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Biodiesel from Jatropha an


Alternative Fuel for the
Future
Biofuel a Wise Alternative

10/4/2005
B.N.CoEngg, Pusad
Ritesh Bhusari
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1. INTRODUCTION

Biodiesel –Biodiesel is the name of clean burning alternative fuel,

produced from domestic, renewable resources such as Jatropha seeds, recycled

restaurant greases, and animal fats. Biodiesel contains no petroleum. But it can

be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can

be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modification.

Biodiesel is simple to use biodegradable, nontoxic and essentially free of sulphur

and aromatics.

Fuel-grade biodiesel must be produced to stict industry

specifications (ASTMD6751) in order to insure proper performance. Biodiesel is

the only alternative fuel to have fully completed the health effects testing

requirements of the 1990 clear Air Act Amendments. Biodiesel that meets

ASTMD6751 and is legally registered with Environmental Protection Agency is a

legal motor fuel for sale and distribution. Raw vegetable oil cannot meet

biodiesel fuel specifications it is not registered with the EPA and it is not a legal

motor fuel.

The fast depletion of fossil fuel has become concern and there is a

heavy pressure on the engine researcher to find alternative fuels to replace

conventional fuels for the developing countries of the world. The bio-origin fuels

can contribute significantly towards the problems related with fuel crisis. The fuel

of bio-origin may be alcohol, edible and non-edible vegetable oils, biomass,

biogas etc. the non-edible vegetable oil is chemically reacted with an alcohol

(usually methanol) and catalyst (usually sodium or potassium hydroxide) to

produce ester, biodiesel is the name given to the ester of vegetable oils.
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Most of the properties of biodiesel are comparable with diesel.

Jatropha oil is non-edible vegetable oil. In the present investigation the blends of

varying properties of Jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) and diesel were observed

to run the CI engine and significant improvements in engine performance and

emission characteristics were observed. The thermal efficiency of the engine

was improved. BSFC was reduced and emission of smoke and NOx was

decreased. These improvements in the performance of engine are attributed to

complete combustion of oxygenated fuel.

The Latin name of Jatropha is Jatropha curcas and Indian name is

Ratanjyot. Jatropha oil is extracted form the seeds of the Jatropha tree. This

tree is found all over India and many places the leaves are lopped for green

manure, the seed case is also used as fertilizer, also the glycerol as biproduct is

used for soap production. The oil itself has fungicial properties and is a traded

non-edible vegetable oil. A lot of work was done on vegetable oil before and

during Second World War. The only constraint has been removed with the price

to diesel on the rise the future of Jatropha oil is bright.


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2. BIODIESEL EXTRACTION PROCESS

Biodiesel is extracted from vegetable oil by the process of

transesterification. Simple alcohols are used for transesterification and this

process is usually carried out with a basic catalyst (NaOH, KOH) in the complete

absence of water the bonding of alcohol and organic acid with elimination of

water produces ester. An excess of alcohol needed to accelerate the reaction.

With methyl alcohol glycerol separation occurs readily. If water is present soap is

the biproduct which results in decreasing yield of a ester. In the esterification

process alcohol combines with triglyceride molecules from acid to form glycerol

and ester. The glycerol is then removed by the density separation. Esterification

decreases the viscosity of oil; making it similar to diesel fuel in characteristics.

H2C-O-C-R1 CH2-OH CH3-O-C-R1

HC-O-C-R2 +3CH3OH CH-OH CH+3-O-C-R2

H2C-O-C-R3 Methanol CH2-OH CH3-O-C-R3


Glycerol Methyl ester
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3. COMPONENTS OF BIODIESEL

Technically, biodiesel is vegetable oil methyl ester. Biodiesel is the

name for a variety of ester-based oxygenated fuels made from, Jatropha oil or

other vegetable oil’s or animal fats. It is formed by removing the triglyceride

molecule from vegetable oil in the form of glycerin (soap). Once glycerin is

removed from the oil the remaining molecules are to a diesel engine similar to

petroleum diesel fuel. However, there are some notable differences. Biodiesel

has a different chemical and physical properties than diesel fuel, including a

larger bulk modulus and higher cetane number.

