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BIOCATALYSIS

Power point@lecture Slides Are Prepared By Biology Lecturer, KMPk

BIOCATALYSIS
14.1: Properties of enzymes and mechanisms of actions

14.2: Cofactors

14.3: Inhibition

14.4: Enzyme Classification according to common name and IUB

PREVIOUS LESSON
What are inhibitors?

PREVIOUS LESSON
TYPES OF INHIBITORS? Reversible

PREVIOUS LESSON
Allosteric means other site Active site
Substrate cannot fit into the active site

Allosteric site
Inhibitor fits into allosteric site

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

The allosteric site the enzyme on-off switch


Active site Substrate fits into the active site E Allosteric site empty

Conformational change
Substrate cannot fit into the active site

Inhibitor molecule is present

The inhibitor molecule is absent

Inhibitor fits into allosteric site

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

EXAMPLE NONCOMPETITIVE INHIBITOR

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this topic, students should be able to: 1) Explain irreversible inhibition. 2) Describe enzyme classification according to IUB or classes of reaction e.g. oxidoreductase transferase oxidoreductase, transferase, hydrolase, lyase, somerase hydrolase lyase isomerase and ligase ligase.

IRREVERSIBLE INHIBITION
Inhibitor permanently bind or irreversibly to active site of enzyme. allosteric site of enzyme. Often form a covalent bond to an amino acid residue at or near the active site.

IRREVERSIBLE INHIBITORS
Permanently inactivate the enzyme. Example: Cyanide Nerve gases and pesticide

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EXAMPLE OF IRREVERSIBLE INHIBITORS


Cyanide irreversibly inhibits activity of cytochrome oxidase (in cellular respiration). Blocks transfer of electrons from substrate to O2 & death may occur.

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THE CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES


A systematic nomenclature for enzymes was recommended by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB) (IUB). Each enzymes was allocated a trivial name: The name of the substrate act upon the enzyme The type of reaction catalysed The suffix ase E.g: urase, sucrase, protease.

THE CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES


Enzyme group Type of reaction catalyzed Transfer of O and H atoms between substances. All oxidationreduction reactions. Enzyme examples Dehydrogenase Oxidase Catalase

1. Oxidoreductase

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THE CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES


Enzyme Group Type of reaction catalyzed Enzyme examples

2. Transferase

Transfer of a functional group from one substance to another

Transaminase Phosphorylase Kinase

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THE CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES


Enzyme Group Type of reaction catalyzed Enzyme examples

3. Hydrolase

Hydrolysis reactions

Peptidase Lipase Amylase

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THE CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES


Enzyme Group Type of reaction catalyzed Enzyme examples

4. Lyases

Addition or removal of a functional group without addition of water

Pyruvate decarboxylase

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THE CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES


Enzyme Group Type of reaction catalyzed Enzyme examples

5. Isomerase

Catalyse geometric Phosphoglucomutase Mutase or structural Isomerase rearrangement within one molecule

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THE CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES


Enzyme Group Type of reaction catalyzed Enzyme examples

6. Ligase

Formation of Synthetase bonds between DNA ligase two molecules using energy derived from the breakdown of ATP
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wahida@ernyjuliaMac2009

QUESTIONS
QUESTION 1 We can describe inhibition as irreversible when A. we can reverse it by adding more inhibitors B. we can reverse it by adding more substrate C. covalent bonds form between the inhibitor and the enzyme D. hydrogen bonds form between the inhibitor and the enzyme

QUESTIONS
QUESTION 2 How can you describe an inhibitor that does Not bind to the active site but the other parts of the enzyme? A. a reversible inhibitor B. a competitive inhibitor C. an irreversible inhibitor D. a non-competitive inhibitor

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15.0 Cellular Respiration