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GASEOUS EXCHANGE & ITS CONTROL

Power point@lecture Slides Are Prepared By Biology Lecturer, KMPk

TOPICS
17.2 Role of chemoreceptors in controlling breathing 17.3 Gaseous exchange and control in plants

PREVIOUS LESSON

PREVIOUS LESSON
Remember!!! Higher PCO2 = Higher [H+] = Lower pH = Shift to the RIGHT

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this topic, student should be able to: 1.Explain the role of chemoreceptors in controlling the rate of breathing 2.Explain the regulation of the stomatal opening and closing based on starch-sugar hypothesis

BREATHING PROCESS

Lung structure and function supports the breathing cycle

INTRODUCTION
The process that ventilates lung is breathing Breathing- alternate process of inhalation & exhalation of air. A rhythmic , involuntary process regulated by respiratory centres.
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Introduction
Rate of breathing Controlled by:

Respiration centre

Cardiovascular centre

INTRODUCTION
Rate of breathing controlled by:
Located in medulla oblongata Autonomic control Establish the breathing rhythm
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Respiratory control center

Breathing control centers

Pons

Medulla oblongata

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Medulla oblongata
Control basic rhythm of breathing

Inspiratory centre -increase in rate & depth of inspiration Expiratory centre - inhibit inspiration & stimulate expiration
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Respiratory centre

Inspiratory centre
1. Stimulate inspiration

Expiratory centre
1.Inhibit respiration 2.Stimulate expiration

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Pons

Regulating the respiratory centres in the medulla / smoothing out the tension between inhalation and exhalation

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Respiratory Center
Connected by efferent nerves
stimulate

Diaphragm and intercostal muscles


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Role of chemoreceptors in controlling the rate of breathing


Chemoreceptors sensory neurons that responsive to chemicals sensitive to
increase in [CO2] increase in [H+] very low [O2]

Send impulses to respiratory centre to increase alveolar ventilation

Role of chemoreceptors in controlling the rate of breathing


Central chemoreceptors located in medulla oblongata Peripheral chemoreceptors located in aorta and carotid bodies (in the neck) respond to changes in [H+] , PO2,PCO2

BREATHING PROCESS

Control of breathing by respiratory centre


CO2 levels in tissue increase, lowers blood pH chemoreceptors in carotid bodies and aorta detect decrease in blood pH discharged nerve impulses

pass to inspiratory centre (in medulla) Efferent phrenic diaphragm

Efferent intercostal nerve outer intercostal muscles inspiration


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contract

Control of breathing by respiratory centre


O2 which enter the bronchus caused the bronchus to stretch Stretch receptor: in alveolus & bronchioles detect the stretching of the lung tissue Expiration occur and inspiratory centre inhibit diaphragm & outer intercostal muscles relax
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Impulses sent through vagus nerves to stimulate expiratory centre (in medulla)

Control of breathing by respiratory centre


Inspiration (lung inflate) Stretch receptors in lungs stimulated Contraction of diaphragm and outer intercostal muscles

Increase in CO2 partial pressure in blood stimulates No inhibitory impulses Inhibitory impulses Inspiratory centre

Impulses stimulating contraction

Expiratory centre

No impulses Contraction of diaphragm and outer intercostal muscles

Stretch receptors in lungs not stimulated Expiration (lung deflate)

Respiratory diseases restrict gaseous exchange


Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)
Any disorder that obstructs airflow on a long-term basis Examples: asthma, chronic bronthitis

Emphysema
Alveolar walls break down and the lung exhibits larger but fewer alveoli

Lung cancer
Lung tumors originate in the mucous membranes of the large alveoli

17.3 Gaseous exchange and control in plants

Stomata
(b)

(a)

Guard Cells

Stoma
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Stomata

Stomata

Structure: Stoma is formed from two guard cells, which are shape like two curve sausages 26

Stomata

Structure: The guard cells are living cells with protoplast, nucleus, chloroplasts and sap vacuole 27

Stomata

Structure: The inner wall lining the pore is thick and the outer wall of the guard is thin 28

Stomata
Location: Normally more stomata found on the lower epidermis of leaves and much less on the epidermis of branches and stem
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Function of stomata
Allow exchange of gases between the inside and outside of the leaves Allow transpiration to occur Allowing water vapour to escape from stomata also cool the temperature of the leaves Stomata can control excessive lost of water
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Opening and closing of stomata

The pore is open when the guard cells become turgid as the curve cells leave a pore between them
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Opening and closing of stomata

The pore is close when it is flaccid as the cells soften and contracted leaving no pore in between
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Opening and closing of stomata

Starch-sugar hypothesis in the guard cells


increase in sugar concentration in guard cells during the day lead decrease in their solute potential and entry of water by osmosis

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Starch-sugar hypothesis in the guard cells


therefore the guard cells become turgid, the

pore/ stoma is open

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Opening and closing of stomata mechanism Carbon dioxide concentration


During the day,
the [CO2] produced in respiration is used up during photosynthesis pH increase and stimulate the amylase activity (starch converted to sugar) High sugar(solute) lowers the water potential of guard cell

Opening and closing of stomata mechanism Carbon dioxide concentration


During the day,
Water diffuse into the guard cell (from neighboring cell) Guard cells turgid So, [CO2] in the internal spaces of the leaf contributing towards the guard cells becoming turgid stomata will open

Opening and closing of stomata mechanism Carbon dioxide concentration


During night,
[CO2] builds up in the internal

spaces of the ground cells (as stomata closed). pH decrease and deactivates enzymes Sugar converted into starch (insoluble in water) Water potential of guard cell increase

Opening and closing of stomata mechanism Carbon dioxide concentration


During night,
Water leaves the guard cell to neighboring cell and guard cell flaccid

High [CO2] contributes towards causing the guard cells of the epidermis to become flaccid Causing the closure of the stomata

chloroplasts Guard cells

Photosynthesis in chloroplast of guard cells Photosynthesis during day light Used CO2 pH in guard cells
Enzyme amylase

Sugar water potential of the cells Water diffuses in from neighbouring cells Cells turgid
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Starch

maltose

Lowering of the water

Stoma opens

No photosynthesis During night


Sugar starch CO2 (respiration) pH

water potential of the guard cells Water leaves the guard cells stoma closes

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CONCLUSION
Rate of breathing Controlled by:

Respiration centre

Cardiovascular centre

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Opening and closing of stomata

Opening and closing of the stomata are based on the starch-sugar hypothesis

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18.0 TRANSPORT SYSTEM