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# 311

## Chapter 10: Circles

Section 1 - Basic Definitions:

1. In a plane, the set of all points that are a given distance
from a given point is called a CIRCLE.

- The given point is called the CENTER of the circle.
- The given distance is called the RADIUS of the circle.
- The symbol for circle is

2. A RADIUS of a circle is also defined to be a segment from the center of the circle
to any point on the circle.

- Radii of the same circle are congruent to each other.

3. A CHORD is a segment whose endpoints are both on the circle.

4. A DIAMETER of a circle is a chord which contains the center of the circle.

- The midpoint of a diameter of a circle is the center of the circle.

- The length of a diameter of a circle is twice the radius of the circle.

- Diameters of the same circle are congruent to each other.

5. Circles that have the same center are called CONCENTRIC CIRCLES.

P
A
B
C PA = 1.7 cm.
PB = 1.7 cm.
PC = 1.7 cm.
Point P is the center of the circle.

Since points A, B and C are all 1.7 cm. from
the center, the radius of the circle is 1.7 cm.

P
A
B
C
B
A
Since points A and B are on the circle, then AB is a chord of the circle.
A
P
B
Point P is the center of the circle.
Since AB contains point P, then AB is a diameter
of the circle.
Point P is the midpoint of AB
( ) AB 2 PA =
PA PB PC ~ ~
P
A
B
C
Point P is the center of the circle with radius PA
Point P is the center of the circle with radius PB
Point P is the center of the circle with radius PC
Since all three circles have the same center, they
are said to be concentric circles.
312
mDC 40
DC is a minor arc
=
mGFE 360 40 320
GFE is a major arc
= =
AB
AB mAB
6. A SECANT is a line that intersects a circle in exactly two points.

7. A TANGENT is a line that intersects a circle in exactly one point.

1. The point of intersection is called the POINT OF TANGENCY.

8. A circle is measured in DEGREES. A circle contains 360

9. An ARC of a circle, , consists of point A, point B and all points on the circle between them.

- Arcs are also measured in degrees.

- The symbol, , represents the number of degrees in arc .

10. A SEMI-CIRCLE is an arc that is one-half of a circle.
- A semi-circle contains 180.
- The endpoints of a semi-circle are the endpoints of a diameter.
- A semi-circle is named with three letters. The first letter gives the starting point of the
semi- circle, the second letter names a point on the semi-circle and the third letter
names the ending point of the semi-circle.

11. A MINOR ARC is an arc that is smaller than a semi-circle.
- A minor arc contains less than 180.
- A minor arc is named with only two letters, its starting point and its ending point.

12. A MAJOR ARC is an arc that is larger than a semi-circle.
- A major arc contains more than 180.
- A major arc is named with three letters. The first letter gives the starting point of the
major arc, the second letter names a point on the major arc and the third letter names
the ending point of the major arc.

13. The MIDPOINT OF AN ARC is a point which separates the arc into two arcs which
contain the same number of degrees.
G
T
F
H
C
FG is a secant that intersects the circle at points F and G
HC is a tangent that intersects the circle at point T

Point T is called the point of tangency
40
B
P
C
D
40
F
E
P
G
I
H
P
J
IH is a diameter of the circle
mIJH 180
IJH is a semi circle
=

313

14. A CENTRAL ANGLE is an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle and

15. An INSCRIBED ANGLE is an angle whose vertex is on the circle and whose
sides are chords.

16. The arc that the interior of a central angle or the interior of an inscribed angle cuts off is
called an INTERCEPTED ARC.

Assignment: Section 1

1. In the diagram, point B is the center of the circle.

(a) ED is called a ____________________.
(b) BC is called a ____________________.
(c) DAis called a ____________________.
(d) BDis called a _____________________.
(e) Is BC BA ~ ? ____________ Why?________________________________
(f) Is BC DA ~ ? ____________ Why?________________________________

2. Circles that have the same center are said to be ____________________ circles.

3. The midpoint of a diameter of a circle is the _______________.

4. (a) In a plane, the set of all points a given distance from a given point is called a _________.
(b) The given point is called the _________
(c) The given distance is called the _________.
5. A segment whose endpoints are the center of a circle and a point on the circle
is called a _______________.

6. A segment whose endpoints are both on the circle is called a ________________

7. A segment which has both endpoints on the circle but which also passes through
the center of the circle is called a _________________.

8. A segment that intersects a circle in two points is called a ________________.

9. A line that intersects a circle in two points is called a _________________.

10. A line that intersects a circle in exactly one point is called a __________________.

Point P is the center of the circle.
P is the vertex of APC Z so APC Z is a central angle.
APC Z intercepts AC

F is the vertex of GFH Z and point F is on the circle so
GFH Z is an inscribed angle.
GFH Z intercepts GH

B
C
D
A
E
P
C
A
H
F
G
314
The point of intersection is called the _____________________________.
11. Arcs of circles are measured in _______________

12. An arc that contains less than 180 is called a ___________________

13. An arc that contains 180 is called a _____________________.

14. An arc that contains more than 180 is called a ____________________

15. A point which separates an arc into two arcs with equal measures is called a _____________

16. The difference between a secant and a chord is that a secant is a ________________ but a
chord is a ______________.

17. A semi-circle is named with _______ letters.

18. If an arc is named with two letters, than the arc must be a ______________ arc.

19. A major arc is named with _________ letters.

20. Point O is the center of the circle.
(a) FG is called a _________________

(b) FG is called a _________________

(c) OC is called a _________________

(d) ED is called a _________________

(e) AB is called a _________________

(f) HI is called a _________________

(g) Point G is called a _________________

(h) FG is called a _________________

(i) EAD is called a ________________

(j) CDE is called a ________________

21. In the diagram, point C is the center of the circle.

(a) Z BCD is called a(an)_________________

(b) Z BAD is called a(an) _________________

(c) Z BCD intercepts what arc?_____________

(d) Z BAD intercepts what arc?_____________

(e) BC and CD are _______________

(f) AB and AD are ______________

E
O
D
C
A
B
F G
H
I
C
D
B
A
315

22. In the diagram, point A is the center of the circle.

(a) Name a central angle.

(b) Name an inscribed angle.

