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PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Power point@lecture Slides Are Prepared By Biology Lecturer, KMPk

SUBTOPICS

16.5 Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation : Hatch-Slack(C4) and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) pathways

PREVIOUS LESSON

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this topic, students should be able to; Describe carbon fixation in C4 and CAM plants

PHOTORESPIRATION
Stomata on leaf surface of C3 plant close during hot day to conserve water. This cause a drop in CO2 and an increase in O2 (by product of light dependent reaction) in the leaf. Thus, cause photorespiration.

What is photorespiration?

PHOTORESPIRATION
The process that reduces the efficiency of photosynthesis in C3 plants during hot day; consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide through the degradation of Calvin cycle intermediates.
(Solomon, 8th edition)

A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and

ATP, releases carbon dioxide and decreases photosynthetic output.


(Campbell, 9th edition)

PHOTORESPIRATION
Why photorespiration lowers photosynthetic output? Photorespiration decreases photosynthetic output by adding oxygen, instead of carbon dioxide to Calvin cycle. As the result, no sugar generated (no carbon fixed) and oxygen is used rather than generated.

ALTERNATIVE MECHANISMS OF CARBON FIXATION


In some plant species, alternate modes of carbon fixation have evolved that minimize photorespiration and optimize the Calvin cycle even in hot, arid climates. There two photosynthetic adaptations: C4 photosynthesis. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM).

HATCH-SLACK PATHWAY (C4)

C4 plant so named because they preface the Calvin cycle with an alternate mode of carbon fixation that forms a four-carbon compound as its first product.
Campbell,9th Edition, page 246

LEAF ANATOMY OF C4 PLANT


In C4 plants, there are two types of photosynthetic cells: Bundle sheath cells
arrange tightly packed sheath around the veins of leaf.

Mesophyll cells - loosely arranged between


bundle sheath and leaf surface

This arrangement are called Kranz anatomy.

HATCH-SLACK PATHWAY (C4)


Involves enzyme carboxylase. called PEP

Present in mesophyll cells.

PEP carboxylase has a much higher affinity for CO2 than does rubisco and no affinity to O2.
PEP carboxylase can fix carbon efficiently when rubisco cannot during hot, dry and stomata are partially closed. Cause CO2 concentration in leaf to decrease and O2 concentration to increase.

HATCH-SLACK PATHWAY (C4)


1. In mesophyll cells, the enzyme PEP carboxylase adds carbon dioxide to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP).
4

2 3

Forming four-carbon product oxaloacetate (OAA).

2. OAA reduce to malate


3. Malate transported into the bundle-sheath cell via plasmodemata.

HATCH-SLACK PATHWAY (C4)


4. In bundle-sheath cell, malate release CO2 (decarboxylation) forming pyruvate
4

1 2 3

CO2 enters Calvin cycle Pyruvate transported back to mesophyll cell & phosphorylated to form PEP Allowing the following cycle to continue

Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) MECHANISM


CAM plants open stomata during the night and close them during the day.
To minimize photorespiration

Closing stomata during the day helps desert plants conserve water,
But, this prevents CO2 from entering the leaves.

CAM PATHWAY
1. During the night, stomata are open CO2 enters the leaf tissue
CO2 fixed with PEP catalysed by PEP carboxylase to form oxaloacetate (OAA) OAA oxidise into malate
2 3 1

1. Malate is transported into the vacuole

CAM PATHWAY
3.During day, stomata closed, malate moved into chloroplast
Malate undergo decarboxylation release CO2 and form pyruvate back CO2 then enters Calvin cycle
2 3 1

CAM MECHANISM

C3, C4 and CAM plants


C3 Plants Wheat Paddy plant Soybean C4 Plants Corn Sugar cane CAM Plants Cactus Pineapple Orchid

QUESTIONS
1. Explain why photorespiration lowers photosynthetic output for plants. 2. Name the 2 important enzymes involved in C3 and C4 pathways, respectively. What important role do they play in fixing CO2?

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17.0 GASEOUS EXCHANGE AND ITS CONTROL