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UNIT 1. WORD FORMS I. Nouns 1. Definition: - A noun is a word that refers to a person, a thing, a place, a quality or an activity. e.g.

John, chair, beach, sorrow, tennis . 2. Types of nouns - There are many ways to classify nouns + abstract nouns vs. concrete nouns e.g. chair vs. beauty + common nouns vs. proper nouns e.g. fish vs. London + countable nouns vs. uncountable nouns e.g. cups vs. sugar 2.1. Countable nouns 2.1.1. Definition - A countable noun is a noun that can be counted and has both singular and plural form e.g. a horse two horses 2.1.1. Types of countable nouns: singular nouns and plural nouns - Normally add -s to make a countable noun plural e.g. a table the tables; a book books - With the nouns ending with -o; -ch; -x; -sh; -ss; -s, add -es e.g. a box boxes; a watch watches Irregular nouns - End with -is -es e.g. analysis analyses; axis axes; basis bases; crisis crises - End with f/ef -ves e.g. leaf leaves; life lives - End with -y -ies e.g. baby - babies - Change the vowel in the following seven nouns e.g. foot- feet; tooth teeth; goose geese; man men; louse lice; mouse mice; woman women. - Some nouns remain the same when being changed into plural e.g. a fish 10 fish; a deer 10 deer; a sheep 10 sheep 2.2. Uncountable nouns - An uncountable noun is a noun that can be counted and has no plural form e.g. wine, water - Make an uncountable noun countable by putting a countable expression before the noun e.g. A piece of information; 2 glasses of water; 10 liters of coffee; Three grains of sand; A pane of glass. II. Verbs 1. Transitive verbs - Must be followed by direct objects
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e.g. She loves me; Can I borrow your book? 2. Intransitive verbs - Doesnt take a direct objects e.g. He sits III. Adjectives - Adjective proper: good,blue,alive. - Noun converted into an adjective because placed before another noun: a five- room house, a ten- year old boy - Verb in the 3rd form, used as an adjective: a worried man, her confused mind - -Ing form of verb used as an adjective: an amusing film - Compound adjective: good-looking, long-lasting, open-minded, well-dressed. IV. Comparison 1. As + adj/ adv + as e.g. Janets as old as Sue He doesnt play the piano as well as his brother 2. Short adj/ adv + er + than . More/ Less + long adj/ adv + than . e.g. He is taller than me She runs faster than her boyfriend This exercise is less difficult than that one. My English teacher is more beautiful than hers. 3. The + short adj/ adv + est . The most + long adj/ adv . e.g. This is the funniest story Ive ever heard One of the most difficult thing is being right all the time 4. The + comparative , the comparative e.g. The sooner we leave, the sooner well get there. The more beautiful she is, the more men fall in love with her Ex 1. Fill in each blank with the correct form of the word given in brackets. 1. Some people in Hong Kong lead a hard __________ (live). 2. We waited one hour for the __________ (arrive) of the train. 3. He is the ___________ (manage) of the bank. 4. You need to improve your __________ (write). It is difficult to read. 5. We waited __________ (patient) for the bus to come. 6. He led a __________ (lone) life in the foreign country. 7. The old lady made herself ___________ (comfort) in a big chair. 8. We laughed at the ___________ (see) of her dirty face. 9. You should keep your ___________ (distant) from her family affairs. 10. He feel __________ (doubt) about whether to go or not. 11. She is a __________ (love) girl. 12. We can trust him because he is a __________ (faith) person. 13. You should do your ___________ (correct) on a new page.
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14. This difficult concept is beyond students' __________ (understand). 15. They have just reached an __________ (agree). 16. He is __________ (agree) to the suggestion. 17. The news of his sudden __________ (die) came as a surprise. 18. He found all the fish were __________ (die). 19. The manager scolded the worker ___________ (angry) because he broke the glass. 20. He was filled with __________ (angry) at what he saw. Ex 2. Circle the correct answer 1. Look at you! You need to brush your hair/ hairs. 2. Mirrors are usually made of a glass/ glass. 3. Spinach is good for you because it contains a lot of iron/ irons. 4. Ill have a glass/ glass of orange juice, thank you. 5. Is there a room/ room for my coat in that suitcase? 6. I had left some very important paper/ papers on my desk. 7. Have you ever wished you could travel through time/ times? 8. They make these notebooks from a recycled paper/ recycled paper. 9. The hotel was excellent. We stayed in a room/ room on the sixth floor. 10. He cant see very well without his glass/ glasses. 11. There is dog hair/ hairs all over the sofa! 12. Dont forget to buy a paper/ paper so we can see whats on at the cinema this weekend. Ex 3. Circle the correct answer 1. Hell be very angry/ angrily when he hears about this. 2. Dont be so rude/ rudely to people 3. It was dark and I couldnt see clear/ clearly. 4. That test was really hard/ hardly. 5. She sang beautiful/ beautifully. 6. Im not very good/ well at Maths. 7. Have you been doing anything interesting late/ lately? Ex 4. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the adj or adv 1. (fast) . reptile in the world is an iguana from Costa Rica. 2. Most snakes can swallow animals that are (wide) than their bodies. 3. (few) .. than 33% of the worlds snake species are poisonous. 4. (large) .. species of frog in the world is the Goliath frog; it can grow as (big) . as an adult cat. 5. A Colombian frog is (poisonous) . animal in the world. Its poison is (dangerous) . than that of a cobra. 6. The worlds (old) .. turtle lived on the Galapagos Islands. It was 200 years old when it died. 7. (Heavy) snake in the world was an anaconda.

UNIT 2. ARTICLES 1. Indefinite articles - A + nouns beginning with consonant sounds e.g. I have a cat and a dog This is a university - A + abbreviations pronounced as a word e.g. a NATO general; a FIFA official - An + nouns beginning with vowel sounds and the silent h e.g. I saw an apple on the table The plane has landed for about half an hour Dont forget to take an umbrella - An + abbreviations pronounced as a sequence of letters of the alphabet e.g. an FBI 1.1. Use a/an to refer to something at the first time e.g. An elephant and a mouse fell in love. Would you like a drink? I've finally got a good job. 1.2. Use a/an to refer to a particular member of a group or a class a/an + nouns referring to jobs e.g. John is a doctor. Mary is training to be an engineer. He wants to be a dancer. - Notes: + to mention the position of someone in the company, use the or zero article e.g. Shes been made (the) head of the company + after the expression the position of, the post of, the role of, use zero article before the names of jobs or position e.g. He has been in the position of manager for years a/an + nationalities, religions e.g. John is an Englishman. Kate is a Catholic. a/an + musical instruments e.g. Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived. (BUT to describe the activity we say "He plays the violin.") 1.3. Use a/an to refer to a kind of or example of something e.g. The mouse had a tiny nose The elephant had a long trunk It was a very strange car 1.4. Use a/an + quantity expressions ( a pair of, a little of, a few, a couple of, a hundred, a thousand, 3 times a day, forty miles an hour) e.g. I have bought a new pair of trousers - Use one to add emphasis or to contrast with other numbers e.g. Do you want one sandwich or two? Hes got one Mercedes and two Rolls Royce
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2. Definite article the 2.1. Use the to refer to something which has already been mentioned e.g. An elephant and a mouse fell in love. The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk, and the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose. 2.2. Use the when both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about, even if it has not been mentioned before. e.g. 'Where's the bathroom? - 'It's on the first floor.' 2.3. Use the in sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or object e.g. The man who wrote this book is famous. 'Which car did you scratch?' 'The red one. My house is the one with a blue door.' 2.4. Use the to refer to objects we regard as unique e.g. the sun the world the North Pole 2.5. Use the before the superlatives and ordinal numbers e.g. the highest building, the first page, the last chapter - We can omit the in informal language or in the case there is no noun after the superlatives e.g. Why did you decide to stay in this hotel? It was (the) cheapest I could find 2.6. Use the with adjectives to refer to a whole group of people e.g. the Japanese 2.7. Use the with names of geographical areas, oceans, rivers, hotels, pubs, mountains, museums, theaters and newspapers e.g. the Atlantic, the River Thames, the Lotus Hotel, the Red Lion Pub, the Royal Theater, The British Museum, The Times 2.8. Use the with decades or groups of years e.g. She grew up in the 17th century 3. Zero article There is no article: - with names of countries (if singular) e.g. Germany is an important economic power. He's just returned from Zimbabwe (But: I'm visiting the United States next week.) - with the names of languages e.g. French is spoken in Tahiti. English uses many words of Latin origin. Indonesian is a relatively new language. - with the names of meals. e.g. Lunch is at midday. Dinner is in the evening. Breakfast is the first meal of the day. - with people's names (if singular): e.g. John's coming to the party.
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George King is my uncle. (But: we're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.) - with titles and names: e.g. Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son. President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas. Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend. (But: the Queen of England, the Pope.) - After the 's possessive case: e.g. His brother's car. Peter's house. - with professions: e.g. Engineering is a useful career He'll probably go into medicine. - with names of shops: e.g. I'll get the card at Smith's. Can you go to Boots for me? - with years: e.g. 1948 was a wonderful year. Do you remember 1995? - with uncountable nouns: e.g. Rice is the main food in Asia. Milk is often added to tea in England. War is destructive. - with the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands: e.g. Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska. She lives near Lake Windermere. Have you visited Long Island? - with most names of towns, streets, stations and airports: e.g. Victoria Station is in the centre of London. Can you direct me to Bond Street? She lives in Florence. They're flying from Heathrow. - in some fixed expressions, for example: by car by train by air on foot on holiday on air (in broadcasting) at school at work at university in church in prison in bed