23. Refer to the diagram:
Point R is the center of the circle.

(b) Name a diameter:___________________

(c) Name a chord which is not a diameter:__________

24. If point O is the center of the circle, OA = 5x + 6 and OB = 2x + 24
(a) Find x
(b) Find the radius of the circle
(c) Find the diameter of the circle.

25. If point B is the center of the circle, BD = x + 4 and AC = 3x - 10,
(a) Find x
(b) Find the diameter of the circle
(c) Find the radius of the circle.

26. If the radius of a circle is represented by "x", then which of the following would represent
the diameter of the circle? (a) x (b) x (c) 2x

27. In the diagram, point O is the center of the circle.
Tell whether each of the following is a major arc, a minor arc or a semi-circle.

28. In the diagram, point O is the center of the circle.

(a) Name three chords.

(c) Name a tangent.

(d) Name a secant.

(e) Name a diameter.

(f) Name a point of tangency.

(g) Name two semi-circles

(h) Name five minor arcs.

A
D
C
F
E
B
R
F
A
W
T
M
O
B
A
B
D
A
C
(a)
(b) (f) (i)
(c) (g) (j)
(d)
(e) (h) ACB
CAB CA DBA
CDB
A
O
B
C
D
C
O
B
K
E
D
H
G
316
(i) Name two major arcs.
29. In the diagram, point O is the center of the circle.

(a) Z AOC is called a(an)___________________

(b) Z ABD is called a(an) __________________

(c) ZCOB is called a(an)___________________

(d) Z DEB is called a(an)___________________

(e) Z COB intercepts what arc?__________

(f) ZABD intercepts what arc?_________

(g) Z DEB intercepts what arc?_________

30. (TF) Radii of the same circle are congruent to each other.

31. (TF) A diameter of a circle is always a chord of the circle.

32. (TF) A chord of a circle is always a diameter of the circle.

33. (TF) The midpoint of any chord of a circle is the center of the circle.

34. (TF) A chord of a circle intersects the circle in two points.

35. (TF) A radius of a circle intersects the circle in two points.

36. (TF) The midpoint of a radius of a circle is the center of the circle.

37. (TF) Diameters of the same circle are congruent to each other.

38. (TF) Every radius of a circle is also a chord of the circle.

39. (TF) The midpoint of a diameter of a circle is the center of the circle.

40. Which of the following is not a segment?
(a) a radius of a circle (b) a chord of a circle (c) the center of a circle

41. If the diameter of a circle is represented by "x" then which of the following would
represent the radius of the circle? (a) x (b) x (c) 2x

42. Circles that have the same center are called ____________________ circles.

43. If the diameter of a circle is 18, then the radius of the circle is ___________.

44. (TF) A chord is a secant.

45. (TF) If a line intersects a circle, then it must intersect the circle in two points.

46. (TF) A secant has a midpoint.

47. (TF) The midpoint of a tangent is the point of tangency.

48. (TF) A minor arc is always named with two letters.

49. Given the circle with center O. If AC = 5x - 1 and BD = 3x + 5,
(a) Find x
(b) Find the diameter of the circle O
C
A
B
D
A
O
B
C
D
E
317
(c) Find the radius of the circle.
50. In the diagram, point O is the center of the circle.
If OA = 2x - 3 and AB = 3x - 1,
(a) Find x
(b) Find the diameter of the circle
(c) Find the radius of the circle.

Section 2 Measuring Central And Inscribed Angles

1. The measure of a central angle
is equal to the measure of its
intercepted arc.

2. The measure of an inscribed angle
is equal to one-half the measure of
its intercepted arc.

3. A triangle inscribed in a
semi-circle is a right triangle
and the diameter of the circle
is the hypotenuse of the triangle.

4. The opposite angles of a quadrilateral
inscribed in a circle are supplementary.

For a quadrilateral to be inscribed in a circle,
all four vertices of the quadrilateral must be
located on the circle.

Examples:

1. In the circle with center A, m CAB Z = 100.
Find the number of degrees in arcs x and y.

O
B
A
A
B
C
m CAB mBC Z =
B
C
A
1
m ACB mAB
2
Z =
A
C
B
D
ABC Z is an inscribed angle which

Therefore, m ABC 90 Z =
ABC A is a right triangle
where hypotenuse AC
is the diameter of the circle.
D
A
C
B
m A m C 180
m B m D 180
Z + Z =
Z + Z =

y
x
100
A
B
C
CAB Z is a central angle.
Since the measure of a central angle is equal to the measure of its
intercepted arc, if m CAB 100 then mBC 100 Z = = ,
so, x = 100

To find y, we know that minor arc "x" plus major arc "y" must

We subtract 360 - 100 = 260 so y = 260

318
150
120
90
B
A
C
BAC Z is an inscribed angle which intercepts BC.
Therefore, m BAC Z = mBC = (150) = 75

ABC Z is an inscribed angle which intercepts AC.
Therefore, m ABC Z = mAC = (120) = 60

ACB Z is an inscribed angle which intercepts AB.
Therefore, m ACB Z = mAB = (90) = 45

2. Given the circle with center P. If mAB = 80, find x and y.

3. In the circle with center P, mAC= 106. Find m ACB Z .

4. ABC is inscribed in the circle.
The ratio of mAB mBC mAC : : = 3 : 5 : 4.
(a) Find mAB mBC and mAC ,
(b) Find each angle of the triangle.

80
y
x
P
A
B
PA and PBare radii of the circle,
therefore, they are congruent to each other.

This means APB is an isosceles triangle.

APB Z is a central angle so m APB mAB Z =
Therefore, x = 80

To find the base angles of the isosceles triangle, we subtract 80 from 180
and then split the difference between the two base angles.
180 - 80 = 100 and 100 2 50 = . So, y = 50

106
x
C
P
B
A
CABis a semi-circle so mAC mAB 180 + = . Therefore, mAB 74 =

ACB Z is an inscribed angle. Since an inscribed angle is
equal to of its intercepted arc,
( )
1 1
x mAB 74 37
2 2
= = =
5x
4x
3x
B
A
C
(a) Since the ratio of the three arcs is 3 : 5 : 4, we let mAB = 3x, mBC = 5x and mAC = 4x

Since the three arcs of the circle must add up to 360,
We write the equation: 3x + 5x + 4x = 360
Combine like terms: 12x = 360
Divide by 12: x = 30

To find the number of degrees in the three arcs, we replace "x" with 30:
mAB = 3x = 3(30) = 90 and mBC = 5x = 5(30) = 150 and mAC = 4x = 4(30) = 120

(b) To find the three angles of the triangle, we notice that each angle of the triangle is an
inscribed angle which is equal to the measure of its intercepted arc.