The biodiesel molecules are very simple hydrocarbon chains,

containing no sulphuring molecules or aromatics associated with fossil fuels.

Biodiesel is made up of almost 10% oxygen, making it a naturally ‘Oxygenated’

fuel. The only alternative fuel that can boast of zero total emissions production

facility when compared to petrodiesels.


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4. FUEL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIODIESEL FROM JATROPHA

CURCAS

Parameter Jatropha raw Oil jatropha Oil EDIN 51606


transesterified standard
Density 0.920 0.879 0.875-0.890

(g cm-3 at 20 0C)

Flash point 236 191 > 110

Cetane no 23-41 51 > 49

Viscosity 52 4.84 3.5 – 5 (40 0C )

(mm2/s at 30 oC

Neutralization 0.92 0.24 < 0.50

Number

Total glycerin (%) 0.088 < 0.250

Free glycerin (%) 0.015 < 0.02

Phosphorous 290 1705 < 10

(ppm) (17 in degummed

oil)

Sulphated ash 0.014 < 0.03

(%)

Methanol (%) 0.06 < 0.3


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5. EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE OF ENGINE

Biodiesel maintains the same payload capacity and range as

conventional diesel and provides similar horsepower, torque and fuel economy.

Biodiesel has a higher cetane number than conventional diesel, which increase

engines performance. It also serves as high quality lubricant, and can enhance

the life of heavy duty engines. Biodiesel can have cold start problems relative to

petrodiesel, but this is more of an issue for B100 than B20 fuels.

The C.I. engine was tested for performance and emission

calculations. Testing was carried out at various loads starting from no load and

than to the rated full load condition. The tests were conducted at a constant

speed equal to the rated engine speed. The operational engine smooth up to

compression ratio 17.5 at all.

Fig. 5.1 shows variation of smoke density with BMEP at

compression ratio of 16.5 for different blends of JOME. It is seen that smoke

density for all blends at part load and full load is lower than diesel fuel. The

maximum reduction in smoke density is by 31.76 for 20B at BMEP 4.606 bar.

Fig. 5.2 shows variation BSFC with BMEP. It is seen that for the

blends of JOME, BSFC is lower than the diesel this may be due to better

atomisation and complete combustion of oxygenated fuel. At BMEP 0.921 bar

maximum reduction in BSFC is by 21.85 % for 60 B.

Fig.5.3 shows the variation of brake thermal efficiency with BMEP.

Brake thermal efficiency. Is maximum for all blends of JOME at part and full load

than diesel. The maximum improvement is obtained at BMEP 3.69 bar by

26.86% for 60 B.
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6. EFFECT ON EMISSIONS

Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel to have fully completed the

heath effects testing requirements of the Clean Air Act. The used Jatropha

biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine results in substantial reduction of

unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter compared to

emission from diesel fuel. In addition, the exhaust emissions of sulphur oxides

and suphates (major component of acid rain ) from Jatropha biodiesel are

essentially eliminated compared to diesel. Of the major exhaust pollutants, both

unburned hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides are ozone or smog forming

precursors. The use of Jatropha biodiesel result in substantial reduction of

unburned hydrocarbons.

Emission of nitrogen oxides are either slightly reduced or slightly

increased depending on the duty cycle of the engine and testing methods used.

Based on engine testing, using the most straight emissions testing protocols

required by EPA for certification of fuels or fuel additives in the US, the overall

ozone forming potential of the speciated hydrocarbon emission from Jatropha

Biodiesel was nearly 50 percent less than that measured for diesel fuel.
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7. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS

Biodiesel cost more per gallon than conventional diesel fuel. While

the price of both fuels can fluctuate and impact the incremental difference

biodiesel has generally sold for approximately $1.00/gallon more than

conventional diesel. The Incremental cost associated with biodiesel blends are

lower than that of neat biodiesel. For example, with a 20 % biodiesel blend we

have historically seen an incremental cost differences with conventional diesel

in the $ 0.10 - $.20 cents/gallon range but the cost of biodiesel can be brought

down by mass production.