Ex 1. Put a/an/the in each space, or leave the space blank 1. We went by .to west of England 2. .. people who live in the Netherland are called . Dutch
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3. judge sent me to .. prison for .. ten years 4. Columbus was one of first people to cross Atlantic. 5. As captain of . ship, I have complete authority 6. David learned to play . violin when he was at .. university 7. .. Trafalgar Square is near .. Charing Cross Station 8. Did you read . book I lent you last week? 9. Well put up .. shelves and then go to .. pub for . drink 10. Is that .. present Bill gave you for Christmas? Ex 2. Choose the most suitable phrase 1. Is the a person/ the person you told me about? 2. This is the only cinema/ an only cinema in the area. 3. Philip has just bought the Thames barge/ a Thames barge 4. Here is a thousand pounds/ the thousand pounds I owe you 5. Are you going to church/ the church on Sunday? 6. Do you have a milk jug/ milk jug? 7. The Prime Minister/ Prime Minister will give a speech this afternoon. 8. The computer/ Computer has changed our lives dramatically 9. I havent been to an open-air theatre/ open-air theatre before. 10. Im going to the British Museum/ British Museum this afternoon Ex 3. Complete each sentence with the most suitable word or phrase 1. The butler was . I suspected. A, last person B, a last person C, the last person D, some last person 2. Where you borrowed last week? A, is scissors B, are the scissors C, is some scissors D, are scissors 3. Why dont we go to the park ? A, in the car B, with a car C, with car D, by the car 4. Too much rubbish is being dumped in . A, sea B, the sea C, a sea D, some sea 5. Lets go on holiday to .. A, Greek Islands B, the Greece Islands C, islands of Greece D, the Greek Islands 6. This is exactly I was looking for A, job B, a job C, some job D, the job 7. Of all these cars, I think I prefer .. A, a Japanese B, some Japanese C, the Japanese one D, a Japanese one 8. Interest on this account is only percent A, a four and a quarter B, four and a quarter C, four and quarter D, four quarter 9. I try to go jogging at least four times .. A, the week B, of the week C, a week D, of a week 10. Sally spent six months out of .. A, work B, a work C, the work D, some work
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Ex 4. Put a/an/the in each space or leave the space blank 1. Neil Armstrong make .. first footprint on moon 2. There was .. accident yesterday at .. corner of . Street 3. I need time to think about offer you made me 4. .. recipe for . success is .. hard work 5. people who live in .. glass houses shouldnt throw stones 6. worst part of . living in a caravan is . lack of space 7. book you ordered . last week is now in . Stock 8. .. dancing is more interesting activity than reading 9. . people we met on .. holiday in . north or England sent us .. postcard 10. A little knowledge is dangerous thing Ex 5. Choose the most suitable phrase underlined 1. I wan under an impression/ under the impression that you had left. 2. I have to go. Im in a hurry/in hurry. 3. I managed to sell the old painting at a profit/at profit. 4. I think I prefer the other restaurant on the whole/on whole 5. How many hours do you work, on average/ on the average, every week? 6. I was in pain/ in a pain after I twisted my ankle 7. Jack recovered from his accident and is now out of danger/out of the danger 8. Excuse me, but youre in the way/ in a way 9. Sue felt seasick on the cross-channel ferry/ a cross channel ferry. 10. The burglar hit me on my back of the neck/ the back of my neck

UNIT 3. DETERMINERS 2 I. Demonstratives 1.1. Demonstrative adjectives - Demonstrative adjectives (this, that, these, those) are the words show whether the noun they refer to is singular or plural and whether it is located near to or far from the speaker or writer. e.g. This pen is expensive vs. That pen is cheap location of the pen This pen belongs to me vs. These pens are gifts from my husband the quantity 1.2. Demonstrative pronouns - This, that, these, those, none and neither. are demonstrative pronouns that substitute nouns when the nouns they replace can be understood from the context. They also indicate whether they are replacing singular or plural words and give the location of the object. e.g. + These are my friends. None/Neither of them can speak Vietnamese. + You take these bags and I'll take those. Those" refers to bags that are at a distance from the speaker. + I bought this last year. "This" refers to something that is sing., near the speaker and readily understood in the context of the conversation. II. Possesives 2.1. Possessive adjectives vs. possessive pronouns Possessive adjectives Possessive pronouns Form my mine your yours our ours their theirs her hers his his its its - as an adjective - as a noun phrase Functions - must be followed by a - subtitute the mentioned noun nouns My name is Stephen My name is Stephen, and Example yours is Pilar 2.2. Possessives with s - The possessive pattern ('s) is generally used when indicate a relation of ownership or association with a person, rather than a thing. e.g. Mary's website kept growing larger and larger. - There are, as ever, exceptions to this rule when a group of people is involved or animals. e.g. The members' forum. The dogs' tails. - Singular and irregular plural nouns that don't end in 's' take -'s. e.g. Petes shoes. The people's court. - Plural nouns that end in " s " take an apostrophe at the end ( ' ). e.g. The girls' dresses.
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- People's names that end in "s" you can write (') or ('s). e.g. Charles'/ Charless job was on the line. - To show joint ownership, give the possessive form to the final name only. e.g. Abbott and Costello's famous baseball sketch. 2.3. Possessive with of - We cannot usually use a possessive word before another determiner and a noun e.g. my cat not a my cat Struture of of + possessive: determiner + noun + of + possessive e.g. He got the Presidents Award for a painting of his. A cousin of mine serves in the army. - Own is commonly used in a similar structure e.g. I wish I had a car of my own. (= I wish I had a car of mine.) They have an apartment of their own in the city. (= They have an apartment of theirs in the city.) III. Quantifiers 3.1. Some and any - Some = a little, a few or a small number or amount - Any = one, some or all - Use some in positive (+) sentences and any in negative (-) and question (?) sentences. e.g. He needs some stamps. He doesn't need any stamps. Does he need any stamps? I refused to give them any money. I have some homework to do. I don't have any homework to do Do you have any homework to do? Would you like some more tea? expect a positive yes answer 3.2. Each and every - Each = every one separately - Every = each, all - Sometimes, each and every have the same meaning: e.g. Prices go up each year. Prices go up every year. - Each expresses the idea of 'one by one', emphasizes individuality. - Every is half-way between each and all. It sees things or people as singular, but in a group or in general. e.g Every artist is sensitive. Each artist sees things differently. 3.3. A few, few, a little, little - Use a few and few with countable nouns + A few = a small number, some: possitive meaning e.g. A few people came to the party + Few= not many: negative meaning
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e.g. Few people attended the party - Use a little and little with uncountable nouns + a little = a small amount, some: positive meaning, e.g. Could you give me a little milk? + little = not much: negative meaning e.g. There was little doubt in my mind 3.4. Much, many and a lot of - Much + uncountable nouns e.g. I dont like much sugar - Many + countable nouns e.g. Many students are intelligent - A lot of + uncountable and countable nouns e.g. A lot of sugar was poured into my cup of coffee A lot of books are sold Ex 1. Complete the sentences with some or any 1. We didnt buy flowers. 2. This evening Im going out with .friends of mine. 3. Have you seen ..good films recently? No, I havent been to the cinema for ages. 4. I didnt have money, so I had to borrow.. 5. Can I have a..milk in my coffee, please? 6. I was too tired to dowork. Ex 2. Complete the sentences with much, many, few, a few, little, a little 1. He isnt very popular. He has ..friends. 2. Ann is very busy these days. She has ..free time. 3. Did you take .photographs when you were on holiday? 4. The museum was very crowded. There were too..people. 5. Most of the town is modern. There are ..old buidings. 6. We must be quick. We have..time. 7. Listen carefully, Im going to give you .advice. 8. Do you mind if I ask you.questions? 9. This town is not a very interesting place to visit, so .tourists come here. 10. I dont think Jill would be a good teacher. Shes got ..patience. 11. Would you like milk in your coffee? - yes, please. . 12. This is a very boring place to live. Theres .to do. Ex 3. Fill in the blank with of if needed 1. All.cars have wheels. 2. Nonethis money is mine. 3. Some..people get angry very easily. 4. Some.the people I met at the party were very interesting. 5. I have lived in London mostmy life. 6. Are anythose letters for me? 7. Mostdays I get up before 7 oclock.
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8. Jim thinks that allmuseums are boring.

