed the thickness of the end-plate. The thickness of the web stiffeners should be equal to (or greater than) the thickness of the beam flange. Thicker stiffener may be inefficient. Shear stiffener is normally not applied. If it is applied, its thickness should be equal to the thickness of the web stiffeners. In many cases the resistance of the joint is determined by the resistance of the column flange for bending. The thickness of the flange of the welded sections may be increased using thicker plate at the joint. The flange of hotrolled sections may be reinforced by backing plate.

The arrangement of the bolts may be based on two methods. The conservative method uses uniformly distributed bolts, while the progressive method applies the required

number of tensioned bolts and one row of bolts at the compressed flange, see the Figure 7. In case of haunched beam the size of the room between the beam flange and the haunch flange should be checked: the bolt should be placed and turned freely.

1.3.4 Special construction for welded sections with high depth Extended end-plate or haunch are normally not used in the joints of tapered members, see the Figure 10 a. Tapered members can be constructed with relatively thin web (6-8 mm) and flanges (12-16 mm). These thicknesses often lead to semi-rigid and partial strength joint. It is not suggested applying web and shear stiffeners to reinforce the thin web and flange plates. Instead of stiffeners special end construction is used where the web panel and the flange plate are replaced by thicker plates, see the Figure 10 b. The replacing plates are 1,52,0 times thicker than the original ones.

Figure 10 : Beam-to-column joint of welded members with slender plates (a) original construction;(b) construction with replacing plates.

1.4

1.4.1 Joint constructions Design of the beam-to-beam joint is based on the design rules and constructional details which were used for to the design of the beam-to-column joints .

Fig 11: Constructions for the beam-to-beam joint Construction (a) leads to the lowest cost. If the utilization of the cross-sectional resistance of the beam is relatively low as well as the depth of the section is high (ex. IPE section), the construction may have adequate moment resistance. The moment resistance can be increased by two rows of tension bolts. Construction (b) with extended end-plate and tensioned bolts may give higher resistance. The size of the extension of the end-plate should be the minimum which is allowed by the bolts. Conservatively, extended web plate may be used too. Construction (c) gives the strongest joint, but the placing of the bolts in the room between the flanges of the beam and the haunch may lead to problems. Following the next guidelines the construction may lead to optimal joint: the Lb beam length may be taken as the distance between the two columns; the thickness of the end-plates are 16-25 mm, respectively, depending on the size of the beam section; it is suggested using the same grade and size which were used at the beam-to-column joints; construction (c) might be avoided; uniformly distributed and high density bolt arrangement might be avoided.

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