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# National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

## 2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 1 of 43

National Junior College
2010 H2 Mathematics (Senior High 1)
Functions (Lecture Notes)

Topic 6: Functions

Objectives:

At the end of this topic, students should be able to
understand that a function is a rule or relationship where for every input there is only
one output, and that two functions having the same rule are different if they have
different domains.
use the function notations.
use the vertical line test on a graph to determine whether it represents a function.
determine the range of a function from its graph.
understand the definition of a one-one function and identify it using a horizontal line
test.
explain the condition for a function to have an inverse function.
obtain the inverse of a one-one function and state its domain and range.
illustrate in graphical terms the relation between a one-one function and its inverse.
restrict the domain of a function so that the inverse exists.
understand that a composite function gf is a composition of two functions, f followed
by g.
determine if the composition of two functions exists and obtain the composite
function if it exists.
determine the domain and range of a composite function.
recognise through examples that composition of functions is not commutative.

1 Set Notations

The symbol represents belongs to or is an element of. For example, x means x
belongs to the set of real numbers.

+
represents the set of positive real numbers. It does not include zero.

represents the set of negative real numbers. It does not include zero.
{ } 0
+
represents the set of non-negative real numbers.

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2 Representation of Range of Values

{ } ( , ) | a b x a x b = < <
{ } [ , ] | a b x a x b =
{ } [ , ) | a b x a x b = <
{ } [ , ) | a x x a =

In short, when we are expressing a range of values, we use round brackets if we want to
exclude the extreme values of the range and square brackets if we want to include them.

3 Relations

An association between the elements of two sets is called a relation.

Definition. A relation R from a set X to Y (written : R X Y ) is a rule to determine how the
members in set X are related to the members in set Y.

Figure 1.1 illustrates a relation between the elements of two sets A = {1,2,3,4} and
B = {3,5,7,9}. It is obvious that the relation maps 1 to 5, 2 to 5, 3 to 7, and 4 to 9.

Different Ways to Represent Mappings

Let R be the relation as shown in Figure 1.1. Then the following are ways to represent the
mapping from 1 to 5.

(a) : 1 5 R or
(b) (1) 5 R = or
(c) 1R5.

*Note: (c) is seldom encountered in A levels. They are used mainly in pure algebra texts.

B A
1
2
3
4
3
5
7
9
Figure 1.1
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4 Functions

A function is a special type of relation.

Definition. A relation f : X Y is a function if and only if for each element x X , there
exists only one element y Y such that ( ) f x y = .

The diagram below illustrates how the elements in X can be mapped onto elements in Y under
the function f.

5 Differences between Relations and Functions

Three relations are illustrated by figures 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 below. Observe and see why 1.1 is a
function and 1.2, 1.3 are not functions.

A relation may map each element in A to one or more elements in B.

A function must map each element in A to at most one element in B.
X Y
f
1
2
3
4
a
b
c
d
e
f
B A
Figure 1.2
1
2
3
4
3
5
7
9
a function
NOT a function
B A
1
2
3
4
3
5
7
9
Figure 1.1
NOT a function
B A
Figure 1.3
1
2
3
4
3
5
7
9
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Exercise. Determine which of the following (is a function)/(are functions).

6 Components of Functions

Domains, Codomains, Ranges, and Images

Let f : A B , x f ( ) x be a function, then f(x) is called the image of x under f, or
more commonly, the value of f at x. .

The set A is called the domain of the function f, usually denoted by
f
D .

It is not necessary for all the elements of B to be the image of some x A. The range of the
function is the subset of B which contains all the possible images under f of all the elements
of A. It is usually denoted by
f
R .

Set B is the codomain of f. It is the general set that contains the range of f.
E.g. The set of real numbers and the set of positive integers are some of the more commonly
encountered codomains in A levels.

B

x
f
f
D A = , domain
f
R , range
f ( ) y x =
Not a function.
Last element in the
domain has no image
Not a function.
3rd element in the domain
has two images
A function.
Every element in the domain
has one and only one image
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Example

Let f be a function from set X to set Y.

In this case, domain of f is { }
f
D 1, 2, 3, 4 = , codomain of f is { } 1, 2,8, 24, 27 Y = , and range of f
is { }
f
R 1,8, 27 = . In addition, 8 is the image of 2, or 2 is the pre-image of 8.
Note:
Range of f is a subset of the codomain of f,
At A level, most functions are considered relations between real numbers. Therefore
the codomain is usually not given. We take it that codomain = domain = .

Rules of Functions

A function is defined by both the rule and the domain. For example, if a function f has the
rule
2
x x and the domain is , then we write it as follows,
2
f : , x x x or
2
f( ) , x x x = .

Two functions with the same rule but different domains are considered different functions.
So,
2
f : , x x x and
2
g : , 1 1 x x x < are different functions. This has implications
on how the graphs look.

x
x
y y
1 1
2
1
8
27
24
1
2
3
X Y
f
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Exercise. State the domain and find the range of each of the following functions.

(a)
2
f : , x x x
(b) [ ]
2
g : , 1,1 x x x
(c)
2
h : , [ 1, 2) x x x

Solution
(a) The domain of f ( , ) =
The range of f [0, ) =

(b) The domain of g [ 1, 1] =

The range of g [0, 1] =

(c) The domain of h [ 1, 2) =

The range of h [0, 4) =

7 Graphs of Relations and Functions

When sketching graphs of functions, we need to take note of the rule and domain of the
function. The rule gives us the shape of the graph and the domain gives us the horizontal
expanse of the graph.

Example

Take note that the figure 1.4 illustrates a piece-wise function. A piece-wise function is a
function that has a different rule for each domain component.

y
x
x
y
2
x y =
1, 0
, 0
x x
y
x x
+ <
=

x y =
f( ) x
x
f( ) x
x
x

f( ) x
x
Figure 1.4
y
x
1 1
1
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8 Vertical Line Test (Testing for Functions)

A relation f is a function if and only if every vertical line
f
, D x a a = cuts the graph
of f exactly once.