319
D
A
C
B
Since opposite angles of an inscribed quadrilateral
are supplementary, m A m C 180 Z + Z =

Therefore, m C Z = 180 - 75 = 105

5. Given the circle with center P. Find x and y.

6. Quadrilateral ABCD is inscribed in the circle. If m A Z = 75, find m C Z .

Assignment: Section 2

1. In each of the following, point P is the center of the circle. Find x and y:
(a)

(b) (c)
(d)

(e) (f)
(g)

(h) (i)
P
B
A
x
y
270
P
C
A
B
112
x
y
P
B
A
x
y
128
P
B
A
x
y
310
P
B
A
x
y
40

C
A
B
100
110
x
y
C
A
B
100
110
x
y
B
A
C
P
y
118
x
3x
y
x
A
P
B
C
Since AB is a diameter, ACBis a semi-circle.

We write the equation: x + 3x = 180

Combine like terms: 4x = 180

Divide by 4: x = 45

CBA Z is an inscribed angle and therefore is equal to one-half of its intercepted arc.

So, y = mAC = (45) = 22.5

y x
123
P
B
A
320
2. Quadrilateral ABCD is inscribed in the circle.
If m B Z = 102, find m D Z .

3. In each of the following, point P is the center of the circle. Find x and y.
(a)

(b)

4. ABC is inscribed in the circle.
The ratio of mAB mBC mAC : : = 5 : 4 : 11

(a) Find mAB mBC and mAC , .
(b) Find each angle of the triangle.

5. ABC is inscribed in the circle.
The ratio of m A m B m C : : Z Z Z = 6 : 7 : 23.

(a) Find each angle of the triangle.
(b) Find mAB mBC and mAC ,

6. Point E is the center of the circle.
The diameter of the circle is 10 and BC = 8.
(a) Find m B Z .
(b) Find AB

7. In each of the following, point P is the center of the circle. Find x and y:
(a)

(b) (c)
C
D
B
A
P
B
A
C
2x
x
y
C
A
B
C
A
B
E
C A
B
P
B
A
x
y
52
P
B
A
x
y
35
B
C
A
P
x
144
y
P
B A
C
2x
3x
y
321

8. In each of the following, if given, point P is the center of the circle. Find x and y:

(a)

(b) (c)

9. ABC is inscribed in the circle.
The ratio of m A m B m C : : Z Z Z = 7 : 5 : 3.

(a) Find each angle of the triangle.
(b) Find mAB mBC and mAC ,

10. In each of the following, point P is the center of the circle. Find x and y:

11. Quadrilateral ABCD is inscribed in the circle.
If m C Z = 138, find m A Z .

12. Point E is the center of the circle.
The radius of the circle is 13 and AB = 10.
(a) Find m B Z .
(b) Find BC

13. ABC is inscribed in the circle.
mAB= x + 15, mBC= 6x + 10 and mAC= 8x - 40

(a) Find mAB mBC and mAC ,
(b) Find each angle of the triangle.
(c) Which of the following is true?
(i) ABC is an isosceles triangle
(ii) ABC is a scalene triangle
(iii) ABC is an equilateral triangle
C
A
B
46
210
x
y
P
B
A
x
y
214
P
C
A
B
x
y
36
C
A
B
P
B A
C
9x
11x
y
P
B
A
x
y
218
C
A
B
72
110
x
y
C
D
B
A
E
C A
B
C
A
B
322
Section 3 - Theorems Involving Arcs and Chords:

1. In a circle, if two central angles are congruent, then their intercepted arcs are congruent.

2. In a circle, parallel chords intercept congruent arcs between them.

3. In a circle, if two chords are congruent, then their minor arcs are congruent.

4. A diameter or a radius which is perpendicular to a chord, bisects the chord and
also bisects its minor arc.

5. In a circle, longer chords are closer to the center of the circle.

- If two chords are the same distance from the center, then the two chords are congruent.

6. The perpendicular bisector of a chord of a circle contains the center of the circle.

P
D
A
B
C
B
C D
A
B
D
C
A
P
B A
M
Q
P
B
D
A
C
Q
T
L

P
B A M
Since APB CPD Z ~ Z ,

then AB DC ~
If CD is parallel to AB then AC BD , ~
If AB DC then AB DC , ~ ~
If PQ AB then AM MB and AQ QB , = ~
If P is thecenter of the circle and PT PQ
then chord CD and chord AB are the same distance from
the center of the circle Therefore AB DC
=
~
,
. ,

If L contains the midpoint of AB and L AB ,
then L is the perpendicular bisector of AB
Therefore, L contains point P, the center of the circle.

323
7. To find the center of any circle, find the point of intersection of the perpendicular bisectors of
any two chords of the circle.

Examples:

1. In the diagram, BC DE ~ . mBC= 2x + 5 and mDE = 5x -10
(a) Write the theorem that can be used to find x
(b) Find x.

2. In the diagram, point P is the center of the circle. mAB= 3x and mDC= 2x + 13.
(a) Why is BPA CPD Z ~ Z ?
(b) Write the theorem that can be used to find x
(c) Find x.

3. In the diagram, point P is the center of the circle and PE AB .
AM = 4x + 12 and MB = 6x - 10.
(a) PE is a __________ and AB is a __________
(b) Write the theorem that can be used to find x
(c) Find x.

T
L
P
C
D
B
A
B
C
D
E
P
B
A D
C
3x 2x + 13
L is the perpendicular bisector of AB
T is the perpendicular bisector of DC

Point P, the point of intersection of the
two perpendicular bisectors, is the center of the circle.

(a) Congruent chords intercept congruent minor arcs,

(b) We write the equation: 2x + 5 = 5x - 10
Subtract "2x" from both sides: 5 = 3x - 10
Add 10 to both sides: 15 = 3x
Divide by 3: 5 = x

(a) BPA Z and CPD Z are vertical angles so they are congruent.

(b) Congruent central angles intercept congruent arcs.