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UNIT 4. PREPOSITIONS I. Prepositions of time 1.1. In, on, at Time phrases with at

exact time meal time other points of time festivals age time days of the week specific parts of the days dates day + date particular occasions anniversaries festivals

at 10 oclock at lunch time at dawn, at midnight at Christmas, at Easter at the age of at this time on Monday on Saturday morning on June 1st on Monday, June 1st on that day on your birthday on New Years Day

Time phrases with on

Time phrases with in

parts of the day in the morning months in July years in 2005 seasons in (the) spring centuries in the 19th century festivals in Ramadan periods of times in that age Ex 1. Complete the note with in, on, at Dear Gordon, Many thanks for agreeing to stay in the flat while Im in Wales. I enclose the key and heres the list of what that I promised you: If you lose this key, Johnson (1) the flat (2) the ground floor has a spare. If shes away, the landlord lives (3) the building (4) . the corner of the street. Its called Laurel Villa, and hes Mr. Emerson. They both know youll be there while Im away. The electricity and gas main switches are (5) . the wall (6) . the back of a large cupboard (7) .. in the study. You can turn the water of by the large tap (8) .. the corner of the bathroom. I hope you wont need to. Ive made a list of all the useful phone numbers I can think of. Its stuck (9) .. the kitchen door. I hope you have good time. Much love, Shirley Ex 2. Complete with in, on, at 1. Our train leaves half past seven. 2. Hell be back .Friday afternoon. 3. Nellie and Jarvis are getting married September 4. I always send her a card .. Christmas.
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5. A lot of trees lose their leaves .. winter. 6. I was born .. 13th August 1990. 7. Ill be in Madrid . Christmas Eve 8. They came back .. four oclock . the morning. 9. I often have to work .. night. 10. Life will be very different .. the 25th century. 11. I met him .. my birthday. 12. Im sorry but Mr. Newton is very busy . the moment. 13. .. midday, the sun will be directly over our heads. 14. The First World War broke out August, 1914. 1.2. By, until By Until - refer to something that will take place (at - we refer to the duration that an action or the latest) by some time in the future state will have e.g. Ill be at the office by eight (I will get to e.g. Ill be at the office until eight (I will be the office by eight at the latest) at the office until eight. Then I will leave) Ex 3. Complete with by or until 1. I wont see her when she gets back. I will have left then. 2. Lets go shopping. The shops are open half past two. 3. Kates late. She should have been here .. now. 4. I cant come with you. I have to finish this article . tomorrow. 5. No, Im not leaving. Ill be here . five. 6. We dont have much time. We have to be at the airport . nine thirty. 7. David is in Spain. Hell be away . Saturday. 8. Dont call him now. Wait .. tomorrow. 1.3. During - During, which is followed by a noun, is used in the same way as while; yet while is not a preposition and is followed by a clause e.g. Mary fell asleep during the film Mary fell asleep while she was watching the film. Ex 4. Complete with during or while 1. I saw Tim I was waiting for the bus. 2. She was so tired that she fell asleep . the meeting. 3. The phone rang I was in the shower. 4. Ill be studying for the History test . the weekend. 5. Helen called you were sleeping. 6. You must not speak ............... the exam. 7. I wake up twice . the night. 8. This letter came . you were out. 9. No one spoke .. the journey. 10. I found this old photo . I was cleaning my room II. Prepositions of place at Mike is at the office
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on over above in inside outside under below near next to beside by in front of behind opposite among between Notes:

I left a note on the kitchen table Lets hand the painting over the sofa Theres a sign above the entrance My purse was in my bag five minutes ago Lets see whats inside that box Hes been standing outside the bank for hours Theres a mouse under the sofa I usually wear my skirts below the knee Is there a bank near here? The cinema is next to the post office They have a beautiful house beside the river We sat by the fire to get warm She parked her car in front of our house The shop assistant was standing behind the counter Lets put the bed opposite the window I found the magazine among some books Liam is sitting between Jill and Tom in Willow Street # at 25, Willow Street on a chair # in an armchair on a bus/train/plane/ship/bike/horse # in a car/taxi Ex 5. Circle the correct answer 1. He hid the flowers beside/ behind his back 2. Olivia has been in/ at hospital for two weeks now. 3. The managers full name was printed below/ down her signature 4. We hung the painting on/ over fireplace. 5. I wasnt at/ in home last night. 6. The boy standing between/ among Grace and Maria is my cousin. 7. His office is in/ at 25, Cherry Street 8. Our flat is on/ in the 5th floor. 9. Ms Sims sat on/ in an armchair by the fire and told us a story. 10. Youll see the bus stop in/ on your left. 11. The bank is in/ on Wellington Street. 12. There is one black sheep between/ among all the white ones. 13. They stood out/ outside the gate and waited. 14. Look at the list of words on/ in page 316. III. Prepositions of movement up Lets go up this mountain down She ran down the stairs onto The cat jumped onto the bed into He got into his car and left out of Get out of my room now from I come home from work at six
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to Do you usually walk to school? towards I saw her walking towards me. over The dog jumped over the wall round Go round the corner along Lets go for a walk along the river across (to the He swam across the river opposite side) off ( going The little boy fell off his bike away) past (pass sbd/ I walked past Janes house this morning sth and leave him/it behind) through I drove through the tunnel Ex 6. Circle the correct answer 1. The earth goes towards/ round the sun. 2. We took along walk along/ through the river 3. A car hit him while he was walking through/ across the road. 4. We stood up when the teacher walked into/ to the classroom. 5. The burglars got in across/ through the kitchen window. 6. I jumped over/ onto the train while it was moving. 7. She walked pass/ though me without saying anything. 8. He fell out of/ off the ladder and broke his leg. 9. Bob stood up and walked towards/ along the door. 10. She walked out of/ off the room with a strange look on her face.

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UNIT 5. PRESENT TENSES I. The present simple tense 1. Verb form a, To be: am/ is/ are b, Modal verbs: can, may, must, need, dare + V c, Ordinary verbs - Notes: She/ he/ it + V-s/-es + Verbs ending in ss, -s, -o, -x, -ch, -sh: add es e.g. I kiss He kisses I go He goes I mix He mixes I watch He watches I wash He washes + Verbs ending in y: change into -ies e.g. I study He studies + With the rest, just add -s 2. Usage a, To describe habits, states or things that happens on regular basis e.g. I always get up early in the morning British people drink a lot of tea * The following adverbs and adverbial phrases of frequency are usually used with this tense - Always, usually, often, sometimes, occasionally the adverbs are put after the present tense of to be and before the present tense of ordinary verbs e.g. He always gets up late in the morning Its usually hot in the summer. - Rarely, seldom, scarcely, never have got the negative meaning but are used with the positive verbs e.g. He never eats meat. She rarely goes to town - Every day/ week/ year/ summer, once/ twice these phrases are used at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. e.g. Every day, we take the dog for a walk. My parents go on a holiday every summer. b, To describe true facts or situations that exist now and as far as we know, will go on indefinitely e.g. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west The Earth is round. Im a teacher. I teach maths in a school. He lives in London. He works in a bank. c, To give instructions e.g. First you pour some water, then you put it onto the cooker On three day, we visit Hyde Park. d, To summarize the historical events or content of films, plays or stories
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e.g.