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8. POTENTIAL OF JATROPHA IN INDIA

India is home to more than one billion people about a sixth of the

world population. The process of economic liberalization and the ‘opening up’ set

in motion in early 1990s have resulted in India’s approximately 300 million strong

middle class becoming increasingly exposed to world market of consumer

goods. India’s about 70% of its petroleum demand. Widely fluctuating world

prices of oil have been a destabilizing element for the country’s balance of

payments situation, particularly in recent times. The petroleum import is currently

about 13 billion dollars (about 30% of total import bill) compared to the current

trade defict of about USD 11 billion.

Recently a huge project with Rs 1430 crores has been launched by

Govt. of India for Jatropha plantations. Jatropha would be raised in an area of

four lakh hectors spread over eight states. Andhra pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujrat,

Rajsthan, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Utter Pradesh, Chattisgarh. The National

Oil Seeds And Vegetable Oil Development (NOVOD) board under the ministry of

agriculture which would implementing the program, has already taken several

preparatory steps. Efficiency of Jatroha oil has been tested successfully for its

biodiesel qualities under Indian conditions by IIT, Delhi CSIR’s Indian Institute of

Petroleum, Dehradun and Punjab agricultural University Ludhiana. A pilot plant

of are tonne per day capacity for transesterification or conversion of the crude oil

from the seeds to commercially useful fuel has been successfully fabricated at

Indian Institute of science, Banglore in collaboration with a private fabricator in

Shimoga
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9. IMPORTANT ADVANTAGES OF USING BIODIESEL

1. Its emission quality is significantly superior than mineral diesel.

2. National security :- Since it’s made domestically it reduces our

dependence on foreign oil.

3. National economy :- Using biodiesel keeps our fuel buying dollars at

home instead of sending it to foreign countries. This reduces our trade

defect and create jobs.

4. Sustainable and nontoxic : - Biodiesel is 100% renewable …… we will

never run out of it. And it is gets into your water supply there’s no

problem. Its veggie oil !

5. Engine life : - Studies have shown it reduces engine wear by as much as

one half , primarily because it provide excellent lubricity.

6. Biodiesel can be stored wherever petroleum diesel is stored.

7. Biodiesel can be used alone or mixed in any ratio with petroleum diesel

fuel. The most common bend is a mix of 20 %, biodiesel with 80 %

petroleum diesel “B20”.

8. Biodiesel provides a 90% reduction in cancer risks.

9. It has a high flash point of about 250 0F compared to petroleum diesel fuel

(125 0F). Thus it makes biodiesel safer to store.

10. Biodiesel can be made from domestically produced renewable oilseed

crops.

11. Biodiesel is a proven fuel with over 30 million successful US road miles,

and over 20 year of used in Europe.


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12. The higher cetane cumber of biodiesel compared to petroleum diesel

indicates potential for higher engine performance. Tests have shown that

biodiesel has similar or better fuel consumption. Horsepower and torque

and haulage rates as conventional diesel.

13. The superior lubricating properties of biodiesel increase functional engine

efficiency.

14. More oxygen (about 11%) in biodiesel help in almost complete

combustion of hydrocarbons.

15. Emissions :- Biodiesel is rarely carbon-neutral meaning if contributes

almost zero emissions to global warming. And also reduces emissions of

visible smoke and noxious odors.


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10. ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGES OF GROWING JATROPHA

PLANTATIONS

1. Fixation of up to 10 t/ha/yr CO2 that could be internationally traded.

2. Various other products from the plant (leaf, bark and seed extracts) have

various other industrial and pharmaceutical uses.

3. Localized production and availability of quality fuel.

4. Restoration of degraded land over a period of time.

5. Rural employment generation

6. Reducing crop losses caused by wandering livestock or wind damage.

7. Increasing soil fertility by use of press cake as fertilizer.

8. Increasing rainfall, infiltration, resulting in less work irrigation water

needed for local gardens.

9. Providing local jobs, lessening the need for local villagers to migrate to

cities to find employment.