(c) We write the equation: 3x = 2x + 13

Subtract "2x" from both sides: x = 13

A B
P
E
M
(b) A radius that is perpendicular to a chord bisects that chord.

(c) We write the equation: 4x + 12 = 6x - 10

Subtract "4x" from both sides: 12 = 2x - 10

Add 10 to both sides: 22 = 2x

Divide by 2: 11 = x

324

4. In the diagram, point P is the center of the circle. PM = PN.
CD = 5x + 2 and AB = x + 14.
(a) Write the theorem that can be used to find x
(b) Find x.

5. The diameter of a circle with center P is 10. PC AB PD = 3.
(a) Find the length of PA
(b) Find the length of AD
(c) Find the length of chord AB

6. In the diagram, DC AB mAD 20 and mDC 110 . = = .
(a) Write the theorem that can be used to find mBC
(b) Find mBC
(c) Find x.

B
A
D C
20
110
x
B
A
D C
20
110
x
20
P
B
A
C
D
M
N
(a) If two chords are the same distance from the center of a circle,
then they are congruent to each other.

(b) We write the equation: 5x + 2 = x + 14
Subtract "x" from both sides: 4x + 2 = 14
Subtract "2" from both sides: 4x = 12
Divide by 4: x = 3

5
3
A B
P
C
D
(a) Since the diameter of the circle is 10, then the radius of the circle is 5,
therefore, PA = 5

(b) Since PC AB , APD A is a right triangle.
We may use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the length of AD.
However, in this case, we may use the 3 - 4 - 5 Pythagorean Triple and we

(c) A radius that is perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord.
So, if AD = 4, then AB = 8.
(a) Parallel chords intercept congruent arcs between them
(b) If mAD 20 then mBC 20 , = =
(c) Since a circle contains 360, we add mAD mDC and mBC , :
20 + 110 + 20 = 150

We then subtract 150 from 360: 360 - 150 = 210.

Therefore, x = 210

3
A B
P
C
D
325
7. In the diagram, point P is the center of the circle, AB CD and mCD 50 =
(a) Write the theorem that can be used to find mBD
(b) Find mBD

Assignment: Section 3

1. Complete each of the following theorems by filling in the blank:

(a) In a circle, congruent chords intercept ____________________________.

(b) In a circle, if two chords are the same distance from the center of the circle,
then they are ____________________.

(c) A radius which is perpendicular to a chord ______________ the chord and
___________ its minor arc.

(d) In a circle, if two chords are parallel, then the arcs between the two chords are
___________

(e) If two central angles are congruent, then their intercepted arcs are ___________

2. In the circle with center O, OA BC . BD = 7x - 3 and DC = 5x + 15,

(a) OA is a ___________, BC is a _____________
(b) Write a theorem that can be used to find x
(c) Find x.
(d) Find BD
(e) Find BC

3. In the diagram, point P is the center of the circle. APB DPC Z ~ Z .
mAB= 3x + 7 and mDC = x + 29.

(a) APB and DPC Z Z are both ___________angles.
(b) Write a theorem that can be used to find x
(c) Find x
(d) Find mAB

(a) Parallel chords intercept congruent arcs between them.
(b) If mAC then mBD x, x = =
ACBis a semi-circle and the three arcs, AC, CD, and DB

Add the three arcs: x + 50 + x = 180
Combine like terms: 2x + 50 = 180
Subtract 50 from both sides: 2x = 130
Divide both sides by 2: x = 65

P
A B
D C
50
x
P
A B
D C
50
x x
O
C
B
D
A
P
D
C
B
A
326
B
C D
A
x
17
211
P
D
B A
C
x
12
P
D
B A
C
x
54
B
C D
A
x
70
146
B
C D
A
x
65
4. In each of the following AB CD. If point P is given, it is the center of the circle. Find x.

(a)

(b) (c)

5. In the diagram, AB CD ~ . mAB= 3x + 4 and mCD= 5x 16.

(a) Write the theorem that can be used to find x.
(b) Find x
(c) Find mAB

6. Point O is the center of the circle and OC AB . mAC = 4x + 6 and mBC= 5x + 2,

(a) Write the theorem that can be used to find x.
(b) Find x
(c) Find mAC
(d) Find mAB

7. In the circle with center P, PD = 5 and PC AB .
If the diameter of the circle is 26,
(a) Find the length of PA
(b) Find the length of AD
(c) Find the length of chord AB

8. In each of the following AB CD. If point P is given, it is the center of the circle. Find x.

(a)

(b) (c)

9. In the diagram, AB CD . mAD= 7x + 12 and mBC= 14x - 16.
(a) Write the theorem that can be used to find x
(b) Find x

B
C
D
A
O
B
A
C
P
B
C
A D
5
B
C D
A
x
35
126
B
C D
A
327
P
D
B A
C
30
x
B
C D
A
100
40
x
B
C D
A
x
80
120
B
C D
A
x
100
40
P
D
B A
C
x
80
B
C D
A
x
170
60
10. The diameter of the circle with center P is 20
and the length of chord AB is 16.
PC AB
(a) Find the length of PA
(b) Write a theorem that can be used to find AD
(c) Find PD

11. In the circle with center O, OE = OF. AB = 2x - 3 and DC = 5x - 12,
(a) Write a theorem that can be used to find x
(b) Find x
(c) Find CD

12. In the circle with center O, OT RS .
RD = 6x + 8 and DS = 10x - 36
(a) Write a theorem that can be used to find x.
(b) Find x
(c) Find RD
(d) Find RS

13. In each of the following AB CD. If point P is given, it is the center of the circle. Find x.
(a)

(b) (c)
(d)

(e) (f)

14. In the diagram, point O is the center of the circle. mAB= 5x + 1 and mDC= 3x + 15.
(a) AOB and DOC Z Z are not only central angles, they are also ______________ angles.
(b) Write the theorem that can be used to find x
(c) Find x.

P
B
C
A
D
B
O
D
C
A
E
F
O
S
R
D
T
O
C
D
A
B
328
T
Q
R
P M
15. In the diagram, AB DC ~ . mAB = 9x + 10 and mDC= 4x + 60.
(a) Write the theorem that can be used to find x
(b) Find x

16. The diameter of the circle with center T is 50. TR PQ and TM = 7
(a) Find PT
(b) Write a theorem that can be used to find PQ.
(c) Find PQ.