May 1945: The war in Europe comes to an end. At the end of the play, both the young lovers kill themselves. II. The present continuous tense 1. Form: am/is/are + V-ing * How to make V-ing: - Verbs ending in e: omit e before adding ing e.g. dance dancing write writing - Verbs containing a vowel, followed by a consonant: double the ending consonant before adding ing e.g. run running swim swimming - Verbs containing more than one vowel and the stress falls on the second syllable: double the ending consonant before adding ing e.g. begin beginning - Some special cases: travel travelling signal signalling traffic trafficking dial dialling - With the rest, just adding ing 2. Usage: a, To describe an action in progress at the moment or around the moment of speaking e.g. We are learning hard for the entrance exam next year. We are learning the present continuous tense at the moment Im saving up to build a house. - The following adverbial phrases are usually used: at the moment, at present, currently, still, just. b, To complain about the bad habits e.g. You are always forgetting to lock the door Theyre constantly having parties until midnight. - The following adverbs are usually used: always, constantly, continually, forever. c, To describe changes, development or tendencies e.g. Its getting hotter. More and more people are giving up smoking. d, To describe future arrangement or plans e.g. What are you doing tonight? Im going out with my friends Are you free this afternoon? No, Im afraid. Im having a meeting 3. Verbs that do not take the continuous tense a, State verbs: agree, believe, belong to, contain, consider*, feel*, fit, hate, have*, hear, know, look, like, matter, mean, need, own, prefer, regard, suppose, taste*, think*, understand, weigh* - The starred verbs can take the continuous tense but usually have the different meaning + Feel: I feel that you are wrong
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I feel/ am feeling cold + Taste: The soup tastes salty Im tasting the soup + Consider: People consider the restaurant to be good Im considering changing my job + Have: I have got a motorbike Shes having a bath +Think: What do you think of M. Jackson? I think I like him Hes thinking of going abroad + Weigh: How much do you weigh? Im weighing this bag b, Perfomative verbs: admit, accept, acknowledge, advise, apologise, deny, guarantee, hope, inform, predict, promise, recommend, suggest, suppose, warm e.g. I admit that I cant see as well as I used to. I hope that the weather will be fine. He refuses to believe that smoking is harmful III. The present perfect tense 1. Form: have/has + PII 2. Usage: a, To describe the immediate past actions, without a definite time given. e.g. Ive just seen a ghost. Weve missed the last train. Jim has had three car accidents. I havent had breakfast yet Have you seen a good film recently? - Some adverbs: just, recently, lately, yet b, To describe indefinite events which may have obvious result in the present e.g. Ive cut myself badly. My fingers bleeding Can you lend me $10? Ive left my wallet at home - When we ask for and give details about these actions, past simple must be used e.g. Have you had breakfast? Yes, I have What did you have? I had some bread c, To describe a state or an action that started in the past and lasts up to the present e.g. Ive played football for 2 hours - The duration of time is usually expressed by for, since, ever since + for + period of time + since + a point of time in the past d, To describe experience e.g. Ive never eaten snake Hes never had an accident Have you ever been to a funeral?
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Ex 1. Form sentences using the present Ex 2. Complete with present simple or simple present continuous. 1. We/ have/ dinner/ at eight (always) 1. We always (stay) at the President Hotel when were in Portsmouth. 2. What/ you/ do/ after/ school? (usually) 2. Hey! I (talk) .. to you! Why (you/ not listen) 3. Martin/ visit/ his parents/ in ...to me. Southampton (once a week) 3. I (not see) .. her very often. 4. Hurry up! Alex and Bob (wait) 4. He/ wear/ ties (never). for us. 5. Whats so funny? Why 5. She/ fight/ with her brother? ( often) (you/laugh)? 6. Shes a teacher, but she (not/work) 6. You/ go/ to the cinema? (How often) . at the moment. . 7. (Kangaroos/ live) 7. David watch/ horror film (seldom) in Africa? 8. You (always/lose) ... your 8. I/ not work (at weekends) car keys. 9. The population of India (grow) 9. He/ go/ to work/ by bus? (sometimes) very fast. 10. I (never/ eat) . meat. 10. Danny/ finish/ work/ at 5:30 (every day) 11. How often (you/go) .. to the dentist? 11. We/ write/ to each other (rarely) 12. Lets go. The film (start) at night. 12. Palm trees/ grow/ in warm climates 13. Harold (talk) .. to his (usually) girlfriend on the phone for hours every day. 14. The cost of living (go) up 13. I/ have/ basketball practice (on Saturday all the time. morning) 14. She/ cook/ such wonderful meals? (always) 15. We/ put away/ our things? (at the end of the day) Ex 3. Circle the correct answer 1. That man over there looks/ is looking at us. 2. Those colors look/ are looking lovely on you. 3. Do you think/ Are you thinking hes telling the truth? 4. I havent decided yet. I still think/ am still thinking about it. 5. They have/ are having a lesson at the moment.
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6. We have/ are having a house in the country. 7. This perfume smells/ is smelling fantastic. Why cant you buy it? 8. I am/ am being busy right now. 9. Mom feels/ is feeling his forehead because he may have a temperature. 10. Whats the matter with you? You sound/ are sounding upset. Ex 4. Complete with the present Ex 5. Form sentences using present simple or present continuous. perfect. 1. Whats the matter? Why (you/look) 1. I/ eat/ four sandwiches (today) . at me? 2. Ive met Alice. She (be) a 2. Charles/ be/ a fan of Rolling Stones wonderful person. (always). 3. Mr. and Mrs. Richards (have) six children. 3. They/ leave (already) 4. She (taste) the meat . to see if it need more salt. 4. You/ visit/ Peru? (ever) 5. He (hate) .. cartoons. . 6. I (think) .. its a great 5. We/ not do/ the shopping. (yet) idea. . 7. Mary cant come to the phone now. 6. I/ finish/ my homework (just) She (have) .. a shower. . 8. (You/remember) ... 7. She/ ride/ a horse (never) my brother Mick? . 9. I (not believe) you. 8. You/ tidy/ your room? (yet) Youre lying. . 10. Be quiet! I (think) ... 9. We/ have/ this car (for years) 11. I dont know why he (be) . so rude. Hes usually very kind. 10. I/ not see/ Tim (since Monday) 12. That cake (taste) .. . delicious 11. They/ live/ in this town? (How long) 13. Maya (see) .. Louis after . dinner tonight. 12. We/ hear/ the good news (just) 14. That bag (belong) . to me. . Ex 6. Rewrite the sentences using words given. 1. Ive never driven a car before. (time) This is the first time a car. 2. This is the first time weve visited Australia. (never) We .. before. 3. Ive never read such a good book before. (best) This is the read. 4. She is the prettiest girl. (never) I such a pretty girl before. 5. He has never done anything so silly before. (time) This is the first time . anything so silly.
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6. This is the first time Ive tasted Chinese food. (have) I Chinese food before. 7. This is the most beautiful country theyve ever visited. (never) They . such a beautiful country.

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UNIT 6. PAST TENSES I. Past simple 1. Form: a, To be: was/ were b, Modal verbs: could, might, would +V c, Ordinary verbs Regular verbs: V-ed - Verbs ending in e: add d e.g. like liked dance - danced - Verbs ending in a short vowel and a single consonant: double the consonant before adding ed e.g. stop stopped step stepped drag - dragged - Verbs ending in y: change into ied e.g. try tried marry married - With the rest: just add ed e.g. open opened look - looked Irregular verbs - See the list of irregular verbs at the back of your dictionary e.g. do did write wrote come came read read 2. Usage: a, To describe a completed action in the past e.g. I played football yesterday b, To describe a completed situation in the past e.g. He lived in London for 5 years He liked sweets very much when he was small c, To describe a repeated action in the past or past habits e.g. They went to Spain every year until 1995 When I was small, I usually went swimming with my father Last summer, I spent 2 months in Do Son. Every day, I got up early and walked along the beach. - Used to + V describes habits and states in the past that dont exist now e.g. When I was small, I used to like sweets very much. I used to pester my mother for some after meals. Tom and Peter didnt use to like each other very much, but now they seem to get on well with each other.