Revisiting the previous examples, the graph on the left does not represent a function, because
you can find a line, say 1 x = , that cuts the graph at two points.

The graph on the right represents a function, because regardless of the vertical line you draw,
it will only cut the graph at exactly one point.

QUESTION. What about the point at 0 x = ? Does the vertical line cuts the graph once?

Exercise. Determine if the following relations defined on are functions.
(i)
3
x y = (ii) | | y x x = (iii)
2
, 0
, 0
x x
y
x x

=

x a =
x a =
x
x
y
y
1, 0
, 0
x x
y
x x
+ <
=

2
x y =
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9 Restriction Functions

Given any function f with domain X, we can define a function g on a smaller domain, say
W X which has the same rule as f. The function g is known as the restriction of f on W.

These restriction functions are determined based on the restrictions we place on the function.

Example. Find the maximal domain of the restriction function of
2
g( ) 4 x x = such that
the range of the function is [ ] 1, 2 .

When 1 y = ,
2 2
4 1 3 3 x x x = = = .

From graph, maximal domain is 3, 3
(

.

10 One-One Functions

DEFINITION. A function f is said to be one-to-one (1-1) or injective if no two distinct
elements in its domain have the same image under f. Mathematically, this is defined
as follows.

Given a function f : X Y , f is 1-1 if for all
1 2
, x x X ,

if
1 2
x x , then ( ) ( )
1 2
f f x x .

We can easily observe from the graph if the function is 1-1.

Not a one-one function A one-one function
x
y
2
1
3

3
O

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Exercise. Using the definition of 1-1, can you identify which of the following are graphs of
1-1 functions?

(Ans: No) (Ans: No) (Ans: Yes)

11 Horizontal Line Test (Testing for 1-1 Functions)

A function f is one-to-one if and only if every horizontal line
f
, R y a a = cuts the
graph of f exactly once.

Example. Determine if the following are one-one functions, giving your reasons. If it is not
one-one, find a restriction of the function such that it is one-one and has the same range as the
original function.

(i)
2
f : , x x x
(ii)
2
g : 4 1, , 1 x x x x x +
(iii) h : | |, x x x x

Solution

(i) Since f( 1) 1 f(1) = = , f is not 1-1.
Alternatively, if we use a horizontal line test,
we see that there is at least a horizontal line,
say 1 y = that cuts the curve at two points.

Now [ )
f
R 0, = . From the graph, if we
restrict the domain to be [ ) 0, , then every
horizontal line will cut the graph at most
once. Furthermore, the range is the same as
f
R .

Therefore the required restriction function is
2
1
f : , 0 x x x .

QUESTION. Is this the only answer?

x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
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(ii) ( )
2
2
g( ) 4 1 2 3, 1 x x x x x = + =
From the graph, the horizontal line 2 y =
cuts the curve at 2 points. Hence the function
is not 1-1.

[ )
g
R 3, = . From the graph, a restriction
function is
2
1
g : 4 1, 2 x x x x + .

QUESTION. Is this the only answer? (Ans: Yes)

(iii) h : | |, x x x x
From the graph, any horizontal line cuts the graph
at most once. Therefore by the horizontal line test,
h is 1-1 function.

12 Inverse Functions

It is very natural to ask if a process is reversible. Similarly for functions, it is also very natural
for us to ask if there is a function that reverses what another function does. This leads to the
notion of inverse functions.

Let f : X Y be a function such that , f : x X x y there is always an inverse relation
1
f

such that for all
f
R y
1
f( ) f ( ) y x x y

= =

In this case x is called the pre-image(s) of y under f. The relation
1
f

## may or may not be a

function.

Note. The notation
1
f

## means inverse relation/function of f. Do not in this case see 1 as a

power and treat it as
1
f
. This can be seen in inverse trigonometric functions, e.g.
1
cos x

is the
arc cosine of x and is not equals tosec x .

x
f
y
1
f

x
x
y
x
y
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In the diagram below, the inverse relation is not a function. Why? What is the cause of the
problem?

(Ans: In the second diagram, the 3
rd
element in the domain has two distinct images under
1
f

)

In the diagram below, is
1
f

of
1
f

?

Domain of
1
f

1
f

## is the domain of f., i.e.

1
f
f
D R

= and
1
f
f
R D

=

f
1
f

f
1
f

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12.1 Graphs of a Function and its Inverse

For a function, say f, defined on real values, we can obtain the graph of the inverse relation,
1
f

## from the graph of f.

Consider the graph f( ) y x = where
2
f( ) , x x x = .
Recall that the domain of
1
f

is the range of f.
Therefore in order to obtain the graph of
1
f

, we
simply replace the y-axis by the x-axis and vice
versa. At the same time, the graph becomes
f( ) x y = which is
1
f ( ) y x

= .

Note also that when sketching graphs, the domain
is always part of the x-axis. Hence the next step is
to make the graph look normal again, and this is
achieved by reflecting the whole diagram about the
line y x = .

Observe now that the graph of
1
f

is obtained from
the graph of f by a reflection about the line y x = .

Therefore, we see that

Graph of
1
f

## is the reflection of graph of f about

the line y x = .

Note: f
-1
in this case is a relation but not a function. For f
-1
to be a function, f has to be a 1-1
function.

Together with the earlier observation on the domain and range of
1
f

## we have the following,

A function f : X Y has an inverse function
1
f

## if and only if f is one-to-one. In

which case,
1
f
f
D R

= and
1
f
f
R D

=

x
y
a
1
f ( ) a

1
f ( ) a

x
y
a
1
f ( ) a

1
f ( ) a

y
x
a
1
f ( ) a

1
f ( ) a

f( ) y x =
f( ) x y =
1
f ( ) y x

=
y x =
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12.2 Finding Inverse of a Function

Let f( ) y x = . Then
1
f ( ) x y

expression for
1
f

## in terms of y. Since y is a dummy variable, we simply replace y by x to get

the expression of
1
f

## in x. It sounds abstract, so let us look at a simple example.

Example. Given f : 2 2, x x x , find
1
f

, if it exists.