17. In the diagram, point O is the center of the circle. OF = OE.
AB = 6x - 5 and DC = 7x 22.
(a) Write a theorem that can be used to find x.
(b) Find x.

18. In the circle with center O, CD AB .
mAD= 5x - 1 and mDB= 2x + 11
(a) Write a theorem that can be used to find x
(b) Find x

19. In the circle whose center is point T, TR PQ If PQ = 30
and TM = 8, find the diameter of the circle.

Section 4 - Tangent Theorems:

1. If a tangent is draw to a circle from an external point, the segment whose endpoints
are the external point and the point of tangency is called a TANGENT SEGMENT.

2. The two tangent segments drawn to a circle from an external point are congruent
to each other.

B
C
D
A
O
B
A
C
D
E
F
O
B
A
E
D
C
T
Q
R
P M
B
A
AB is a tangent segment from external point A
to point of tangency B
B
P
A
PA PB ~
329
3. The radius drawn to a tangent segment at the point of tangency is perpendicular
to the tangent segment.

4. The sum of the number of degrees in the angle formed by two tangents drawn to a circle
from an external point and the number of degrees in the minor arc intercepted by that angle
is 180.

Examples:

1. In the diagram, PB = 3x - 5 and PA = 2x + 3.
(a) Write a theorem that can be used to find x
(b) Find x

2. Points A, B and C are points of tangency.
(a) Find x
(b) Find y
(c) Find PQ.

(a) In the diagram, PA and PB are tangent segments to
the circle from point P, so they are congruent.

Since PA = 7, then PB = 7 and so x = 7

O
A
P
tangent
segment
OA AP
Q
R
P
m P mQR 180 Z + =
B
P
A
B
P Q
A
C
7
3
x
y
(a) The two tangent segments drawn to a circle from an external
point are congruent to each other
(b) Since PB = PA

We write the equation: 3x - 5 = 2x + 3

Subtract "2x" from both sides: x - 5 = 3

Add 5 to both sides: x = 8

(b) Likewise, QB and QCare tangent segments to the circle
from point Q, so they are congruent.

Since QC = 3, then QB = 3 and so y = 3

(c) To find PQ, add x + y: 7 + 3 = 10, so PQ = 10

330
3. Points P, Q and R are points of tangency. Find x.

4. In the diagram, m PBA Z = x + 4 and m P Z = 5x + 4. Find x.

5. Point O is the center of the circle and point A is a point of tangency.
(a) Find x (b) Find y

6. Point O is the center of the circle. Find PO.

R
Q P
A
B
C
5
7
16
x
CQ and CPare tangent segments to the circle
from point C. Since CQ = 5, then CP = 5.

If CA = 16 and CP = 5,
we subtract 5 from 16 so that AP = 11

AP and AR are tangent segments to the circle from
point A. Since AP = 11, then AR = 11

BQ and BRare tangent segments to the circle from
point B. Since BQ = 7, then BR = 7

To find x, we add AR + BR = 11 + 7 = 18.
Since base angles of an isosceles triangle are congruent,
if m PBA Z = x + 4, then m PAB Z = x + 4

Since the angles of any triangle add up to 180, m PAB m PBA m P 180 Z + Z + Z =

We write the equation: x + 4 + x + 4 + 5x + 4 = 180

Combine like terms: 7x + 12 = 180

Subtract 12 from both sides: 7x = 168

Divide by 7: x = 24

PA and PBare tangent segments to the circle
from point P so PA = PB.

Therefore, PAB is an isosceles triangle.

5x + 4
x + 4
A
B
P
O
A
P
x
25
y
O
A P
x
5
12
(a) In the diagram, OA is a radius and
PA is a tangent segment. Therefore, OA PA
So, x = 90

(b) Since the acute angles of a right triangle are
complementary, we subtract 25 from 90
and find that y = 65

In the diagram, OAis a radius and
PA is a tangent segment. Therefore, OA PA

This means that OAP is a right triangle.

We use the 5 - 12 - 13 Pythagorean Triple
to find that x = 13

331

7. Given two concentric circles. A chord ABof the larger circle
is tangent to the smaller circle. If the radius of the
larger circle is 41 and the radius of the smaller circle is 9,
find the length of chord AB.

8. In the diagram, mBDA= 240. Find m C Z .

Assignment: Section 4

1. Points A, B and C are points of tangency.
(a) Find x
(b) Find y
(c) Find TS

2. BA and BC are tangent segments to the circle from point B.
AB = 8x - 7 and BC = 2x + 35
(a) Write a theorem that can be used to find x
(b) Find x
(c) Find AB
A
B
P
T
A
B
P
T
To solve this problem, we will have to

PA = 41 and PT = 9.

Since PT is a radius and AB is a tangent, we know that PT AB
so PTA is a right triangle.

Since the radius of the larger circle is 41
and the radius of the smaller circle is 9,
we use the 9 - 40 - 41 Pythagorean Triple to find that AT = 40.

Since a radius that is perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord,
then PT bisects chord AB .
Therefore, if AT = 40, then AB = 80.

41
9
A
B
P
T
Since the number of degrees in a circle is 360,
we know that the major arc BDA
plus the minor arc BAmust add to 360
360 - 240 = 120 so mAB = 120

Since C Z is formed by two tangent segments from point C, we know that m C mAB 180 Z + =
180 - 120 = 60 so m C 60 Z =

B
T S
A
C
y
x
3
5
A
B
C
8x - 7
2x + 35
A
C
B
D
x
240
332
3. In each of the following, tangent segments are drawn to the circle
from an external point. Find x.
(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

4. In the diagram, points P, Q and R are points of tangency.
CQ = 3, BQ = 4 and AB = 10. Find CA.

5. In the diagram, and BA BC are tangent segments.
m B Z = 2x - 16 and m BAC Z = 3x + 14.

(a) Find x

(b) Find m BAC Z

(c) Find m ABC Z

6. In the circle with center O, point A is a point of tangency.
OA is a __________ and PA is a __________________

If OA = 6 and PA = 8. Find PO.