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- Would + V describes repeated actions, not states. It describes a habitual activity which was typical of a person. e.g. He used to love her very much. Everyday, he would buy her a bunch of flowers. Whenever she was angry, she would shout loudly. d, Successive past actions, one after another e.g. He got up, quickly dressed and rushed to school He stopped, looked through the glass, knocked at he door and walked in. 3. Adverbs of time - Yesterday morning/ afternoon/ evening - Last night/ week/ month/ year/ September - Three years/ two days/ few minutes ago II. The past continuous tense 1. Form: was/were + Ving 2. Usage: a, To describe a past activity happening over a period of time e.g. What were you doing at 6am? I was watching TV I was doing my homework when Jack arrived When the teacher arrived, the students were talking b, To describe the changes, development and tendencies in the past e.g. It was getting darker, so they decided to stop The car was getting worse all time. c, To give criticism towards someones bad habits e.g. When James was at school, he was always losing things d, To describe the scene in stories and the past simple tense tells the action e.g. The moon was shining through the window. James Bond came into the room and sat down on the III. Past perfect simple tense 1. Form: had + PII 2. Usage: a, To describe a past situation or activity that took place before another past situation or activity. We use past simple for the one that happened second e.g. When he came home, his son had left By the time I arrived, Jack had already gone to bed. After Mike (had) finished reading, he put out the light b, To describe an action that happened before a specific point in time in the past e.g. It was one oclock in the morning. The guests had gone home. 3. Time markers: - When, after, before, as soon as, until, just, already, by, by the time Ex 1. Complete with the past simple or past continuous 1. We (wait) .. for the bus when 6. Mr. Brown (fix) . his car it (start). to rain. when I (see) him 2. I (see) .. Laura as I (walk) 7. What (you/ talk) .. . down the street. about when I (come) ... in?
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3. She (not hear) . the 8. Sheila (break) . her leg as doorbell because she (listen) she (walk) .. down the stairs. . to music. 9. (You/ sleep) . when I 4. Jim (fall) . asleep while he (call) ..? (do) his homework. 10. The TV (be) . on but 5. They (not work) when I he (not watch) ... it. (leave) the office. Ex 2. Join the sentences with as, while or when. Do not change the order of the sentence 1. Dad was reading his newspaper. Mum was cooking dinner .. 2. The boys were playing football. We were sitting in the garden. .. 3. I was walking the dog. I ran into Michael. .. 4. The sun was shining. We were walking along the river. .. 5. Peter was reading a comic. The teacher walked into the classroom. .. 6. I was driving down West Street. I saw an accident. .. 7. She was cleaning the house. I was tidying the attic. .. 8. He called. We were having dinner. .. Ex 3. Circle the correct answers 1. Bob was/ has been here a minute ago. 5. I didnt do/ havent done my homework 2. They bought/ have bought this house in yet, so I cant come with you. 1998. 6. I already read/ have already read this 3. We lived/ have lived here since 1998. book. 4. Liam came/ has come back from Paris 7. What time did you finish/ have you last night. finished work yesterday? 8. Brenda went/ has gone to the Bahamas last year. Ex 4. Rewrite the sentences using the words given. 1. I havent seen her since Monday. (saw) I last .. Monday. 2. The last time I spoke to Albert was a month ago. (for) I havent . a month. 3. We havent had a holiday since 1999. (had) The last time .. was in 1999. 4. It hasnt rained since June. (last) The .. . was in June. 5. The last time she played tennis was in 1992. (since)
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She .. 1992. 6. Sandra hasnt written to us for two weeks. (last) Sandra ... two weeks ago. 7. Hugo last visited us in the summer. (since) Hugo ... the summer. Ex 5. Complete with used to or past simple. Use used to whenever possible 1. I (go) . work by bus 9. When you were a child, (you/ go) but I bought a car last month. to the party very often? 2. I (not go) . to work on 10. Hannah (go) .. to four Friday because I was ill. parties last month. 3. (You/ study) . hard 11. Marvin (collect) toy when you were a student? soldier, but when he grew up, he lost 4. What time (you/ leave) interest in them. the office yesterday? 12. The students (not enjoy) 5. I (play) the piano when I .. the excursion to the was at your age. seaside because of the bad weather. 6. We (not enjoy) . the 13. Why (she/ be) .. angry party last Saturday. with them yesterday? 7. I (not like) .. spinach but now I 14. There (be) . a small love it cottage here but they pulled it down a few 8. He (be) very tired. So he years ago. went to bed early. Ex 6. Complete with would and the verbs given When I was a child, I (visit) . my grandparents on Sundays. They had a cottage by the sea. Every morning, I (always/ go) fishing with my grandfather. My sister (sometimes/ come) with us. She (simply/ sit) and watch us. But she (not/ let) . us take any fish back home. Whenever we caught one, she (take) it off the hook and throw it back to the water. I (get) really angry whenever she did that by granddad (laugh) about it. He didnt really mind. He thought it was sweet. Ex 7. Complete with past simple or past perfect 1. By the time we (arrive) at 6. I (not feel) .. so hungry after I the cinema, the film (already/ begin) (eat) that sandwich. .. 7. I only realized that I (meet) 2. They (already/ sell) that .. her a few years ago blue dress when I (get) .. to the when I (see) . her. shop. 8. The bank (already/ close) 3. Richard (just/ finish) . .. when I (leave) Breakfast when I (wake) .. up. . the office. 4. As soon as the play (finish) 9. The meeting (start) .. by ten. we (leave) the theater. 10. He (not find) my story 5. I (start) typing those letters interesting because he (hear)
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before the boss (come)

.... it before.

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REVISION 1 I. Complete with a/an/the 1. She gave him . book for his birthday. 2. Have you read .. book I gave you last week? 3. Theres man here to see you. 4. . boy in that photo is my cousin. 5. He visits his grandparents once . week. 6. Is there . airport in Birmingham? 7. I have to be at .. airport at six. 8. That was . most amazing story Ive ever heard. 9. Ms Jackson is . university professor. 10. How often do you go to dentist? II. Circle the correct answer 1. Ill be at home/ the home after half past two. 2. I was very tired, so I went straight to bed/ the bed. 3. Anne works as a nurse at hospital/ the hospital in the centre of town. 4. He had an accident and was taken to hospital/ the hospital. 5. What time do you finish work/ the work on Fridays? 6. Mom has gone to school/ the school to talk to my teacher. 7. Shes studying medicine at university/ the university. 8. The reporter went to prison/ the prison to interview one of the guards. 9. Put your new clothes out on bed/ the bed and well look at them. 10. Joanna doesnt work; shes still at school/ the school. III. Choose the correct answer 1. I havent decided yet about whether to buy a new car or a second-hand one. But I think about it/ Im thinking about it. 2. All right, you try to fix the television. But I hope/ Im hoping you know what you are doing. 3. Every year I visit/ Im visiting Britain to improve my English. 4. Its time we turned on the central heating. It gets/ is getting colder every day. 5. Of course, you are Mary, arent you? I recognise/ Im recognising you now. 6. Whats the matter? Why do you look/ are you looking at me like that? 7. The film of War and Peace is very long. It lasts/ is lasting over four hours. 8. I can see from what you say that your mornings are very busy! But what do you do/ what are you doing in the afternoons? 9. Im going to buy a new swimming costume. My old one doesnt fit/ isnt fitting anymore. 10. That must be the end of the first part of the performance. What happens now/ What is happening now? IV. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tenses (present simple or present continuous) 1. Ann (make).. all her own clothes. At the moment, she (make) a dress for herself.
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2. Whats that smell? Something (burn) in the kitchen. 3. I (work) overtime this month because I (save) . up to buy a car. 4. He (smoke) 30 cigarettes a day, but at the moment he (try) .. very hard to cut down. 5. She usually (learn) . languages very fast, but she (have) problems with Chinese. 6. Emma (spend) every school holiday in Scotland. 7. Why are you under the table? (You/look) . for something? 8. My wife (not like) .. football, but my .crazy about it. 9. Margaret Simon (come) from Norway, but now she (live) . in Britain. 10. I (not belong) to a political party. 11. Hurry! The bus (come) .., and I (not want) . to miss it. 12. The River Nile (flow) . into Mediterranean. 13. The river (flow) fast today much faster than usual. 14. Ron is in London at the moment. He (stay) at the Hilton Hotel. He usually (stay) . at the Hilton Hotel when hes in London. 15. A: Can you drive? B: No, but I (learn) ... My father (teach)me. V. Complete with the past simple or past continuous. 1. He (have) .. shower and (leave) .. for work. 2. At 10:30 last night, Jim (work) and Maria (watch) TV. 3. I (get) .. ready for bed when the phone (ring). 4. Im sorry. I (not listen) Can you repeat that? 5. (You/ call) .. the police when you (hear) .. the burglars? 6. We (not drive) fast but the police (stop) . us. 7. While the teacher (talk) .., I (think). about my birthday party. 8. The film (start) . at eight and (finish) at ten. 9. He (not answer) .. the phone because he (not hear) it. 10. (Bruce/ wait) . for you when you (arrive) at the station. 11. What (you/ do) at nine yesterday morning? 12. Mum (cut) her finger while she (cook) .. VI. Rewrite the sentences 1. She had never flown in a plane before. It was the first time ... 2. I had never eaten Mexican food before. It was the first time ...
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son

(be)

3. It was the first time Ned had ever driven a car. Ned ... 4. Mary had never made a chocolate cake before. It was the first time ... 5. It was the first time I had ever played golf. I ..... 6. They had never used a monolingual dictionary before. It was the first time ... 7. It was the first time we had ever seen an eagle. We .....