Solution
The graph of f is a straight line, as such any horizontal line cuts the graph at most once.
Therefore by the horizontal line test, f is 1-1 function and
1
f

exists.

Let ( ) 2 2 f( ) y x x = = . Therefore
( )
1
2
f ( )
2
y
x y

+
= = .

Since
-1
f
f
D R = = , we have
1
2
f ( ) ,
2
x
x x

+
= .

Example. Given a function f where
2
f : 2 3, x x x x S + + where S is a subset of . Find
the largest possible domain S consisting of negative real numbers in a single interval such
that f is one-one. Hence, define
1
f

1
f

## on the same diagram.

Solution
( )
2
2
f( ) 2 3 1 2 x x x x = + + = + +
From the graph of f, f is one-one if the domain is
( , 1] or [ ) 1, , Since we are looking for a
single interval of negative numbers, ( , 1] S = .

Note that
f f
D ( , 1], R [2, ) = = .

Let ( )
2
f( ) 1 2, 1 y x x x = = + + ,
( )
2
2 1 1 2 y x x y = + = .

Now since 1 x , therefore 1 2 x y = . Therefore
1
f ( ) 1 2, 2 x x x

= .
Recall that the inverse function
1
f

## is defined to reverse the effects of f. In other words, if

we apply
1
f

after f, we will get back the original element. In mathematics, we say that this is
a composite function of f followed by
1
f

, written
1
f f

## . (In this case

1
f f

is actually an
identity function.) We shall discuss composite functions in general in the following section.

Note: Students are expected to know how to sketch inverse graphs without actually
finding the rule of the inverse function, and to label the respective axial intercepts,
range, and domains of the inverse graphs accurately.

y
f( ) y x =
x
1
f ( ) y x

=
-1
2
y x =
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13 Composite Functions

If there are two or more functions, say f and g, it is natural (again) to ask if we can apply one
function after another.

If it is possible, then this composite function denoted by g f or just gf is defined as

( )
f
gf( ) g f( ) , D x x x =

OBSERVATIONS.

(A) For the composite function gf to exist,
f g
R D .

In the figures below, { } { }
f g
R 1, 8, 24 D 1,8, 27 = = , hence gf is undefined because gf(3) is
not defined.

x
f
f( ) x
g
( ) g f( ) x
gf
1
8
27
24
1
2
3
X Y
f
3
6
7
45
89
Z
W
g
1
2
3
X
3
6
7
45
89
Z
gf
Undefined!
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In the figures below, { } { }
u v
R 1, 8 D 1, 8, 27 = = , hence vu is defined.

(B)
gf f
D D =
E.g. In the figures below , { }
gf f
D 1, 2, 3 D = = .

1
8
27
1
2
3
X Y
f
3
6
7
45
89
Z
W
g
1
2
3
X
3
6
7
45
89
Z
gf
1
8
27
1
2
X Y
u
3
6
7
45
89
Z
W
v
1
2
X
3
6
7
45
89
Z
vu
Defined!
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(C)
gf g
R R
E.g. In the figures below, { } { }
gf g
R 3,89 R 3, 45,89 = = .

(D) When
f g
R D = , then
gf g
R R = .
E.g. In the figures below, { }
gf g
R 3, 45,89 R = = because { }
g f
D 1,8, 27 R = = .

1
8
27
1
2
3
X Y
f
3
6
7
45
89
Z
W
g
1
2
3
X
3
6
7
45
89
Z
gf
1
8
27
1
3
X Y
f
3
6
7
45
89
Z
W
g
1
3
X
3
6
7
45
89
Z
gf
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(E) When
gf g
R R = ,
f g
R may not equal D . (i.e. converse of observation D is not true)
E.g. In the figures below, { }
gf g
R 3, 45,89 R = = but
g f
D R .

In conclusion, two cases can happen when we want to compose two functions, say f followed
by g.

(a)
f g
R D
Therefore gf exists.
gf f
D D = and
gf
R is the set of images of
f
R under g.
(b)
f g
R D
We need to find a restriction of f such that gf exists. Then it will be as in (a), except
that we are working with the restriction function of f, instead of f itself.

We can also sketch the graph of gf using GC and determine the range from the graph.

In general, the functions gf and fg are not equivalent. i.e. composition of functions are
not commutative.
i.e.

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2
f 2 , g .
fg 2 , gf 4 , fg gf.
x x x x
x x x x
= =
= =

Example. For the following functions
1
2
3
X
3
6
7
45
89
gf
1
8
27
24
1
2
3
X Y
f
3
6
7
45
89
Z
W
g
Z
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( )
2
f : e ,
g : ,
h : ln 1 , 1
x
x x
x x x
x x x

<

determine whether the composite functions fg, gh, hg, hf exist. If the composite function
exists, define the function and state its range. If the composite function does not exist, find
the maximal domain such that it exists.

Solution

( )
f f
D , R 0, = = ( ]
g g
D , R , 0 = =
h h
D ( ,1), R = =

Since
g f
R D , fg exists.
Since
h g
R D , gh exists.
Since
g h
R D , hg exists.
Since
f h
R D , hf does not exist.

