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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

TOPICS
15.1: Types of respiration: aerobic and anaerobic 15.2 : Aerobic respiration 15.3 : Anaerobic respiration : fermentation and application

Power point@lecture Slides Are Prepared By Biology Lecturer, KMPk

PREVIOUS LESSON
What is IRREVERSIBLE INHIBITOR? Example: cyanide Enzyme classification: oxidoreductase transferase, hydrolase, lyase isomerase and ligase.

OBJECTIVES
a) Describe the needs for energy and the role of respiration in living organisms. b) Describe aerobic and anaerobic respiration and the requirement for such conditions. c) Describe the oxidation of glucose which involves glycolysis, Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation

How do living organisms get energy?


Food (e.g:carbohydrate) Digestion (enzyme) Glucose Cellular respiration begins

energy

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What is cellular respiration?


Movement Respiration

The catabolic pathway of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules and use an electron transport chain for the production of ATP.
(Campbell,9th edition)

Reproduction

Excretion

Growth

Excitability/ coordination Biology Unit, KMPk

Nutrition

Mitochondria
Organelle where cellular respiration takes place.
Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae

Role of Respiration
- produce energy to carry out life process

- cell energy=ATP

Inner membrane

Outer membrane

copyright cmassengale 9

Redox Reaction
becomes oxidized

How do the catabolic pathways that decompose glucose and other organic fuels yield energy? Transfer of electrons during the chemical reactions

becomes reduced

The transfer of electrons during chemical reactions releases energy stored in organic molecules.. Oxidation-Reduction reactions or Redox Reactions TWO types: Oxidation Reduction

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Oxidation Reaction
The loss of electrons from a substance.
Or the gain of oxygen.
Oxidation

Reduction Reaction
The gain of electrons to a substance. Or the loss of oxygen.
Reduction

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy


glucose ATP

C6H12O6 + 6O2
glucose

6CO2 + 6H2O + energy


ATP

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What is ATP?
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. (Campbell,9th edition)

Structure of ATP

ATP / ADP Cycle

Cellular Respiration
ATP is constantly being used and remade in the cell.

1. Glycolysis

1. Glycolysis

2. Fermentation

3. Krebs Cycle

4. Electron Transport System

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Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation


Most cellular respiration requires O2 to produce ATP. (by Aerobic Respiration) However , two mechanisms which certain cells can generate ATP without the use of oxygen. a. Anaerobic Respiration b. Fermentation
Detail in 15.3

Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation


Anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiration in 3 ways: a. Break down glucose in the absence of oxygen. b. Do not completely breakdown glucose into carbon dioxide and water (but : lactic acid and alcohol). c. Releases less energy

Aerobic Respiration
A catabolic pathway for organic molecules (sugar)

, using oxygen as the final electron acceptor in an electron transport chain and ultimately producing ATP.

Figure 9.6-1

The Stages of Cellular Respiration


The harvesting of energy from glucose has THREE

Electrons carried via NADH

stages: a. Glycolysis - Cytoplasm b. Krebs Cycle (Pyruvate oxidation and Citric acid cycle) - Matrix of Mitochondrion c. Oxidative Phosphorylation : Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis. - Cristae/Inner membrane or mitochondrion

Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvate

CYTOSOL

MITOCHONDRION

ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

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Figure 9.6-2

Figure 9.6-3

Electrons carried via NADH

Electrons carried via NADH and FADH2

Electrons carried via NADH

Electrons carried via NADH and FADH2

Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvate

Pyruvate oxidation Acetyl CoA

Citric acid cycle

Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvate

Pyruvate oxidation Acetyl CoA

Citric acid cycle

Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis

CYTOSOL

MITOCHONDRION

CYTOSOL

MITOCHONDRION

ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

ATP Oxidative phosphorylation

Types of ATP Production


Substrate Level Phosphorylation The enzyme-catalyzed formation of ATP by direct transfer of a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism
Enzyme
ADP P Substrate Product ATP Enzyme

Example Substrate Level Phosphorylation


Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase

2 NADH 2 NAD +2 H 2 ADP

2 ATP
2

2
Triose phosphate dehydrogenase Phosphoglycerokinase

2Pi 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate

3-Phosphoglycerate

Types of ATP Production


Oxidative Phosphorylation The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain. Generates most of ATP (90%).

Conclusion
What is cellular respiration? Types of Respiration: Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration What is ATP? State the stage of aerobic respiration. Mode of ATP synthesis? Substrate Level Phosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation
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Glycolysis and Link Reaction