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UNIT 7. FUTURE TENSES I. Simple future tense 1. Form: will + V 2. Usage: a, The simple future talks about the predictive future or what we think will happen in the future e.g. I think itll rain b, The simple future describes known facts, or what we suppose is true e.g. My brother will be 45 next month c, Some other uses of will and shall - Ill ../ Shall I ? express the willingness to offer to do things for the others e.g. Shall I carry the bag for you John? - Ill express a promise or threat e.g. Ill help you this time 3. Other ways of referring to the future - Be about to - Be on the point of - Be due to - Be to do - Be going to II. Will vs. be going to 1. Will - To make a prediction, to say what we believe will happen in the future. + With expressions such as I think, I believe, I bet, I expect, I am sure/ afraid, I suppose, I hope e.g. Im sure shell pass the exam + With adverbs such as probably, perhaps, possibly, certainly e.g. Ill probably be at school early tomorrow morning - For decisions that we make spontaneously, at the time when we are speaking e.g. The phones ringing. Ill answer it. - To offer your help to sbd. e.g. Ill help you with your homework - To make a promise e.g. I promise I wont be late - To ask sbd to do sth for us. e.g. Will you open the door for me? - To warn sbd about sth e.g. Be careful! Youll hurt yourself with this knife. - To talk about sth that will definitely happen in the future because it is inevitable, we cant change or control it using external factors. e.g. The sun will rise at 6:35 tomorrow. The temperature will drop during the weekend. 2. Going to
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- To refer to future plans, to something that we intend to do in the future e.g. Were going to buy a new car next month - When we know that sth is going to happen in the future because there is sth in the present that shows us this, an indication e.g. Look at those clouds. Its going to rain 3. Present continuous vs. present simple - We use the present continuous to refer to sth that we have already planned to do in the immediate future. We are sure that the action that we are talking about will happen. e.g. Were flying to London tomorrow. - We use the present simple for the future, when we refer to programmes (cinema, theater, etc.) or timetables (for ships, trains, etc.) e.g. Our bus leaves at 6:30 The play finishes at eleven oclock. Ex 1. Complete with will or going to 5. Ive bought a new dress and I (wear) 1. Dont worry. I (show) . you . it to the party tonight. how the camera works. 6. What (you/ do) .. this 2. Dont wait up for me. I (probably/ be) weekend? Have you decided? ... home late 7. I promise I (not tell) .. tonight. anyone about this. 3. Jordan has sold his car because he (buy) 8. Autumn is almost over. It (get) .. a new one next ..... colder soon. month. 9. Ive been thinking about this for weeks. I 4. According to the weather forecast, there (not accept) . that new (be) heavy rain in the south on job. Wednesday. 10. Its really hot in here. (You/ open) .. the window, please? Ex 2. Circle the correct answer Ex 3. Complete with will or present 1. A: Did you remember to book a table? continuous B: Oh, no! I forgot. I will/ am going to call 1. Would you like something to drink? the restaurant now. - Yes, please. I (have) an orange 2. A: Why do you need Craigs phone juice number? 2. I cant come with you on Sunday. I B: Ill/ m going to invite him to my party (have) . dinner with Tina. 3. A: Im going out with Alice tonight. 3. You looked tired. I (make) B: Oh, really? Then Ill/ m going to come .. you a cup of coffee. with you. 4. Bob (come) ... to 4. A: Mike called this morning see us tonight. B: Yes. Mom told me. I will/ am going to 5. (You/ post) . this call him later. letter for me? 5. A: So, what are your plans for the 6. (You/ do) .. summer? anything tomorrow morning? B: I will/ am going to visit my cousin in 7. Oh no! I forgot to call Violet. I (call) Scotland. .. her now.
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6. A: Jill has passed her exam 8. We (fly) .. to Madrid on B: Really? Thats great! I will/ am going to Friday. Here are your tickets. call her and congratulate her. 9. I (meet) . James 7. A: Would you like something to eat? for lunch at 12:30. B: Yes, thank you. I will/ am going to have 10. Im really tired. I think I (go) a sandwich. ....... straight to bed. 8. A: Do you really need all those eggs? B: Yes, I do. I will/ am going to make an omelette Ex 4. Read and complete. Use the present continuous or present simple. Dear Caroline, Im afraid we cant meet you tomorrow. The weekly meeting (1. finish) . at 17:00 and I have to be at the airport at 17:30. You see, my mother (2. come) to visit. Her plane (3. arrive) in London at 17:30 and I (4. pick) her up form the airport. Then, in the evening I (5. take) . her to the theatre. The play (6. begin) at 20:00 and it (7. not finish) . until 22:30. But I (8. not work) .. this Monday, so we can meet then if youre not busy. What do you say? Love, Amanda P.S. The art exhibition (9. open) next week. Do you want to go?

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UNIT 8. VERB FORMS I. To infinitive and bare infinitive 1. To V + seem/ be/ appear + adj (1) e.g. To pass this exam appears difficult To put your hands out of the car window is dangerous To save money now seems impossible - (1) = It + seem/ be/ appear +adj + to do e.g. It appears difficult to pass this exam It is dangerous to put your hands out of the car window It seems impossible to save money now. 2. S + V1 + to V2 V1 = agree*, aim, appear*, arrange*, ask, attempt, be about, be able, be determined*, bother, care, choose, claim*, decide*, demand*, determine*, do ones best, do what one can, fail, forget*, happen, hesitate, hope*, learn*, make up ones mind, make an/ every effort, manage, neglect, offer, plan, prepare, pretend*, promise*, refuse, remember*, seem, swear*, threaten, turn out, try ones best, volunteer, vow e.g. She agreed to pay $50. They failed to contact their boss I managed to put the fire out before the Fire Brigade arrived The tenants refused to move I was just about to leave when the phone rang He isnt able to afford to live in the city center She made every effort to pass the exam Dont bother to wait for me. I may be late - The starred verbs can be used with that clause e.g. I promise to wait = I promise that I will wait He pretended to be angry = He pretended that he was angry They decided to divide the profit equally = They decided that the profit should be divided equally. They arranged to meet the guests at the airport = They arranged that the guests should be met at the airport. 3. S + V1 + (O) + to V2 V1 = ask, beg, expect, help, (would) hate, (would) like/ love, prefer, want, wish . e.g. He likes to eat well He would like everyone to eat well She asked to speak to Mr. Brown. She asked me to speak to Mr. Brown I begged to go (= I said Please, let me go) I begged him to go (= I said Please, go) 4. S + V1 + O + to V2 V1 = advise, allow, command, compel, enable, encourage, entitle, forbid, force, instruct, invite, oblige, order, permit, persuade, require, remind, warn, urge, train, show, teach, tell e.g. She encouraged me to try harder
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They persuaded us to go with them Her parents forbade her to leave the house He showed me how to use this telephone He told me how to do the exercise He told me to do it She taught me how to behave 5. S + V1 + O + V2 V1 = hear, see, watch, let, make, help, feel e.g. I heard him sing this song yesterday They made us lie on the floor They let us go home once a week 6. S + to do + anything/ nothing/ everything + but/ except + V + sth e.g. He does nothing but complain Cant you do anything but ask this silly questions? Theres nothing to do but wait My dog can do everything but speak 7. Noun + to V e.g. His ability to get on well with other people made him popular Their plan to rebuild the town was protested She was annoyed by his unwillingness to do his share of the work 8. To V used with adj or adv a, too + adj/ adv + to V e.g. You are too young to drive The grass was too wet for us to sit on He spoke too quickly for me to understand b, adj/ adv + enough + to V e.g. She is old enough to travel by herself The ice was hard enough to walk on Im not tall enough to reach the shelf The student isnt clever enough to answer the question c, It + be + adj + O + to V adj = (un)kind, (un)helpful, generous, mean, foolish, wise, careful, careless e.g. Its kind of you to wait for me It was so careless of you to break my glasses It was generous of them to put us up for the night. d, S + be/ feel + adj + to V adj = glad, happy, delighted, angry, annoyed, furious, surprised, astonished, amazed, terrified, horrified, disappointed, sad . e.g. I was glad to get your letter this morning He was angry to learn that his brother had damaged his cassette player Children are always delighted to get presents II. Gerund 1. As a subject
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e.g.