( )
2
2
f g( ) f e ,
x
x x x

= =
For the range, ( ] ( ]
g f
, 0 0,1

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
g h( ) g ln 1 ln 1 , ( ,1) x x x x = =
For the range, ( ) ( ]
h g
,1 , 0

( ) ( )
2 2
h g( ) h ln 1 , x x x x = = +
For the range, ( ] [ )
g h
, 0 0,

f h
R D (0,1) = . Therefore, we need to find a subset of
f
D which gives ( ) 0,1 under f. From
the graph of f, we see that this subset is ( , 0) .
Hence define f : e , 0
x
x x < , then hf exists and
( ) ( )
h f( ) h e ln 1 e , 0
x x
x x = = < .
For the range, ( ) ( )
f h
( , 0) 0,1 , 0
Example. Let f be a one-one function defined by f : 2 3, 2 2 x x x + . Find
x
y
x
y
x
y
f( ) e
x
x =
2
g( ) x x = ( ) h( ) ln 1 x x =
1
1
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(i)
1
f

(ii)
1
f f

(iii)
1
f f

Solution
f
D [ 2, 2] = ,
f
R [ 1, 7] =
(i)
1
3 3
2 3 f ( ) , [ 1, 7]
2 2
y x
y x x x x

= + = =
(ii) ( )
1 1
f
f f( ) f f( ) , D [ 2, 2] x x x x

= = =
(iii)
( ) 1
1 1
f
f f ( ) f f ( ) , D [ 1, 7] x x x x

= = =

Although
1 1
f f( ) f f ( ) x x x

= = , they are in general two different functions because the
domains might be different. Therefore care must be taken when you sketch these graphs.

Note:

1 1
1
1
f f f
1
f
f f
f f ( ) , D D
f f ( ) , D D
x x
x x

= =
= =

Try using ( ) ( )
2 -1
f , f x x x x = = to see for yourself the above results.
i.e. what is the difference between
( )
2
x and
( )
2
x ?

Example.

The functions f and g are defined as
1
f : e , , 0
x
x x x

> and
( ) g : ln 1 , , 1 x x x x > .
(i) By sketching the graphs of f and g, or otherwise, state the range of f and g.
(ii) State why the composite function fg does not exist.
(iii) By restricting the domain of g to ( ) , a , where a is a real number, find the least value
of a such that the composite function fg exists. Define fg in similar form. State the
range of fg.

Solution

(i) From graphs, ( )
f
R 0, e = and
g
R = . Alternatively,
1
0 1 1 e e
x
x x

> < < . However, exponential functions
are greater than 0, therefore, ( )
f
R 0, e = .

(ii) Since ( )
g f
R D 0, = = , therefore fg does not exist.

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2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 20 of 43
(iii) For the composite function to exist, we must find a subset of the domain of g such that
range of the restriction function will be a subset of
f
D , i.e. ( )
g f
R D 0, = .

From the graph of g, we see that if we restrict the domain to ( ) 2, , then range of the
restriction is ( )
f
0, D .

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 1 ln 1
e
fg( ) f g( ) f ln 1 e
1
x
x x x
x

= = = =

.
e
fg : , 2
1
x x
x
>

( )
f g
R 0, e =

Note: When defining a function, the rule and domain of the function must be stated
2
2
National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 21 of 43
Appendix: Use of Graphing Calculators in Functions

A1 Sketching Functions

Before we begin, always check the mode by pressing MODE key on your calculator. Since
we are sketching graphs of the form f( ) y x = , set the fourth line of the mode screen to FUNC.

Let us use an example to illustrate the process.

EXAMPLE. Sketch the graph of
2
f : , 2 x x x .

Key Press Screen Shot Steps/Notes/Descriptions

(first of the five buttons
immediately below the screen)

This brings up the input window

You can plot a maximum number
of 10 functions at any one time.

The first button is the variable
button. The four symbols
corresponds to the four different
types of graphs you can plot.
Since we are in FUNC mode, X
will appear as you press the
button.
However, if the function has a
domain that is not , it is
consideration before plotting it.

The inequality signs can be
found by pressing TEST, i.e. 2
nd

MATH.
This syntax sets the domain of
the function*.
If the functions consists of more
than one term, e.g.
2
4 x + , then
you need to put the function in
parentheses, i.e.
( )( )
2
4 2 x x +
If the domain is 2 2 x < , then
enter (X<2 and X 2 ). The
and can be found in TEST >
LOGIC tab.
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After plotting the graph,
WINDOW in order to see some
features that are not inside the
current window. Alternatively
you can use ZOOM.

* The syntax (X>0) or the like can be seen to take the value 1 when the condition inside
the parentheses is true and the value 0 if it is false. Therefore (X+4)(X>0) means that the
function will be ( )( ) 4 1 4 x x + = + when 0 x > and ( )( ) 4 0 0 x + = otherwise. That is why you
will see the graph 4 y x = + when 0 x > . If you understand how this works, you will be able
to use it to plot piece-wise defined functions, such as
2
, 0
f( )
, 0
x x
x
x x

=

.

A2 Finding Range of Functions

EXAMPLE. Find the range of
2
1
f : , , 1
1
x
x x x
x
+

using GC.

Key Press Screen Shot Steps/Notes/Descriptions

Key in the function and plot the
graph. Since the domain consists
of all real values except 1 x = ,
we can safely ignore the point.
Anyway it will not show on the
GC. However when you sketch it
on paper, do remember to use a
circle to indicate that the point is
not included.

Observe that there are two
turning points. We need to find
the y-values of the two turning
points.
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The calculator enables you to
find out more about the graph.
Press 2
nd
TRACE to access the

We need the MINIMUM and
MAXIMUM functions in this

Select MINIMUM will allow
you to find the coordinates of the
minimum point. However, it
requires three inputs from you:
Left Bound, Right Bound,
Guess.

If you want, you can zoom into
the right half of the graph before
finding the MINIMUM point.

Use the direction key to move
the cursor to a point on the left
of the minimum point. Then
press ENTER. Alternative you
can also enter a value for the x-
ordinate of the Left Bound.

The chosen point and the
minimum point should be
connected via the graph. In this
case, we should not choose any
point on the downward curve
for the Left Bound.

