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16.4 Light Independent Reaction/Calvin cycle

At the end of this topic, students should be able to : - Describe Calvin cycle involving carbon fixation, reduction of PGAL and regeneration of RuBP.

Calvin Cycle

The Calvin Cycle uses the chemical energy (ATP and NADPH) to reduce CO2 to sugar. NADPH and ATP are products from light dependent reaction

RuBP regenerate after CO2 enter the cycle and leave the cycle as sugar.
Occur at stroma.

Calvin Cycle
Anabolic pathway
- the cycle builds sugar from smaller molecules (CO2) - by using ATP as an energy source - and NADPH as reducing power of electron carrier.

Calvin Cycle

Carbohydrate produced directly from the Calvin cycle is actually not glucose, but three carbon sugar. This sugar is Glyceraldehyde 3phosphate (G3P) / PGAL

Calvin Cycle

The Calvin cycle has THREE phases i. Carbon fixation (catalyzed by rubisco) ii. Reduction of PGAL iii. Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP)

Calvin Cycle

For net synthesis of 1 molecules of G3P - the cycle must take place THREE times - fixing THREE molecules of CO2.

Phase 1: Carbon Fixation

Each CO2 (one at time) to attach with 5C sugar named ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP). Catalyzed by RuBP carboxylase (rubisco)

Phase 1: Carbon Fixation

Produce six-carbon intermediate which is unstable. So, it immediately split in half. Form TWO molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate/PGA. (3C molecules)

Phase 2: Reduction of PGAL

Each molecule of 3-phosphoglycerate additional phosphate group from ATP. Forming 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. Spends 6 ATP. receives an

Phase 2: Reduction of PGAL

A pair of electron from each NADPH reduces 1,3bisphophoglycerate. Which also loss a phosphate group. Forming Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate / PGAL.

Phase 2: Reduction of PGAL

For every THREE molecules of CO2, SIX molecules of G3P formed. Only ONE molecules of G3P counted as a net gain of carbohydrate and use by plant cell. Other FIVE molecules must be recycled to regenerate the 5C RuBP.

Phase 3: Regeneration of RuBP

FIVE molecules of G3P (3C) are rearranged into THREE molecules of RUBP (5C). Cycle spends THREE more molecules of ATP. RuBP is ready to receives another CO2. Cycle continues.

Calvin Cycle

For the net synthesis of ONE G3P molecule, the Calvin cycle consumed: - NINE molecules of ATP - SIX molecules of NADPH

Calvin Cycle
To form ONE molecules of sugar (glucose), the cycle needs SIX molecules of CO2. The complete cycle must occur TWICE.

Calvin Cycle: Phase 1

Calvin Cycle: Phase 2

Calvin Cycle: Phase 3

1) With the aid of labeled diagram, explain the main stages of Calvin Cycle. 2) What is the function of NADP+?

16.5 Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation : Hatch-Slack (C4) and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) pathways