7. CB and CA are tangent segments drawn
to the circle from point C.
If m C Z = 42, find mAB.

8. In the circle with center O, point A is a point of tangency
and m AOP Z = 50.

(a) Find x

(b) Find y
C
A
B
30
x
J
H
G
30
x
J
H
G
x
80
R
P
T
x
80
A
B
C
O
A
P
x
6
8
A
C
B
x 42
O
A
P
50
x
y
R
Q P
A
B
C
3
4
x
10
333
9. PQ and PR are tangent segments drawn to the circle from point P. If mQTR= 210,
then find m P Z

10. Given two concentric circles. A chord of the larger circle
is tangent to the smaller circle. If the radius of the
larger circle is 26 and the radius of the smaller circle is 24,
find the length of the chord.

11. In the diagram, B, C and D are all points of tangency.

(a) Find x

(b) Find y

12. PA and PB are tangent segments to the circle from point P.
If PA = 7x - 1 and PB = 3x + 15,

(a) Find x

(b) Find PA

13. In the diagram, P, Q and R are
points of tangency. CP = 2, PA = 5
and BC = 12. Find AB.

14. PQ is tangent to the circle whose center is R. If m Q Z = 38,

(a) Find x

(b) Find y

15. Given two concentric circles. A chord of the larger circle
is tangent to the smaller circle. The length of the chord
is 30 and the radius of the smaller circle is 8.
Find the radius of the larger circle.

R
P
Q
T
x 210
P
T
B
A
C
A
B
D
12
x
y
A
P
B
3x + 15
7x - 1
P
Q
R
C
B
A
12
x
5
2
R
P
Q
y
x
38
A
R
Q
P
334
16. In the diagram, PQ and PR are tangent segments
drawn to the circle from point P.
If m P Z = 76, find mQTR.

17. In the diagram, and PA PB are tangent segments.
m P Z = 3x - 5 and m PAB Z = 5x - 5.

(a) Find x

(b) Find m P Z

(c) Find m PAB Z

18. In each of the following, tangent segments are drawn to the circle from an external point. Find x.
(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

19. In the diagram, tangent BA is drawn to the circle with center P.
If PB = 25 and BA = 24,

(a) Find the radius of the circle

(b) Find the diameter of the circle

(c) Find the circumference of the circle
in terms of C=2r

(d) Find the area of the circle
in terms of
2
Area=r

20. In the diagram, points E, B and D are points of tangency.
AE = 4 and CD = 11. Find AC.

R
P
Q
T
x
76
A
P
B
A
C
B
x
47
A
C B
x
28
A
C
B
x
62
A
C
B
x
72
P
A
B
24
25
B
A
C
E
D
4
11
x
335
21. In the diagram, and PQ PR are tangent segments.
m P Z = 5x and m PRQ Z = 4 x + 12.

(a) Find x

(b) Find m P Z

(c) Find m PRQ Z

22. Given two concentric circles. A chord of the larger circle
is tangent to the smaller circle. If the radius of the
larger circle is 25 and the length of the chord is 48,
find the radius of the smaller circle.

23. PQ and PR are tangent segments
drawn to the circle from point P.
If mQTR = 196, find m P Z .

24. Points C, D and E are points of tangency.
(a) Find x

(b) Find y

Section 5 - Other Angles Associated with Circles:

1. An angle formed by a line, segment or ray that is tangent to a circle and a chord drawn
at the point of tangency is measured by one-half its intercepted arc.

2. An angle formed by two chords intersecting within the interior of a circle is measured by
one-half the sum of its intercepted arc and the arc intercepted by its vertical angle.

Q
P
R
A
R
Q
P
R
P
Q
T
x
196
B
D
E
C
y
x
17
B
A
C
ZABC is formed by tangent
BC and chord BA.

1
m ABC mAB
2
Z =

E
C
A
B
D
ZBEC is formed by chords
AB and CD intersecting at E.

( )
1
m BEC mBC mDA
2
Z = +

Angle = (arc)
Angle = (arc + arc)
336
B C
A
4x
5x
y
3. An angle formed by two secant segments intersecting at a point outside a circle
is measured by one-half the difference of the larger intercepted arc and the smaller
intercepted arc.

4. An angle formed by a tangent and a secant segment intersecting at a point outside a circle
is measured by one-half the difference of the larger intercepted arc and the smaller
intercepted arc.

Examples:

1. Find x and m Z ABC.

ZABC is formed by a tangent and a chord so it is measured by one-half of its intercepted arc.
Therefore, m ZABC =
( )
mAB = (160) = 80
2. In the diagram, DE is tangent to the circle at point A. ABC is inscribed in the circle.
(a) Find m ZBAE (b) Find m Z CAD

ZBAE is formed by a tangent and a chord so it is measured by one-half of its intercepted arc.

A E D
B
C
48
60
72
D
C
E
B
A
ZE is formed by secant
EA and secant EB.

( )
1
m E mAB mCD
2
Z =

Angle = (arc arc)
B
A E
C
ZE is formed by
tangent EA and secant EC

( )
1
m E mAC mAB
2
Z =

Angle = (arc arc)
Since the major arc and the minor arc must add to 360,

We write the equation: 5x + 4x = 360

Combine like terms: 9x = 360

Divide by 9: x = 40

Since x = 40, mAB = 160

First, we must find mAB:

ZBCA is an inscribed angle so it is measured
by one-half its intercepted arc.
If m ZBCA = 48, then mAB = 96
If mAB = 96, then mZBAE = (96) = 48
Since ZCBA is an inscribed angle, mAC = 144.
Therefore, m ZCAD = (144) = 72

337
Since the arcs of a circle must add to 360:

We write the equation: 5x + x + 2x + 4x = 360

Combine like terms: 12x = 360

Divide by 12: x = 30
To find y, we will need mBC and mAD:

To find these arcs, we replace "x" with 30:
mBC = 2x = 2(30) = 60 and
mAD= 5x = 5(30) = 150

3. Find m Z BEC.

4. In the diagram, m Z BEC = 87 and mBC = 92. Find mAD

5. In the diagram, chords ABand CD intersect at point E. Find x and y.

C
D
A
B
E
100
120
110
x
C
B
A
D
E
87
92
x
C
B
A
D
E
y
x
5x
2x
4x
C
B
A
D
E
y
150
60
Since a circle contains 360, we find mAD:
100 + 120 + 110 = 330 and 360 - 330 = 30

Since ZBEC is formed by two chords, we use the formula:
Angle = (arc + arc)
( )
( ) ( )
1
2
1 1
120 30 150 75
2 2
= +
= + = =