Upon enter it will ask for a Right
Bound. Shift the cursor to a
point on the right of the
minimum point. Press ENTER.

Now choose move the cursor to
a point near the minimum point.
Then press ENTER.

This screen shows the
coordinates of the minmum
point.
(2.41, 4.83)

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Repeat the same steps to find the
coordinates of the MAXIMUM
point.

The maximum point is
(-0.414, -0.828).

Since the range consists of all
possible y-values that the graph
takes, we see that the range is
( ] [ ) , 0.828 4.83, .

The most important thing when finding range is to adjust the window or zoom to ensure that
you did not leave out any features of the graph. For example, there might be a turning point
for large values of x. You might need to analyse the function to get a rough picture of the
graph. A good start is to check the signs of the function when | | x is large, i.e. when x tends
to positive or negative infinity.

EXERCISE. Find the range of
0.05
f : e
x
x x .

Ans: ( ] , 39.9

A3 Sketching Inverse Functions

There are a few ways to sketch the inverse function. The method introduced here is an
artificial method because it sort of draws on top of the graph. As you are not really plotting
it, you will not be able to perform calculations on the inverse graph.

EXAMPLE. Sketch the function
2
f : 4 1, 2 x x x x + + and its inverse on the same
diagram.

Key Press Screen Shot Steps/Notes/Descriptions

Key in the function, take note of
the use of parentheses to group
the terms of the function.

Try it without the parentheses and
see if you can figure out why it
appears the way it does.

Adjust WINDOW to get a better
picture of the graph.
(59.9, 39.9)
National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

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Browse through the objects that
you can draw. You will find
8: DrawInv

Press ENTER and you will be
prompted to enter a function

Access the VARS > Y-VARS.
Since we are in FUNC mode,
select Function.

Choose Y
1
since the function is
entered into Y
1
. Press ENTER.

Note that the graph that was
newly drawn does not look like a
reflection of the original graph
about the line y x = . The reason
for this is because the scale is
different for both axes. To rectify
this problem, we use ZSquare

Now check the markings on both
axes. You should see that they are
equally spaced for both axes.
However, the graph for the
inverse function is gone. This is
exactly what is meant by
artificial. The inverse is not
plotted as a function but rather is
drawn as a picture. Hence you
should repeat DrawInv Y
1
.
the command previously, you can
easily recall it by pressing 2
nd

ENTER which gives ENTRY.
You can repeated press ENTRY
to recall the pass commands you
have entered.
National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

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Now you should get the correct
graphs. Therefore if you want to
draw the inverse function, do
remember to use ZSquare so that
the scale for both axes are the
same.

A4 Sketching Composite Functions

EXAMPLE. Sketch gf given
2
f : , x x x and g : e ,
x
x x .

Key Press Screen Shot Steps/Notes/Descriptions

Key in the two functions into Y
1

and Y
2
. It does not matter which
one you key as f and g.

Since you do not want to show
these graphs later, hide them by
moving the cursor to the =
signs and press ENTER. The
equal signs will no longer be
highlighted.

Enter into Y
3
the composite
function. Since the functions f
and g are assigned to Y
2
and Y
1

respectively, the composite
function is entered as Y
2
(Y
1
(X))

Graph it and adjust the display
window accordingly.

There are just too many functions to be covered. For some of these functions, you might need
to, as suggested, do some preliminary analysis to have a rough sense of how they will look
like. It would be a good idea too if you can invest some time to explore the calculator.
National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

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National Junior College
2010 H2 Mathematics (Senior High 1)
Functions (Tutorial)

Basic Mastery Questions

1. Complete the following diagrams to illustrate your understanding of the essential
concepts on functions.

2. Determine whether the following functions are one-one. Where the function is one-one,
find the inverse function, stating the domain and range.
(a)
2
4 4, , 2 x x x x x +
(b) 2 , x x x
(c) { }
2 3
, \ 1
1
x
x x
x
+

3. Given that the functions gf and f are such that
2
gf : 3 5, x x + and
2
f : 1 x x + ,
x , find the function g.

Function
Not a function
1-1 function Not a 1-1 function
National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 28 of 43
Tutorial Questions

1. The function f is given by

2
f : 6 , for x x x x ,

where is a positive constant. Find in terms of ,

(i) ff ( )
(ii) the range of f.

Give a reason why f does not have an inverse.

The function f has an inverse if its domain is restricted to x k and also has an inverse
if its domain is restricted to x k . Find k in terms of , and find an expression for
1
f ( ) x

## corresponding to each of these domains for f.

2. Given the following functions,

f : e , 0
x
x x

>

2
g : 3 5, ( , ) x x x

( 5)
h : , 5
3
x
x x
+
<

determine whether the composite functions fg, gf, gh and hg exist. If it does, give its
rule and range. If it does not, analyze if it is possible to restrict its domain such that the
composition exist. Show your working clearly.

3. The functions f and g are defined by
f : ( 2)( 8), x x x x and
2
g : 2 1, , 0 x x x x >
(i) Explain why the composite function gf does not exist.
(ii) Explain briefly why
1
f

## does not exist. If h is a restriction of f such that the

inverse of h exists, find the maximal domain of h in the form ( , ], a where
a is to be determined. Hence, find h and its range.
(iii) Find the solution of
1 1
h h ( ) h h( ) x x

= .

4. The functions g is defined by
2
g : 4 4 , x x x x
(i) By means of a graphical argument, or otherwise, show that
1
g

## does not exist.

A restriction function h of g is defined by
2
h : 4 4 , , x x x x x k < .
(ii) State the maximum value of k such that
1
h

exists
(iii) Sketch the graph of
1
h

## , showing its relation to the graph of h. Hence indicate

a point P on the curve of
1
h ( ) y x

## = that satisfies hh( ) x x = .

National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

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5. The functions f and g are defined by

3
f : 2 , , 0
4
x
x x x
g : e , , 0
x a
x x x
+
< where a is a positive constant.