Reading is a very popular pastime in the world Jogging is very good for your health Swimming in hot summer days is interesting 2. As an object (V1 + V2 ing) V1 = admit (to), appreciate*, avoid, consider*, delay, deny, detest, dislike, dread, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, imagine*, finish, forget, forgive, involve, keep, continue, loath, be afraid of, mean*, mind, miss, practice, prevent, propose*, suggest, recommend, remember, resist, risk, stop e.g. He admitted (to) taking the money Avoid overeating Would you mind closing the window? Would you consider selling the house? He detests writing letters She kept complaining Putting in a new window means cutting away part of the roof 3. Preposition + V-ing e.g. She is fond of climbing mountains Im afraid of travelling by car, I often get car sick We are not keen on gambling Im tired of arguing - Some phrasal verbs: + to be good/ bad at + to be fond of / keen on/ interested in + to be afraid/ frightened/ terrified/ scared/ horrified +of + to be bored with/ tired of/ fed up with + to be for/ against + to feel like + to approve/ disapprove of + to have difficulty/ trouble/ problem + in + to get/ be/ become + used/ accustomed + to - Some structures + Theres no point in + Its no good/ use + Cant/ couldnt help + Cant/ couldnt stand/ bear/ put up with 4. V1 + possessive adjectives/ noun ( with s case) + V2 ing V1 = dislike, like, mean, mind, propose, remember, stop, suggest, approve of, disapprove of, insist on, object to e.g. Tom insisted on reading the letter Tom insisted on my reading the letter He dislikes working late He dislikes his wifes working late Forgive my coming late for school today
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III. Some special cases 1. Begin/ start/ continue + to V/ V-ing e.g. I started to learn/ learning English 5 years ago. They continued working/ to work on the project Look! Its starting to rain 2. See/ watch/ hear/ find + O + V/ V-ing e.g. She saw a boy fall into the river We often see him waiting for someone at the school gate 3. Stop + to V/ V-ing e.g. Stop talking, its so noisy in class We decided to stop to have some coffee He stopped to get some petrol 4. Remember/ forget + to V/ V-ing e.g. They shall never forget living in slums Dont forget to lock the door before leaving Do you remember to post the letter on the way home? I still remember visiting the zoo when I was small 5. Try + to V/ V-ing e.g. He tried to learn English well to pass the university examination next year He tried to open the door but failed. Then he tried putting some oil in the lock 6. Allow + to V/ V-ing e.g. They dont allow us to cook in the hostel They dont allow cooking in the hostel Ex 1. Circle the correct answer 1. You can ask Peter drive/ to drive you to 6. May I use/ to use your phone? the station 7. That was close! Youre lucky be/ to be 2. Let me help/ to help you with that alive suitcase 8. We cant afford buy/ to buy a new car 3. Hi! Im so glad see/ to see you! 9. Could you hold/ to hold this bag for me? 4. Youd better hurry/ to hurry or well be 10. James has agreed lend/ to lend us the late money 5. Paul and Anne have decided get/ to get married Ex 2. Rewrite the sentences using the word given 1. Shes too young to vote (old) . 2. He was driving too carelessly to avoid the accident. (carefully) . 3. Im not tall enough to reach that shelf. (short) 4. The students arent interested enough to concentrate. (bored)
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.. 5. Shes too shy to make a speech in public. (confident) 6. He didnt work fast enough to finish on time (slowly) 7. Some people are too impatient to be good teachers. (patient) . 8. We didnt get up early enough to catch the train. (late) . 9. You didnt play well enough to beat her 10. The children are too young to watch that film (old) 11. The actor doesnt look young enough to play the role (old) Ex 3. Choose and complete with the correct form of the verbs call lie paint shop clean listen play steal go open see travel Have you seen his latest picture? try watch work

1. Hes always been good at 8. I hate late at the office. 9. I dont feel like ... TV right 2. You should practice .. the now. piano more often. 10. Im going . With Carol in 3. He hasnt finished .. the living the afternoon. room yet. He still has to vacuum the carpet. to bed. 11. Would you mind . the 12. I look forward to you 4. I always have a glass of milk before window? 5. I cant stand to that kind soon. 13. He admitted .. the money. of music. 6. Are you accusing me of . 14. Its no use ............ to fix that. Its to you? very expensive.
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broken.

7. .. first class by plane is 15. Theres no point .. her now.

Ex 4. Complete with the infinitive or gerund 1. The doctor advised her (stay) .. in bed for a few days. 2. When do you intend (leave) . for the USA? 3. I have to (practice) . playing the piano more often 4. I hate (have) to stay at home on a Saturday night. 5. Everyone started (laugh) when she dropped the cake. 6. Dont worry. I dont mind (wait) 7. Do you really think they deserved (win) .. the game? 8. We still havent finished (redecorate) the house 9. I cant afford (buy) .. a new computer right now. 10. She refused (tell) us what happened last night. Ex 5. Rewrite the sentences 1. We need to clean the windows The windows .. 2. Our bedroom needs painting We 3. You will need to wash your car Your car . 4. His computer needed fixing Someone 5. Those letters need typing The secretary 6. You need to iron your shirt Your shirt. 7. We needed to mop the floor The floor 8. The grass needs cutting She ..

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UNIT 9. PASSIVE VOICE I. Structure: To be + PII e.g. Dustbins are emptied every two days. This bridge was built 20 years ago. He was being questioned in a police station when he fainted. A new road is going to be built here. II. Some special cases 1. Make/ see sbd do sth to be made/ seen to do sth e.g. We saw them go out. They were seen to go out. He made us work. We were made to work Let sbd do sth to be let do sth/ to be allowed to do sth e.g. They let us go We were let go./ We were allowed to go. 2. Agree/ be anxious/ arrange/ be determined/ determine/ decide/ demand + to do sth Agree/ be anxious/ arrange/ be determined/ determine/ decide/ demand + that + sth + should be done e.g. He decided to sell the house He decided that the house should be sold. 3. Insist/ propose/ recommend/ suggest + doing insist/ propose/ recommend/ suggest + that + sth + should be done e.g. They recommend using this computer They recommend that this computer should be used 4. It + be + possible/ impossible + to do sth Sth + can/ could + (not) + be done. e.g. Its impossible to catch him. He cant be caught. 5. Its your duty to do sth Youre supposed to do sth e.g. Its your duty to keep the room clean. Youre supposed to keep the room clean. 6. Think/ say/ believe/ expect/ estimate/ know/ understand/ report + that + S +V It + be + PII + that + clause/ S + be + PII + to V e.g. Many people think that her new film is excellent It is thought that her new film is excellent. Her new film is thought to be excellent. Some people believe that Mary left the country years ago. It is believed that Mary left the country years ago. Mary is believed to have left the country years ago. 7. Have/ get + sth + PII e.g. The hairdresser cuts my hair once a month I have my hair cut once a month. Ex 1. Complete with passive voice. Use Ex 2. Complete with the passive voice 1. A space probe (send) . to the tense given. 1. This film (direct) .. Mars two months ago. by Sam Britton. (past tense) 2. Roller skates (invent) .. in 2. English (speak) . all 1949. over the world. 3. The classrooms (clean) 3. A new school (build) in every day. West Street. (present continuous) 4. We cant use our office at the moment. It
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4. Dinner (server) at 8.00 (will) 5. The rules (must/ obey) by all the students. (present simple) 6. The match (cancel) ... (past perfect) 7. My car (steal) ....! (present simple) 8. The room (clean) .. when I arrived. (past continuous) Ex 3. Rewrite the sentences 1. Millions of people use internet every day. 2. Mrs. Richards will mark your tests. .. 3. A neighbor had reported the murder. .. 4. An old lady saw the thief. .. 5. Scientists have discovered a new species of dinosaur. .. 6. Mr. Jones locks the office every evening .. 7. Isabella will write the article for next weeks issue. .. 8. The ancient Greeks built the Parthenon. ..

(clean) . 5. She (might/ interview) by a famous journalist. 6. I think a hospital (build) here next year. 7. Mr. Smith was waiting while his car (repair) . 8. By the time the police arrived, all the money (steal) .. Ex 4. Rewrite each sentence in suitable voice. 1. Someone is watching us. .. 2. Horror films shouldnt be watched by children .. 3. She is being examined by Doctor Simms. . 4. An old man found her purse. . 5. Romeo and Juliet was written by Shakespeare. . 6. This river has been polluted by poisonous chemicals. .. 7. She was assisted by two young men. . 8. The prime minister will make an announcement. ..

Ex 5. Complete with by or with 1. This picture was painted a famous British artist. 2. These pictures were taken .. a very good camera. 3. My notes were blown away the wind. 4. He got stung . a bee. 5. The room was filled smoke 6. These pictures were taken a professional photographer. 7. Her desk was covered books. 8. The Statue of Liberty was designed F.Bartholdi. Ex 6. Rewrite the sentences in the passive voice.
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1. Our teachers make us work hard at school. We 2. She lets the children pick fruit from her trees. The children .. 3. He made the boy apologise The boy . 4. They dont let people touch the exhibits in the museum. People ... 5. Mother will make you wear that dress. You ... 6. The teacher will let us leave school early today. We . 7. She has never made me do anything like that. I . 8. They let us use the equipment. We Ex 7. Rewrite the sentences in passive voice. 1. It is said that a black cat brings bad luck A black cat is . 2. It is known that dogs are colour blind. Dogs are . 3. It is believed that he has moved to Brazil. He is ... 4. The thieves are reported to have escaped. It is reported ... 5. It is said that five people died in the accident yesterday. Five people are .. 6. The plane is reported to have landed safely last night. It is reported ... 7. The new restaurant is thought to be very good. It is . 8. The actor is said to be seriously ill. It is . 9. It is thought that people came here three thousand years ago. People .... 10. She is believed to have bought the painting for over a million pounds. It is believed .. Ex 8. Rewrite the sentences in the passive voice. Use two constructions for each sentence. 1. They say that hes the richest man in Britain. ... ... 2. They believe that she stole the jewellery. ...
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... 3. People say that he has written a book about ancient Greece. ... ... 4. Everyone knows that this is the oldest building in town. ... ... 5. People say that she was a genius. ... ... 6. They say that he robbed a bank when he was young. ... ... 7. They believe that she has discovered the secret. ... ... 8. People say that dolphins are very intelligent. ... ... Ex 9. Complete with the causative form 1. We (our garage/ build) at the moment. 2. Dad (his newspaper/ deliver) to our house every morning. 3. She usually (her breakfast/ serve) .. in her room. 4. He (his last book/ publish) in 1999. 5. I (the letters/ just/ type) .. 6. The actor (his portrait/ paint) two times so far. 7. The house (its roof/ blow off) in the storm last night. 8. Sue (her carpets/ clean) . when I phoned. 9. They (the swimming pool/ already/ clean) when we visited them. 10. I (the door/ fix) . soon. I promise. Ex 10. Rewrite the sentences using the causative form 1. A professional photographer took his picture. ... 2. Someone stole Kates bike this morning. ... 3. The florist is going to deliver the flowers to my house at 9:30 ... 4. A technician has just set up their new computer network. ... 5. A secretary types Mr. Evans letters for him. ... 6. The children are washing Lisas car for her. ...
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7. A piano tuner tunes my piano once a year. ... 8. The cleaner was vacuuming Bellas office when I called her. ... 9. Freds assistant will organise the meeting for him. ...