Since ZBEC is formed by two chords, we use the formula:
Angle = (arc + arc)

Substitute into the formula: ( )
1
87 92 x
2
= +
Multiply both sides by 2:
| | ( )
1
2 87 2 92 x
2
(
= +
(

Double the 87, cancel the : 174 = 92 + x

Subtract 92 from both sides: 82 = x

Since "y" is formed by two chords, we use the formula:
Angle = (arc + arc)
( )
( )
1
y 60 150
2
1
y 210 105
2
= +
= =

338
6. In the diagram, mAB= 84 and mDC = 14. Find m Z E

7. In the diagram, point P is the center of the circle. mAC = 4x, mCD= 6x and mBD = 2x.
(a) Find x (b) Find m Z E

To find m Z E, we need to find mAC and mBD. To find these arcs, we replace "x" with 15:
mAC = 4x = 4(15) = 60 and mBD= 2x = 2(15) = 30

8. In the diagram, EA is tangent to the circle at point A. mAC = 6x, mBC= 7x and mAB = 2x.
Find m Z E.

E
A
C
B
6x
7x
2x
y
Since ZE is formed by two secants, we use the formula:
Angle = (arc arc)
( )
( )
1
x 84 14
2
1
x 70 35
2
=
= =

E
C
A
B
D
84
14
x
Since P is the center of the circle, then AB
is a diameter and ACB is a semi-circle.
Therefore, mAC mCD mDB 180 + + =

We write the equation: 4x + 6x + 2x = 180

Combine like terms: 12x = 180

Divide by 12: x = 15

A
B
P
E
C
D
4x
6x
2x
y
Since "y" is formed by two secants, we use the formula:
Angle = (arc arc)
( )
( ) ( )
1
m E mAC mBD
2
1 1
y 60 30 30 15
2 2
Z =
= = =

A
B
P
E
C
D
y
60

30

Since the arcs of a circle must add up to 360,

We write the equation: 6x + 7x + 2x = 360

Combine like terms: 15x = 360

Divide by 15: x = 24

To find m Z E, we need to find mAC and mAB.
To find these arcs, we replace "x" with 24: mAC = 6x = 6(24) = 144
and mAB = 2x = 2(24) = 48

339

9. In the diagram, EA is tangent to the circle at point A. If m Z E = 24 and mAC = 112,
find mAB.

Assignment: Section 5

1. In each of the following, AB is a chord and BC is a tangent.

(a)

(b) (c)

mAB _______
mBDA _______
m ABC 65
=
=
Z =

(d)

(e)
Since Z E is formed by a tangent and a secant, we use the formula:
Angle = (arc arc)
( )
( ) ( )
1
m E mAC mAB
2
1 1
y 144 48 96 48
2 2
Z =
= = =

E
A
C
B
y
48

144

E
A
C
B
24

112

x
Since Z E is formed by a tangent and a secant,
we use the formula:
Angle = (arc arc)

We write the equation: ( )
1
24 112 x
2
=
Multiply both sides by 2:
| | ( )
1
2 24 2 112 x
2
(
=
(

Double the 24 and cancel the : 48 = 112 - x

Subtract 112 from both sides: - 64 = - x
(48 - 112 = - 64)
Divide both sides by - 1: 64 = x

x
110
B
A
C
B
A
C
D
x = _________
m Z ABC = ________
9x
3x
B
A
C
x = _________
m Z ABC = ________
7x
3x
B
A
C
D
210
B
A
C
Z =
=
m ABC ________
mAB 110
=
Z =
=
mAB ______
m ABC ______
340
C
D
A B
E
P
y
3x
2x
x
2. In the diagram, DE is tangent to the circle at point A. ABC is inscribed in the circle.

3. Find "x" in each of the following: (If point P is given, then it is the center of the circle.)

(a)

(b) (c)

4. Find "x" in each of the following:
(a)

(b) (c)

5. Find "x" and "y" in each of the following: (If point P is given, P is the center of the circle.)

(a)

(b) (c)

6. Find "x" in each of the following: (If point P is given, P is the center of the circle.)
(a)

(b) (c)

A E D
B
C
32
50
98
C
D
A
B
E
25
127
111
x
C
D
A
B
E
P
x
50
10
C
D
A
B
E
P
x
80
114
C
D
A
B
E
x
20
42
C
D
A
B
E
x
143
110
C
D
A
B
E
x
20
y
C
B
A
D
E
3x
x
5x
9x
C
D
A
E
P
y
x + 20
x + 40
x
C
E
A
B
D
x
62

178

A
E
C
B
x
108
24
B
A
P
C
E
D
x
120
40
(a) Find mAB

(b) Find mAC

(c) Find mZBAE

341
7. Find "x" and "y" in each of the following: (If point P is given, P is the center of the circle.)
(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

8. Find "x" in each of the following:
(a)

(b)

9. In the diagram, AC is a tangent. mFD= 120, mDB= 80 and mEB= 110.

10. Find "x" in each of the following: (If point P is given, then it is the center of the circle.)

(a)

(b) (c)
C
E
A
B
D
2x
3x
5x
8x
y
A
B
P
E
C
D
y
8x
2x
2x
A
E
C
B
5x
7x
3x
y
A
E
C
B
P
y
7x
2x
C
E
A
B
D
124
52
x
A
E
C
B
58
16
x
G
B
C
F
D
E
M
A
120
80
110
x
y
C
E
A
B
D
168
41
x C
D
A
B
E
P
x
100
140
x = _________

y = _________

m ABE ________ Z =
x
310
B
A
C
342
11. Find "x" in each of the following: (If point P is given, then it is the center of the circle.)

(a)

(b) (c)

(d)

(e) (f)

12. In the diagram, DE is tangent to the circle at point A. ABC is inscribed in the circle.

(a) Find mAB

(b) Find mAC

(c) Find mZBAE

13. Find "x" and "y" in each of the following: If point P is given, P is the center of the circle.)
(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

B
A
P
C
E
D
x
120
40
C
D
A
B
E
x
140
66
122
A
E
C
B
32
x
96
C
D
A
B
E
x
143
110
A
E
C
B
P
x
112
C
D
A
B
E
x
20
A E D
B
C
24
68
88
C
D
A
B
E
y
6x
5x
3x
x
C
E
D
B
A
6x
3x
x
2x
y
B
A
P
C
E
y
7x
5x
C
D
A
B
E
P
y
x + 70
x - 10
2x
343
14. Find "x" and "y" in each of the following: If point P is given, P is the center of the circle.)
(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

15. Find "x" in each of the following:
(a)

(b)

Section 6 Product Relationships Between Segments Associated with Circles:

1. If two chords intersect within a circle, then the product of the segments of one chord
is equal to the product of the segments of the other chord.