(i) Sketch the graph of f and find its range. Hence state the set of values of x for
which
1 1
ff ( ) f f ( ) x x

= .
(ii) Sketch the graph of g and define the inverse function
1
g

.
(iii) Show that gf does not exist. Find the maximal domain of f for which gf exists
and state the range.

6. The functions f, g and h are defined as follows:

2
1
2
f : 6 ,
g : e 2,
h : ln(ln ), 1
x
x x x x
x x
x x x

>

(i) Find the inverse function of f in similar form.
(ii) Find the range of g.
(iii) State why the composite function hg does not exist.
(iv) By restricting the domain of g to ( , ) , where , find the smallest value
of in exact form such that the composite function hg exists. Define hg.
(v) Solve the equation hg( ) ln 2 x = . (RJC 2006)

7. The function f is defined as follows

1
f : , , 1
1
x
x x x
x
+

(i) Sketch the graph of f and state the range of f.
(ii) Find the subset S, of the form { } , x a x b < where a and b are constants to
be determined, such that the function
1
1
f : ,
1
x
x x S
x
+

## is one-one and has

the same range as f.
(iii) Find
1
1
f ( ) x

.

8. The function f is defined by
f : , for , ,
ax a
x x x
bx a b

where a and b are non-zero constants.
(i) Find
1
f ( ) x

## . Hence or otherwise find

2
f ( ) x and state the range of
2
f .
(ii) The function g is defined by
1
g : x
x
for all real non-zero x. State whether
(iii) Solve the equation
1
f ( ) x x

= .
[N2009\P2\Q3]

National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 30 of 43
9. It is given that
( )
2
7 for 0 2,
f
2 1 for 2 4,
x x
x
x x
<
=

<

and that ( ) ( ) f f 4 x x = + for all real values of x.
where a and b are non-zero constants.
(i) Evaluate f(27) + f(45).
(ii) Sketch the graph of ( ) f y x = for 7 10 x .
[N2009\P1\Q4]

Challenging Questions

1. Find the range of
2
1
f : , , 1
1
x
x x x
x
+

2. Let g :
+
be a function defined by
1
g : x x
x
. Using your GC, sketch g and
show that g has an inverse function
1
g

. Define
1
g

. Sketch
1
g

## on the same diagram

and identify a relationship between the graphs of g and
1
g

.

Assignment Questions

1. The function f is defined by
f : ( 1)(3 ) , , 2 x x x x x <
(i) Define f
1
in similar form. [3]
(ii) Sketch the graphs of f and f
1
on the same diagram. [2]

2. The functions f and g are defined by

2
1
f : , for , 3
3
g : , for .
x x x
x
x x x

(i) Only one of the composite functions fg and gf exists. Give a definition
(including the domain) of the composite that exists, and explain why the other
composite does not exist. [3]
(ii) Show that
1
f

exists. [2]
(iii) Sketch the graph of
1
ff

. [1]

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2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 31 of 43
3. The functions f and g are defined by

3
f : e
x
x

, x

2
g : ( 1) x x a + , x and a is a positive constant.

Sketch the graph of y = f(x), and show that f does not have an inverse. [2]
(i) The function f has an inverse if its domain is restricted to x b . State the
smallest possible value of b and define, in similar form, the inverse function
1
f

## corresponding to this domain for f. [4]

(ii) Using the value of b in (i), find the smallest possible value of a such that the
composite function
1
f g

1
f g

## for this value of a. [3]

--- End of Assignment ---

Basic Mastery Questions

1. Anything reasonable and correct.

2. (a) 1-1.
1
f ( ) 2 , 0 x x x

= + , [ ) 1
f
R 2,

= . 3. g : 3 2 x x +

(b) Not 1-1

(c) 1-1. { }
1
3
h ( ) , \ 2
2
x
x x
x

+
=

{ } 1
h
R \ 1

=

Tutorial Questions

1. (i)
4 3
25 30 + (ii)
( )
2
f
R 9 , = ,

3 k = ,
1 2 2
f ( ) 3 9 , 9 x x x

= + +

2. fg does not exist.
15
3
| | x >

gf exists. ( )
2
2
gf( ) 3 f( ) 5 3e 5, 0
x
x x x

= = >
( )
gf
R 5, 2 =

gh exists. gh( ) 10, 5 x x x = <
( )
gh
R 5, =

hg does not exist. Not possible.
National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

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3. (ii) h : ( 2)( 8), 5 x x x x (iii) [ ] 9, 5
[ )
h
R 9, =

4. (ii)
1
2
k = (iii)

5. (i)
f
R ( , 2] = , Set of values of x = [ 0 , 2 ]

(ii)
1
g : ln , 0 e
a
x x a x

< <

(iii) Maximal domain is ( ) 2, ,
( )
gf
R 0, e
a
=

6. (i)
1
25 25 1
4 2 4
f : , , x x x x

(ii) ( )
g
R 2, =

(iv) ln3 =

( ) ( )
hg( ) ln ln e 2 , ln3
x
x x = >
(v)
( )
2
ln e 2 x = +

7. (i) [ )
f
R 0, =
(ii) [ ) 1,1 S =
(iii)
1
1
2
f ( ) 1 , , 0
1
x x x
x

= +

8. (i) ( )
-1
f ,
ax a
x x
bx a b
=

( )
2
f ,
a
x x x
b
=
2
f
R \
a
b

=
`
)

(ii) Does not exist.
(iii)
2
0,
a
x x
b
= =
9. (i) 11

Challenging Questions

1.
( ) f
R , 2 2 2 2 2 2,
(
= +

Point P is the Origin.
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2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 33 of 43
2010 H2 Maths Functions Tutorial (Suggested Solutions)

Basic Mastery Questions

1. Anything reasonable and correct.

2.(a) ( )
2
2
f( ) 4 4 2 , 2 x x x x x = + =

Since every horizontal line y k = , 0 k cuts the graph at most once, hence f is 1-1.

