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12/26/2011

CONTENTS
14.1 : Properties of enzyme and mechanism of actions 14.2 : Cofactor

BIOCATALYSIS
Power point@lecture Slides Are Prepared By Biology Lecturer, KMPk

PREVIOUS LESSON
Enzymes? Properties of Enzymes. Activation Energy? Mechanism of Enzyme Action : Lock and Key Model Induced-Fit Model

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this subtopic, students should able to : a) Explain Factors That Affect The Enzymatic Reaction. b) Explain The Types and Functions of Cofactors.

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE ENZYMATIC REACTION The rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction is affected by :
Chemical and Physical Factor that alters the enzymes 3-D shape : Temperature pH Regulatory molecules Concentration of substrate and enzyme. Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme. Cofactors
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FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE ENZYMATIC REACTION

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Effect of Temperature
Each enzyme has an optimal temperature. Optimal temperature: at which an enzyme produces the highest production rate. Optimal conditions favor the most active shape for the enzyme.

Effect of Temperature
Effects the movement of enzyme. Increase temperature : The rate of an enzymatic reactions increase . Substrates collide with active sites more frequently. Fastest conversion of the reactants to product molecules. Above optimal temperature: Enzymes denatured Rate of reactions drop sharply

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EFFECTS OF pH
Affects the charge of amino acids side chains with carboxyl or amino groups (active site). Maximum rate of reaction occurs at optimum pH (most enzyme pH 6-8) Different enzymes, different optimum pH. Example : Pepsin and Trypsin
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How does pH affect enzyme activity?


Ionic interactions (+ve and Ve) hold enzymes together. Deviation from optimal pH range : excess H+ / OH- . Alters the acidic/ basic/ functional group/side chain of amino acid in enzyme. Shifts the balance between positively and negatively charged amino acid residues. Change in the bonds and tertiary structure breakdown.

Effect of Substrate Concentration


The amount of substrate will affect the rate of reaction. Substrate concentration increases, rate of reaction will increase proportionally. Then it will level off. All the enzyme molecules (active sites) are occupied.
Substrate concentration

Effect of Enzyme Concentration


At low enzyme concentration and the rate of reaction is low. Great competition for the active sites. As the enzyme concentration increases, the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. more active sites. Substrate as a limiting factor.

Vmax
Reaction velocity Once all enzymes are occupied, increasing substrate will no longer have an effect on rate

Reaction velocity

Enzyme concentration

Constant substrate concentration

Constant enzyme concentration Graph showing effect of increasing substrate concentration


2007 Paul Billiet ODWS

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COFACTORS
One or more nonprotein components required by enzymes in order to function efficeintly. Atom or molecules that are not part of the enzymes primary structure. 3 types : Metal Ions/Activator (Inorganic) e.g Zn2+ and Mg2+ Coenzymes (Small organic) e.g vitamin (also as precursor ) Prosthetic group
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ACTIVATORS (METAL IONS)


Non-protein inorganic substances. Assist in forming ES complex by bind temporarily either enzyme or substrate molecule into more suitable shape. Eg: Ca2+, Zn2+,Mg2+,ClE.g : Salivary amylase - chloride (Cl-) thrombokinase - calcium (Ca2+)

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COENZYMES
Non-protein organic or organometallic substances. Tightly or weakly bound to the enzyme. Most vitamins act as coenzymes or raw material from which coenzymes are made. To remove functional group from one substrate and add it to another substrate. E.g: Vitamin B6 and B12 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) NAD act to dehydrogenases by acting as hydrogen acceptor.
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PROSTHETIC GROUP
A metal or Coenzymes that are covalently or noncovalently bound very tightly to their enzyme. E.g: prosthetic group of electron carrier cytochrome and enzyme catalase. FAD (riboflavin) - prosthetic group of the electron carrier cytochrome. It take part in oxidationreduction reactions.
(Boyer. Concepts in Biochemistry. Wiley)
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FUNCTION OF COFACTOR
Assist in forming the enzyme-substrate complex

Conclusion
What is cofactor? State THREE types of cofactor. Describe the effect of pH, temperature , enzyme and substrate concentration . How do cofactors work in assisting an enzymatic reaction?

by altering the active site into a more suitable shape. May function to withdraw electrons from the substrate. May involve in transfer of electrons / atoms / chemical groups in enzyme reactions.

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12/26/2011

NEXT LECTURE
14.3 Inhibition