Você está na página 1de 6

1/8/2012

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

TOPICS
15.1: Types of respiration: aerobic and anaerobic 15.2 : Aerobic respiration 15.3 : Anaerobic respiration : fermentation and application

Power point@lecture Slides Are Prepared By Biology Lecturer, KMPk

PREVIOUS LESSON

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this subtopic, students should able to : Describe electron transport chain: The pathway of electron transport is NADH dehydrogenase, ubiquinone/CoQ, cyt c reductase, cyt c, cyt c oxidase.

Electrons carried via NADH

Electrons carried via NADH

Electrons carried via NADH and FADH2

Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvate

Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvate

Pyruvate oxidation Acetyl CoA

Citric acid cycle

CYTOSOL

MITOCHONDRION

CYTOSOL

MITOCHONDRION

ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

1/8/2012

Electron Transport Chain


Electrons carried via NADH Electrons carried via NADH and FADH2

Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvate

Pyruvate oxidation Acetyl CoA

Citric acid cycle

Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis

CYTOSOL

MITOCHONDRION

ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

ATP Oxidative phosphorylation

A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons down a series of redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP
(Campbell,9th edition)

Electron Transport Chain


Following glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, NADH and FADH2 account for most of the energy extracted from food. Hydrogen atoms carried by reduced NAD and FAD are the source of electrons. These two electron carriers donate electrons to the electron transport chain. Which powers ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation.
Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

The Pathway of Electron Transport


The electron transport chain is in the cristae of the mitochondrion. The chains components are proteins, which exist in multiprotein complexes.

Electron Carriers of Electron Transport


Used to transport a pair of electrons from NADH and FADH2. The carriers alternate reduced and oxidized states as they accept and donate electrons. Electrons drop in free energy as they go down the chain and are finally passed to O2, forming H2O.

Electron Carriers of Electron Transport


NADH dehydrogenase complex (Complex I) Flavoprotein (Prosthetic group-Flavin mononucleotide) Transfer electron from NADH to Coenzyme Q.

1/8/2012

Electron Carriers of Electron Transport


Succinate dehydrogenase complex (Complex II) (Prosthetic group-FAD) Transfer electron from Succinate (Krebs cycle) to Coenzyme Q.

Electron Carriers of Electron Transport


Coenzyme Q/CoQ (ubiquinone) Mobile carriers Transfer electrons to Cytochrome bc1. Cytochrome bc1 complex (Complex III) Cytochrome reductase Prosthetic group -heme/Fe Transfer electrons to Cytochrome c.
14

Electron Carriers of Electron Transport


Cytochrome c Mobile carriers Transfer electrons to Cytochrome oxidase. Cytochrome Oxidase Prosthetic group -Cu Cytochrome a and a3

Electron Carriers of Electron Transport


NADH dehydrogenase
H INTERMEMBRANE SPACE

Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q)

Cytochrome c H oxidase

Cyt c

Q I II FADH2 NADH NAD FAD III

IV

Cytochrome C

2 H + 1/2 O2

H2O

15

(carrying electrons from food)

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome bc1 (reductase)


MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX

Utilization of NADH & FADH2


Most energy harvested from Krebs Cycle is conserved in NADH. Krebs Cycle: 6 NADH 2 FADH2 Link Reaction : 2 NADH Glycolysis : 2 NADH 1 NADH transfer a pair of hydrogen atom generates 3 ATP. 1 FADH2 , transfer a pair of hydrogen atom generates 2 ATP.

17

18

1/8/2012

How the energy from electron transfer is utilized to form ATP?

19

i. NADH Passes Electron to NADH dehydrogenase


NADH dehydrogenase

Ubiquinone Passes Electron to Cytochrome bc1 complex


Cytochrome bc1 complex

Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q)

NADH + H+ passes or lose of hydrogen and its electron

to NADH dehydrogenase. NADH+H is oxidized to NAD+. At one point, hydrogen atoms split to form proton and electrons.

Ubiquinone (CoQ) then passes the electrons to cytochrome bc1 complex (reductase).

Cytochorome c Passes Electron to Cytochrome oxidase


Cytochrome C Cytochrome oxidase

FADH2 Passes Electron to CoQ

FADH2

FAD

The electron is then carried by cytochrome c , to the cytochrome oxidase complex. Cytochrome oxidase passed electron to Oxygen.

FADH2 is formed in the Krebs Cycle in the oxidation of succinate to fumarate. Transfer the electrons to CoQ, Cyt bc1, Cyt c & Cyt oxidase.

1/8/2012

The electron transport chain produces a proton gradient


Electrons drop in free energy as they go down the chain. Energy release used by complex to pumped protons across the inner mitochondrial. Complex : NADH dehydrogenase Cytochrome bc1 Cytochrome oxidase

Movement of proton into intermembrane space

Electrons receive by Oxygen

NADH dehydrogenase

Cytochrome bc1 complex

Cytochrome oxidase

Each complex in the chain operates as a proton pump, driving a proton out across the membrane into the intermembrane space.

The protons diffuse back into the mitochondrial matrix through a ATP synthase, which couples this diffusion to the synthesis of ATP.

Oxygen as a Final Electron Acceptor

Oxygen as a final electron acceptor. Cytochrome oxidase passes electron to oxygen. Each oxygen then combines with two protons to form O2 + 2 e- + 2 H+ H2O water

1/8/2012

NEXT LECTURE

Chemiosmosis