( )
2
2 2 y x x y = =
Since 2 x , 2 2 x y x y = = + .
1
f ( ) 2 , 0 x x x

= + , [ ) 1
f
f
R D 2,

= = .

(b) g( ) 2 , x x x =

The line 1 y = cuts the graph at two points, 1, 3 x = . Hence g is not 1-1.
(c) { }
2 3
h( ) , \ 1
1
x
x x
x
+
=

National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 34 of 43
Since every horizontal line , 2 y k k = cuts the graph at most once, hence h is 1-1.
2 3
1
2 3
2 3
3
2
x
y
x
xy y x
xy x y
y
x
y
+
=

= +
= +
+
=

Hence { }
1
3
h ( ) , \ 2
2
x
x x
x

+
=

,
{ } 1
h
h
R D \ 1

= = .

3. ( ( )
2
g f( ) 3 5 x x = +
( )
2
3 1 2 x = + +
( ) 3 f( ) 2 x = +
Let f( ) y x = , then g( ) 3 2 y y = + .
Hence g : 3 2 x x + .

Alternatively, let
2
1 1 y x x y = + = .
Therefore

1
f ( ) 1 x x

= . Note that
1
f

## is a relation and not a function. Then,

( ) ( )
( )
2
1 1
g( ) gf f ( ) 3 f ( ) 5
3 1 5 3 2
x x x
x x

= = +
= + = +

Tutorial Questions

1.(i)

2 2
2
4 3
ff ( )
f ( 6 )
f ( 5 )
25 30

=
=
= +

(ii)

2
2 2
f ( ) 6
( 3 ) 9
x x x
x

=
=

( )
2
f
R 9 , =

Since f (0) 0 f (6 ) = = ,
National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 35 of 43
f is not a one-to-one function and hence
inverse of f does not exist.

Minimum value of f occurs when
3 x = , hence 3 k = .

2 2
2 2
2
( 3 ) 9
9 ( 3 )
3 9
y x
y x
x y

=
+ =
= +

For
2
3 3 9 x x y < = +

1 2 2
f ( ) 3 9 , 9 x x x

= +

For
2
3 3 9 x x y > = + +

1 2 2
f ( ) 3 9 , 9 x x x

= + +

2. ( ) ( )
f f
D 0, , R 0,1 = =
[ )
( ) ( )
g g
h h
D , R 5,
D , 5 , R 0,
= =
= =

Since [ ) ( )
g f
R 5, 0, D = = , fg does not exist. For fg to exist, ( )
g
R 0, = ,
therefore
2 15
3
3 5 0 | | x x > > .

Since ( )
f g
R 0,1 D = = , gf exists. ( )
2
2
gf( ) 3 f( ) 5 3e 5, 0
x
x x x

= = > .
( ) ( )
g
f gf
R 0,1 5, 2 R = = .

Since ( )
h g
R 0, D = = , gh exists.
( )
( )
( )
2 5
3
gh( ) 3 h( ) 5 3 5
10, 5
x
x x
x x
+
= =
= <
.
( ) ( )
g
h gh
R 0, 5, R = = .

Since [ ) ( )
g h
R 5, , 5 D = = , hg does not exist. Furthermore
g h
R D {} = , it is
not possible to find a restriction of g such that hg exist.

3.(i) f( ) ( 2)( 8) x x x =
( )
2
2
10 16 5 9 x x x = + =
National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 36 of 43
[ )
( ) ( )
f f
g g
D , R 9,
D 0, , R 1,
= =
= =

Since [ ) ( )
f g
R 9, 0, D = = , gf does not exist.
(ii) Since f(4) 8 f(6) = = , f is not 1-1. Therefore
1
f

## does not exist. From the expression

of f, domain of f must be restricted to ( , 5] . Hence
h : ( 2)( 8), , 5 x x x x x and [ )
h
R 9, = .

(iii) Now,
1 1
h h ( ) h h( ) x x x

= = for all x such that both functions are defined,
[ ) ( ]
[ ]
1 1 1
h
hh h h h
h h
D D D D
R D 9, , 5
9, 5
x

=
= =
=

4. ( )
2
2
g( ) 4 4 2 1 1 x x x x = =

(i) Since g(2) 8 g( 1) = = , therefore g is not 1-1. Hence
1
g

## does not exist.

(ii) From the expression of g,
1
2
k = .
(iii)

1
hh( ) h( ) h ( ) x x x x

## = = . Hence we are looking for the intersection of these two

graphs. From diagram, they intersect at the origin, which is therefore where P is.

5. (i)

f
R ( , 2] =

-1
f
f
D R ( , 2] = =
National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 37 of 43
Set of values of x = [ 0 , 2 ]

(ii)

g : e , , 0
x a
x x x
+
<

( )
g
R 0, e
a
=

e ln
x a
y x y a
+
= =
Hence
1
g : ln , 0 e
a
x x a x

< < .

( ] ( )
f g
R , 2 , 0 D = =
For gf to exist, ( )
f
R , 0 = , i.e.
3
3
2 0 8 2
4
x
x x < > > . Therefore maximal domain is ( ) 2, . Clearly
( )
gf g
R R 0, e
a
= = .

6. .(i)
2
f ( ) 6 x x x =
( )
( )
2
1 1
4 4
2
25 1
4 2
6 x x
x
= + +
= +

( )
( )
2
25 1
4 2
2
25 1
2 4
25 1
2 4
y x
x y
x y
= +
+ =
+ =

Since
1
2
x ,
25 1
4 2
x y = .
1
25 25 1
4 2 4
f : , , x x x x

(ii) ( )
g
R 2, = .
(iii) ( ) ( )
g h
R 2, 1, D = = , hence hg does not exist.
(iv) For hg to exist, ( )
g
R 1, = , therefore e 2 1 e 3 ln3
x x
x > > > .

