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CHAPTER 20 COORDINATION

20.2 The Mechanism of Muscular Contraction

PREVIOUS LESSON 20.1 Nervous System


(a)Describe the organization of the nervous system. (b)Explain the general role of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. (c) Explain the generation of action potential, transmission and characteristic of nerve impulse along an axon. (d)Describe the structure of synapse and explain the mechanism of synaptic transmission across synapses. (e) Compare the transmission of impulse at the synapse and along the axon. (f) Explain the mechanism of action of drugs on the nervous system.

PREVIOUS LECTURE

OBJECTIVES
(a) Describe the structure of neuromuscular junction and explain impulse transmission at the junction (b) Describe the structure of sarcomere (c) Describe the mechanism of muscular contraction based on sliding filament theory

PRIOR KNOWLEDGE :

Neuromuscular Junction
STRUCTURE
A specialized form of synapse Found between the nerve terminals of a motor neuron and the muscle fibres
Objective: (a)Describe the structure of neuromuscular junction and explain impulse transmission at the junction

Motor end-plate
A region on each muscle fibre, where the axon of the motor neuron divides and form non-myelinated branches on the membrane cell surface

Postsynaptic membrane
The muscle cell membrane Has many deep folds called junctional folds

Sarcolemma
Objective: (a)Describe the structure of neuromuscular junction and explain impulse transmission at the junction

Objective: (a)Describe the structure of neuromuscular junction and explain impulse transmission at the junction

Objective: (a)Describe the structure of neuromuscular junction and explain impulse transmission at the junction

Objective: (a)Describe the structure of neuromuscular junction and explain impulse transmission at the junction

Skeletal Muscle
STRUCTURE Muscle fiber cytoplasm Sarcoplasm Internal membranes Actin (thin filament) Myosin (thick filament) Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Myofibrils

Objective: (a)Describe the structure of neuromuscular junction and explain impulse transmission at the junction

Structure of Skeletal Muscle


Sarcolemma
Muscle cell membrane

Myofibrils
Thread-like strands within muscle fibers Actin (thin filament) Troponin Accessory proteins Tropomyosin Myosin (thick filament)
Objective: (a)Describe the structure of neuromuscular junction and explain impulse transmission at the junction

Structure of Skeletal Muscle


Transverse tubules (T tubules)
Invagination of sarcolemma Extend transversely and surround each myofibril at A and I bands

Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Made up of smooth ER Longitudinal interconnected tubules between the myofibrils

Structure of Skeletal Muscle


Terminal cisternae
Enlargement of the sarcoplasmic reticulum adjacent to the T tubule Store calcium ions

Terminal cisternae
Objective: (a)Describe the structure of neuromuscular junction and explain impulse transmission at the junction

Impulse Transmission at the Neuromuscular Junction


An action potential arrives at the junction Ca2+ ions enter the synaptic knob Acetylcholine is released from the synaptic vesicles Acetylcholine diffuses across the synaptic cleft Depolarized the postsynaptic membrane of muscle cells
Objective: (a)Describe the structure of neuromuscular junction and explain impulse transmission at the junction

The action potential produced is propagated along the sarcolema A wave of depolarization spreads to the T tubules and the terminal cisternae Causing the Ca2+ channels to open Ca2+ ions diffuse from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm Triggers muscle contraction

Objective: (a)Describe the structure of neuromuscular junction and explain impulse transmission at the junction

Objective: (b) Describe the structure of sarcomere

The Sarcomere
The functional unit of the muscle Consist of thick and thin filaments between the 2 Z lines
Form alternating dark and light bands

Objective: (b) Describe the structure of sarcomere

The A band
Darkest band Overlapping thick and thin filaments Central dark line M line
Contains proteins to hold the thick filaments

Objective: (b) Describe the structure of sarcomere

The H band
Dark region A portion of thick filament only No overlapping

Objective: (b) Describe the structure of sarcomere

The I band
Light region Thin filaments only Has a Z line Contains protein Attachment site for the thin filaments

The distance between 2 Z lines represents 1 sarcomere

Objective: (b) Describe the structure of sarcomere

Structure of Sarcomere [contracted and relaxed stated]

Objective: (b) Describe the structure of sarcomere

A Skeletal Muscle Fiber

Objective: (b) Describe the structure of sarcomere

Objective: (b) Describe the structure of sarcomere

Mechanism of Muscle Contraction


MYOSIN Thick filament
Consist of myosin protein molecules Lie parallel to each other Structure:
Head 2 globular structures Extend away from the body of the myosin filament At rest (not contracting), ATP bound to the myosin
Objective: (c) Describe the mechanism of muscular contraction based on sliding filament theory

Myosin is an adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) An enzyme that splits ATP forming ADP and inorganic phosphate(Pi) Attach to specific sites on actin Operate like a hook Cross Bridges

Tail
Joins together with other myosin tails Forming the body of the thick filament
Objective: (c) Describe the mechanism of muscular contraction based on sliding filament theory

ACTIN
Structure:

Thin filament

Consist of 2 helical strands of actin molecules intertwined with 2 accessory proteins Tropomyosin Long thin strand Fits in the groove of the actin strands Covers the binding sites of myosin heads Troponin Positioned at regular intervals along tropomyosin Has Ca2+ ion binding sites
Objective: (c) Describe the mechanism of muscular contraction based on sliding filament theory

Objective: (c) Describe the mechanism of muscular contraction based on sliding filament theory

Mechanism of Muscle Contraction


The sliding filament theory
Muscle contracts when the thin and thick filaments slide past each other Formation of cross-bridges Reduction in the distance between Z-lines of the sarcomere

Objective: (c) Describe the mechanism of muscular contraction based on sliding filament theory

Muscle Contraction

Objective: (c) Describe the mechanism of muscular contraction based on sliding filament theory

At rest,
The tropomyosin blocks the myosin binding sites ATP is bound to the myosin Low energy configuration

When stimulated by the nerve impulse,


The wave of depolarization spreads over the muscle Passes from the sarcolemma into the T tubules

When the impulse reaches the vesicles of the sarcoplasmic reticulum,


Ca2+ ions are released into the sarcoplasm Ca2+ ions concentration rises

Ca2+ ions bind to the troponin,


Change its conformation

Tropomyosin-troponin complex move to a new position on each actin molecule


Exposing the myosin-binding sites

ATP is hydrolysed to ADP + Pi


Energy released is transferred to the myosin head Changes shape to a highenergy configuration Myosin heads attach to the actin filament, Forming cross bridge

Cross-Bridge Formation in Muscle Contraction

ADP + Pi are released


Myosin head returns to its low-energy configuration The myosin head bends The actin filament is pulled towards the center of the sarcomere

ADP + Pi

Myosin head binds with ATP


Low-energy configuration Detaches from actin

Muscle Contraction

The Sliding Filament Model of Muscle Contraction

Summary of Muscle Contraction


Motor neuron releases acetylcholine Acetylcholine combines with receptors on muscle fiber Depolarization of sarcolemma Action potential spreads through T tubules Ca2+ released from sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ binds to troponin, causing conformational change

Troponin pushes tropomyosin away, exposing the myosin head binding site ATP attached to the myosin head is hydrolized Myosin head binds to exposed active site on actin filament forming cross bridge ADP and Pi released from myosin head Myosin head bend and actin filament pulled towards center of sarcomere Myosin head binds ATP and detaches from actin

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