10. Production of 1t/ha/yr of high protein seed cake (60% crude protein) that

can potentially used as animal and fish feed and organic matter that could

be used as organic fertilizer , particularly in remote areas.

11. The Jatropha oil can be used for soap production and cosmetic

production.

12. All parts of the plant have traditional medicinal uses (between human and

veterinary purpose).

13. This plant is non-edible by animals hence no animal problem.


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11. DISADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL

1) Primarily that it’s not readily available in much of the nation. Consumption

jumped from 500,000 gallons in 2000 to 15 million gallons in 2001 , so hopefully

availability will change soon.

2) Biodiesel will clean your injectors and fuel lines. If you have an old diesel

vehicle , there’s a chance that your first tank or two of biodiesel could free up all

the accumulated crud and clog your fuel filter.

3) It has a higher gel point. B100 (100% biodiesel) gets slushy a little under 320
0
F. But B20 (20% biodiesel) has a gel point of –15 0F like regular diesel. The gel

point can be lowered further with additives such kerosene.

4) Old vehicles (older than mid 90s) might require upgrades of fuel lines (a

cheap , easy upgrade) , as biodiesel can eat through certain types of rubber. All

most all new vehicles should have no problem with biodiesel.

5) The one emission that gives up with biodiesel is Nox. And NOx contributes to

smog.

6) High cost of production.


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12. CONCLUSION

No doubt that petroleum diesel will continue to become more

expensive and less readily available in future. Thus the biodiesel from Jatropha

will be best alternative fuel for the future.

Biodiesel extracted by transesterification from vegetable oil and by

this process viscosity of oils brought in acceptable limits. The following

conclusions were drawn regarding performance and emission characteristics by

using Biodiesel from Jatropha.

1) There was a substantial decrease in exhaust smoke density and NOx to a

level lower than the diesel engine.

2) Flash and fire points are comparatively higher for esters, thus reducing

fire hazards.

3) Engine shows better performance for blends with diesel rather than pure

ester.

4) It improves to economy of whole domestic life.

5) With consideration of mass production cost of biodiesel can brought

down.

Use of this JOME can be effective in existing diesel engines and it

as a partial diesel substitute can go a long way in conservation measure,

boosting farm economy, reducing uncertainty of fuel availability and making

farmers more self-reliant.


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REFERENCES

1. Prof. H.C.Joshi , “Biodiesel From Jatropha”, Invention Intelligence ,

September –October 2003, PP:- 205-216

2. J. G. Suryawanshi , “Biodiesel In Diesel Engine-Research Paper ” , VNIT

, Department Of Mechanical Engineering Nagpur,

3. www.biodiesel.org

4. www.treeoilsindia.com
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CONTENTS

Sr. No Topics Page. No

ABSTRACT

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BIODIESEL EXTRACTION PROCESS

3. COMPONENTS OF BIODIESEL

4. FUEL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIODIESEL

FROM JATROPHA curcas

5. EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE OF ENGINE

6. EFFECT ON EMISSION

7. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS

8. POTENTIAL OF JATROPHA IN INDIA

9. IMPORTANT ADVANTAGES OF USING BIODIESEL

10. ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGES OF GROWING

JATROPHA PLANTATIONS

11. DISADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL

12. CONCLUSION

REFERENCES
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ABSTRACT:

The rapid deletion of fossil fuel with increased environment

concern has stimulated worldwide efforts to produce alternative to diesel. Use of

bio-origin fuel as an alternative fuel can contribute significantly towards the twin

problem of fuel crisis and environmental pollution.

The fuel of the bio-origin may be the biodiesel obtained from non-

edible vegetable oil of Jatropha curcas ( Ratanjyot) Through transesterification

process most of the properties of this biodiesel compares favorably with the

characteristics required for CI fuel.

This fuel in the form of blend with diesel performs almost as well as

neat fuel with little or no engine modification. As biodiesel is having high cetane

number power output of engine can be improved if compression ratio increased.

Thermal efficiency of diesel engine increase and brake specific fuel consumption

(BSFC) reduces and emission of smoke, HC and CO was considerably

decreases.
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