Hence ln3 = .
( )
( ) ( )
hg( ) ln lng( )
ln ln e 2 , ln3
x
x x
x
=
= >

National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 38 of 43
(v)
( ) ( )
hg( ) ln ln e 2 ln 2
x
x = =
( )
( )
2
2
ln e 2 2 e e 2
ln e 2
x x
x
= = +
= +
.

7.(i)

[ )
f
R 0, =

(ii) From graph [ ) 1,1 S = .

(iii)
1 1
1 1
x x
y y
x x
+ +
= =

Let z y =
1 1 2
1
1 1 1
x z
z x
x z z
+ +
= = = +

Therefore,
2
1
1
x
y
= +

or
2
1
1
x
y
= +

.
Since 1 x < and 0 y ,
2
1
1
x
y
= +

.
1
1
2
f ( ) 1 , , 0
1
x x x
x

= +

.

8.(i)
( )
( )
-1
f ,
ax
y
bx a
bxy ay ax
by a x ay
ay
x
by a
ax a
x x
bx a b
=

=
=
=

National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 39 of 43
( )
2
2
2
f
,
ax
a
bx a
x
ax
b a
bx a
a x
abx abx a
a
x x
b
| |
|

\
=
| |

\
=
+
=

2
f
R \
a
b

=
`
)

8.(ii) fg does not exist, because
f
D \
a
b

=
`
)
but
{ }
g
R \ 0 = . i.e.
g f
R D at
a
x
b
= .

8.(iii)

( )
( )
-1
2
2
f
2 0
2 0
2
0,
x x
ax
x
bx a
ax bx ax
bx ax
x bx a
a
x x
b
=
=

=
=
=
= =

9.(i)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
f 27 f 45 f 3+4 6 f 1+4 11
f 3 f 1
2 3 1 7 1
11
+ = + ( (

= +
= +
=

9.(ii)

7
3
2 4 10 -7
National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 40 of 43
Challenging Questions
1.
The idea here is to draw a horizontal line y k = .
If the line cuts the graph of f, then
f
R k .
Hence we are finding all the values of k, such
that the equation f( ) k x = has solutions.
Consider
( )
2
2 2
1
1 1 1 0
1
x
k k x x x kx k
x
+
= = + + + =

## . For this equation to have solutions, since it is a

Discriminant = ( )
2
4 1 0 k k .

Solving the inequality, we get 2 2 2 k + or 2 2 2 k .
Therefore,
( ) f
R , 2 2 2 2 2 2,
(
= +

.

2.

[Only consider the part of graph for 0 x > - given domain.]

First, use the GC to graph
1
y x
x
= for 0 x > as follows:
In the Y= window, enter
1
1
Y (X X ) /(X 0)

= > = > = > = > .
Press WINDOW, then enter suitable values such as
Xmin = -10, Xmax = 10, Ymin = -10, Ymax = 10.
Press GRAPH.

x
y
y k =
( )
1 2, 2 2 2 + +

( )
1 2, 2 2 2

x
y
g( ) y x =
y = b
Alternatively,
( )
2
2
f '( ) 1 0
1
1 2
f (1 2) 2 2 2
x
x
x
= =

=
=

Hence, stationary pts:
( )
1 2, 2 2 2
National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 41 of 43
From the graph of g, a horizontal line y = b, where b, cuts the graph of g( ) y x = at
exactly one point, hence g is a 1-1 function and thus
1
g exists.
Let
1
g( ) y x x
x
= = . Then
2
2
2
1
1 0
4
2
x
y
x
x yx
y y
x

=
=
+
=

Since x
+
,
2
0
4
2
x
y y
x
>
+ +
=

But
2
1 1
4
g ( ) g ( )
2
y y
x y y

+ +
= =
Replacing all y by x,
2
1
4
g ( )
2
x x
x

+ +
=
Hence
2
1
4
g : ,
2
x x
x x

+ +
. (since R R D x
g
g
= =
1
)

Assignment Questions

1. (i) Let f(x) = y where y = 1 (x 2)
2

x = 2 1 y
= 2 1 y ( x < 2)
f
1
: x 2 1 x , x < 1

(ii)

0 1
2 3
x
y
-1 -2
-3
y = f(x)
y = f
-1
(x)
y = x
-3
National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 42 of 43

2.
(i)

[ ) { }
g f
R 0, \ 3 =D fg does not exist =
{ }
f g
R \ 0 D gf exists = =

( )
2
1
gf : , , 3
3
x x x
x

( )
gf
R 0, =

(ii) Every horizontal line y = k, { } \ 0 k cuts the graph of ( ) f y x = exactly once.
Hence, f is 1-1.
1
f

exists.

(iii)

y
x
3
( ) f y x =
y k =
y
x
O
( ) g y x =
x
y
O
National Junior College Mathematics Department 2010

2010 / SH1 / H2 Maths / Functions Page 43 of 43
3.

Min point is (3, 1)

Any horizontal line , y k = where 1, k > cuts the graph
more than once. This implies that f is not a 1-1
function and thus
1
f

does not exist.

(i) From graph, we can deduce that the smallest possible
value of b is 3.

3
e ln 3
x
y y x

= =

3 ln x y =

Therefore,
3 ln x y = + or 3 ln x y = .
Since 3 x , 3 ln x y = + .
1
f : 3 ln , 1 x x x

+ .

(ii) For
-1
f g to exist,

-1
g
f
R D
[ ) -1
f
f
D R 1, = =
[ )
g
R , a =

Hence, smallest value of a is 1.

( ) [ ) [ )
-1
g g
f
D R R
, 1, 3,
g

{ }
{ }
f
f
D \ 3
R \ 0
=
=

[ )
g
g
D
R 0,
=
=