Chords and AB CD intersect at point E.
( )( ) ( )( ) EA EB ED EC =

2. If two secant segments are drawn to a circle from an external point, the product of one
entire secant segment and its external segment is equal to the product of the other entire
secant segment and its external segment.

Secant segments and EA EDare drawn from point E.
( )( ) ( )( ) EA EB ED EC =

A
E
C
B
9x
7x
2x
y
B
A
P
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E
D
y
7x
5x
3x
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E
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y
10x
8x
13x
5x
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B
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7x
2x
5x
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95
250
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D
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B
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162
228
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B
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3. If a secant segment and a tangent segment are drawn to a circle from an external point, the
product of the entire secant segment and its external segment is equal to the square
of the tangent segment.

Examples:

1. Chords and WX YZ intersect at point P.
WP = x + 3, PX = 3, PZ = x - 4 and PY = 4. Find x

2. Tangent segment BC and secant segment BA are drawn to the circle from point B.
If AB = 8 and AD = 6, find BC.

3. Tangent segment AD and secant segment ABare drawn to the circle from point A.
If AD = 3 and AB = 9, find AC.

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x + 3 3
x - 4
4
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6 8
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9
Secant segment EBand tangent segment
EA are drawn to the circle from point E.
( )( ) ( )
2
EB EC EA =

We write the formula: ( )( ) ( )( ) PW PX PZ PY =
Substitute the given values: ( )( ) ( )( ) x 3 3 x 4 4 + =
Distribute the "3" and the "4": 3x + 9 = 4x - 16

Subtract "3x" from both sides: 9 = x - 16

Add 16 to both sides: 25 = x

Since we wish to find BC, we let BC = x

We write the formula: ( )( ) ( )
2
BA BD BC =
To find BD, we subtract 6 from 8: BD = 2
Substitute: ( )( ) ( )
2
8 2 x =
Multiply:
2
16 x =

Take the square root of 16: 4 = x

Since we wish to find AC, we let AC = x.

We write the formula: ( )( ) ( )
2
Substitute: ( )( ) ( )
2
9 x 3 =

Square the 3: 9x = 9

Divide by 9: x = 1

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4. Secant segments and CA CE are drawn from point C.
If AB = 14, BC = 4, and EC = 24, find CD.

Assignment: Section 6

1. Chords and AB CD intersect at point E.
If AE= 9, EB = 4 and EC = 3, find ED.

2. Chords and AC DE intersect at point B. If AB = 8, BC = 2
and BD = 4, find BE.

3. Chords and AB CDintersect at point E.
If AE = 7, EB = x + 2, CE = 3 and
ED = 2x + 9, find x.

3. Tangent segment CD and secant segment CA are drawn from
point C. If BC = 4 and AC = 9, find CD.

4. Tangent segment DB and secant segment DA
are drawn from point D.
If CD = 4 and AC = 21, find BD.

5. Tangent segment BA and secant segment BD are drawn from point B.
If BA = 12 and BD = 36, find BC.

6. Tangent segment BA and secant segment BD
are drawn from point B. If AB = 8 and BC = 2,
(a) Find BD
(b) Find DC

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B
14
4
24
x
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Since we wish to find CD, we let CD = x

We write the formula: ( )( ) ( )( ) CA CB CE CD =
Since AB = 14 and BC = 4, then CA = 18

Substitute: ( )( ) ( )( ) 18 4 24 x =
Multiply: 72 = 24x

Divide by 24: 3 = x

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8. Secant segments and AD AE are drawn from point A.
If AD = 34, AB = 2 and AC = 4, find AE.

9. Secant segments AB and AC
are drawn from point A. If AB = 16,
AD = 3 and AC = 12, find AE.

10. Secant segments and BC BAare drawn from point B.
If CD = 30, DB = 2 and AB = 16, find BE.

11. Secant segments and CA CE
are drawn from point C. If BC = 4,
AC = x + 3, DC = 5 and CE = x - 2,
find x.

12. Secant segments AB and ADare drawn from point A.
If AC = 3, AB = 2x - 4, AE = 2 and AD = 2x + 4, find x.

13. Chords and AC BD intersect at point E.
If AE = 14, EC = 3 and DE = 7, find EB.

14. Tangent segment CD and secant segment CA are drawn from
point C. If AC = 4 and BC = 1, find CD.

15. Secant segments and CA CE are
drawn from point C. If BC = 7, AC = 3x - 7,
CD = 8 and CE = 2x + 7, find x.

16. Tangent segment CDand secant segment CA are drawn
from point C. If BC = 3 and AB = 24, find DC.

17. Chords and WX ZY intersect at point P.
If WP = 3, PX = x + 4,
PY = 5 and PZ = x - 2, find x.

A
C
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B
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18. Tangent segment BAand secant segment BDare
drawn from point B. If BA = 8 and BC = 4, find BD.

19. Tangent segments and CA CE
are drawn from point C.
If CB = 3, AB = 22,
CD = 5, find EC

20. Tangent segment AB and secant segment AD are drawn
from point A. If AB = 12 and AD = 18,
(a) Find AC
(b) Find DC

21. Chords and AC BDintersect at point E.
If AE = 36, EC = 2, and ED = 6, find EB.

22. Secant segments and AD AE are drawn from point A.
If AC = 2, DC = 25 and AB = 3
(a) Find AE
(b) Find EB

23. Tangent segment PA and secant segment PC are drawn
from point P. If PA = 10 and PC = 25, find PB

24. Chord DB bisects chord AC .
If PB = 4 and PD = 16, find PA

25. Secant segments and AB AD are drawn from point A.
If AC = 3, AB = x + 4, AE = 2 and AD = 4x + 1, find x.

26. Chords AB and CD intersect at point E.
If AE = 4, EB = x - 5, CE = 3 and ED = x + 2, find x

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