Você está na página 1de 5

12/26/2011

BIOCATALYSIS
14.1: Properties of enzymes and mechanisms of actions

14.2: Cofactors

14.3: Inhibition

BIOCATALYSIS
Power point@lecture Slides Are Prepared By Biology Lecturer, KMPk

14.4: Enzyme Classification according to common name and IUB

OBJECTIVES
14.1 : Properties of enzyme and mechanism of actions At the end of this subtopic, students should able to : a) Describe the properties of enzymes. b) Explain the mechanism of enzyme action. c) Describe the hypotheses related to its mechanism of action : Induced Fit Model Lock and Key Model

What are ENZYMES?


An organic catalyst (usually a protein) that speeding up/accelerates a specific chemical reaction by lowering activation energy (EA) required for that reactions without itself being affected by the reaction.

PROPERTIES OF ENZYME
Required Only in Small Amount. They are not altered irreversibly during the course of reaction. Each enzyme can participate repeatedly in individual reactions (reused). Do not damaged or destroyed by reactions it catalyses.
Gerald Karp. Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments 6th edition. page 93

PROPERTIES OF ENZYME
Specificity. Highly specific (specific substrate) Has a specific shape so only substrates of a particular shape will fit the active site on an enzyme Catalyzing only one type of chemical reactions.

(Richard. A. Biochemistry. Page 54-55)

12/26/2011

PROPERTIES OF ENZYME
They have no effect on the thermodynamics of the reaction. Do not supply energy for a chemical reactions Only accelerates the rates at which a favorable chemical reaction proceeds

PROPERTIES OF ENZYME
Denatured by high temperature and pH. Speed up the chemical reactions. Lowers the activation energy (Ea). 103 108 times faster than uncatalyzed reactions

Gerald Karp. Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments 6th edition. page 93

www.themegallery.com

What is activation energy ?


Every chemical reaction between molecules involves bond breaking and bond forming. The initial energy needed to start a chemical reaction is called the free energy of activation, or activation energy (EA). Activation energy is often supplied in the form of heat from the surroundings

How do enzymes work?


Lowering the activation energy (EA) barrier necessary to initiate a chemical reaction

Transition state EA Reactants G < O Products Progress of the reaction

Course of reaction without enzyme

MECHANISM OF ENZYME ACTION


EA without enzyme

EA with enzyme is lower

Reactants Course of reaction with enzyme G is unaffected by enzyme

The reactant that an enzyme acts on is called the enzymes substrate. The active site is the region on the enzyme where the substrate binds. In an enzymatic reaction, the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme Forming an enzyme-substrate complex.

Products Progress of the reaction


Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

12/26/2011

Fig. 8-16

Catalysis in the Enzymes Active Site


In an enzymatic reaction, the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme. The active site can lower an EA barrier by : Orienting substrates correctly Straining substrate bonds Providing a favorable microenvironment Covalently bonding to the substrate

Substrate

Active site

Enzyme (a) (b)

Enzyme-substrate complex

(Campbell. Biology 9th edition. International edition. Page 200 201)

Figure 8.15-1

1 Substrates enter active site. 2 Substrates are held in active site by weak interactions.

Figure 8.15-2

1 Substrates enter active site. 2 Substrates are held in active site by weak interactions.

Substrates Enzyme-substrate complex

Substrates Enzyme-substrate complex 3 Active site can lower EA and speed up a reaction.

Active site

Active site

Enzyme

Enzyme

4 Substrates are converted to products.

Figure 8.15-3

1 Substrates enter active site. 2 Substrates are held in active site by weak interactions.

MECHANISM OF ENZYME ACTION Two Hypotheses:

Substrates Enzyme-substrate complex 3 Active site can lower EA and speed up a reaction.

i. Model Lock and Key

Active site is available for two new substrate molecules. Enzyme

ii. Model Induced Fit

Products are released. Products

4 Substrates are converted to products.


www.themegallery.com

12/26/2011

LOCK AND KEY MODEL


Lock :Enzyme (active site) molecule. Key : Substrate . Substrates molecule (key) shape is complementary with active site of the enzyme (lock) molecule. Substrate fits accurately into a rigid active site of the enzyme molecule.

LOCK AND KEY MODEL


Forming enzyme-substrate complex . Product no longer fit into the active site. Leave the active site free to receive further substrate molecule

MECHANISM OF ENZYME ACTION

LOCK AND KEY MODEL

www.themegallery.com

Source: http://www.flatworldknowledge.com

INDUCED-FIT MODEL
Active site (enzyme)is able to change its shape ( flexible)to enfold a substrate molecule. Distorted enzyme molecule in turn distorts the substrate molecule. Straining or twisting the bonds. Substrates less stable and thus lowering EA.
www.themegallery.com

INDUCED-FIT MODEL
Products are formed which no longer bind to active site and so move away. Enzyme returns to its original shape. Ready to bind the next substrate molecule.

www.themegallery.com

12/26/2011

Conclusion
What are enzymes? Globular protein (3D-shape). Organic catalyst. State the properties of enzymes. Specificity. Denatured. Small amounts required. Not damaged (Reused) by its reaction.

Conclusion
What is activation energy? EA How do enzymes work? Lowering EA How the active site can lower the activation energy barrier? Refer to Campbell. Biology 9th edition.page 200- 201. State mechanism of enzyme action. Lock and Key Model Induced-Fit Model

Next Lecture
Explain the factors that affect the enzymatic reaction. Cofactors