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REVISION 2 I. Complete the sentences with infinitive or gerund 1. The store ordered (refund) the money I paid for the book I returned, 2. Dont pretend (be) . what you arent. 3. I persuaded my brother-in-law not (buy) that old car. 4. Annie denied (throw) the brick through the window. 5. My father expects me (get) high marks in school. 6. According to the sign on the restaurant door, all diners are required (wear) .. shirts and shoes. 7. We are planning (visit) several historical sites in Moscow. 8. There appears (be) .. no way to change our reservation for the play at this late date. 9. For some strange reasons, I keep (think) . to is Sunday. 10. All the members agreed (attend) .. the emergency meeting. II. Complete with the infinitive or gerund. 1. I regret (tell) you that you have not passed your exam. I know you worked very hard. 2. Who told her about the party? I dont remember (say) . anything about it last night. 3. Im going to buy that car, even if it means (spend) . all my money! 4. Dont forget (call) .. me as soon as you arrive. 5. He told the police how the accident had happened. Then he went on (say) . that it wasnt his fault. 6. Im sorry. I didnt mean (sound) . so rude. 7. James is a vegetarian. He stopped (eat) .. meat years ago. 8. If you cant find him at home, try (call) . him at the office. 9. Ill never forget (meet) . my favorite film star. 10. We stopped (have) . a cup of coffee on our way home. That s why were late III. Rewrite the sentences using the words given 1. Thousands of people attended the concert. (by) .... 2. You must read this paragraph carefully. (read) .... 3. Theyre going to restore that old building. (restored) .... 4. They didnt pay me last month. (get) .... 5. They will give $500 to the winner. (given) .... 6. The storm caused a lot of damage. (was) ....
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7. They are cleaning the garage at the moment. (is) .... 8. They will not let you into this building. (be) .... 9. His colleagues are organizing a surprise party. (being) .... 10. A ball broke the window. (by) ....

* Questions tags 1. A positive statement has a negative tag, and expects the answer Yes e.g. You agree with me, dont you? 2. A negative statement has a positive tag, and expects the answer No e.g. You dont take sugar, do you? 3. It is possible for a positive tag to follow a positive statement, to express interest, or ask for confirmation e.g. So you like working here, do you? - Tags with will and wont can be used after imperatives e.g. Dont drive too fast, will you? - Lets .. has a tag formed with shall e.g. Lets have a drink, shall we? Ex 1. Choose the most suitable words in Ex 2. Add a question tag to each each sentence sentence 1. Lets go to London next weekend, shall 1. Dont leave anything behind, .. we/ wont we? 2. David is bringing some wine, .. 2. You shouldnt have told me, did you/ 3. Youll be home before midnight, .. should you? 4. Harry was working in Bristol then, ... 3. Jim hasnt been waiting long, was he/ 5. Nobody knows who invented the has he? wheel, .. 4. You wont tell anyone about this, do 6. You dont need me any more, .. you/ will you? 7. The ticket to London doesnt cost a lot, 5. Youre not doing what I told you, do you/ are you? 8. Lets invite the Smiths from next door, 6. Answer the phone for me, will you/ do you? 9. You arent too busy to talk, 7. George cant have noticed, can he/ has he? 10. Jean owns a restaurant, 8. Youve got to leave now, dont you/ . havent you? 9. Pam and Tim got married last year, didnt they/ havent they?
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10. I dont think Johns very friendly, does he/ is he?

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UNIT 10. REPORTED SPEECH I. Reported statements 1. The reporting verb may change in some cases Direct speech Reported speech We use say when there is no indirect We use say when there is no indirect object object We use say to or tell when there is an We use tell when there is an object object Ann said, I miss my sister Ann said (that) she missed her sister. Ann said to me, I miss my sister Ann told me (that) she missed her sister Ann told me, I miss my sister Ann told me (that) she missed her sister. 2. Pronounces and possessive adjectives change according to the meaning of the sentence e.g. Brian said, Im going to wear my new jacket Brian said that he was going to wear his new jacket. 3. The tenses of verbs change when the reporting verb is in the past tense e.g. Alice said, I hate horror film Alice said that she hated horror film Lynn said, Ive never ridden a horse Lynn said she had never ridden a horse. Juliet said I must work harder Juliet said the she had to work harder. Nick said, Im going to have a party Nick said he was going to have a party" - The modal verbs: could, would, might, ought to, should, mustnt do not change e.g. " I might see you later", she told me. She told me she might see me later - The tenses of the verbs do not change + when the reporting verb is in the present tense or in the future tense e.g. She says, Im not going to sell the house She says she's not going to sell the house. + when the sentence that we are reporting expresses a general truth or a fact that continues to apply e.g. He said, "Buenos Aires is the capital of Argentina" He said Buenos Aires is the capital of Argentina + when the verb follows the expressions "I wish" or "If only" e.g. She said, I wish I had enough money for a new car" She said she wish she had enough money for a new car. + when we have the second or third conditional in direct speech. e.g. Sarah said, "If I had the money, I would lend it to you" Sarah said the if she had the money, she would lend it to me.
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4. The time markers change Direct speech Reported speech now then today that day tonight that night this year that year yesterday the day before, the previous day a month ago a month before last week the week before, the previous week tomorrow the next day, the following day next year the following year - Some other words that change + this/ these that/ those + here there + come go II. Reported speech: commands and requests 1. Commands - Reporting verbs: tell, order (command) e.g. Stop complaining, Jim said to Lisa Jim told Lisa to stop complaining "Answer my questions, the judge said to the thief The judge ordered the thief to answer her questions 2. Requests: - Reporting verbs: ask, beg e.g. "Please let me read your article", Charles said to Becky Charles asked Becky to let him read her article The little boy said, "Please, please, dont switch of the light! The little boy begged his mother not to switch of the light. III. Reported speech: questions - If the questions in direct speech start with a question word (who, what, where, when, how, why), the questions start with the same word. e.g. Why are you crying, Jenny?, asked David David asked Jenny why she was crying. - If the questions in direct speech start with an auxiliary verb (be, do, have) or with a modal verbs, the questions in reported speech start with "if" or "whether" e.g. "Did you post the letter?" he asked She asked him if/ whether he had posted the letter. IV. Reporting verbs 1. Reporting verb + infinitive Direct speech Reported speech agree He said, Ill lend you my camera He agreed to lend me his camera
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She said, I want to see the manager He said, Ill help you She said, Ill be back soon He said, I wont tell you my secret She said, Ill tell mom if you dont stop 2. Reporting verb + object + infinitive Direct speech advise She said, You should get more sleep beg She said, Please lend me the money forbid He said, You cant see him again invite She said, Will you join me? order He said, Dont move remind She said, Dont forget to send the letter warn She said, Dont press the button 3. Reporting verb + Ving Direct speech admit He said, I stole the necklace deny She said, I didnt read your diary 4. Reporting verb + that Direct speech admit She said, I stole the necklace demand offer promise refuse threaten

She demanded to see the manager. He offered to help me She promised to be back soon He refused to tell me his secret She threatened to tell mom if I didnt stop Reported speech She advised me to get more sleep She begged me to lend her money He forbade me to see him again She invited me to join her He ordered me not to move She reminded me to send the letter She warned me not to press the button Reported speech He admitted stealing the necklace She denied reading my diary

Reported speech She admitted that she had stolen the necklace agree He said, The film is excellent He agreed that the film was excellent complain She said, The hotel is too expensive She complaint that the hotel was too expensive deny He said, I didnt read the diary He denied that he had read the diary explain She said, I was late because I was She explained that she had arrived late busy because she had been busy inform He said, You have passed the exam He informed me that I had passed the exam promise She said, Ill be back soon She promised that she would be back soon remind He said, Dont forget that the guests He reminded that the guests would (sbd) will arrive at 8 arrive at 8 threaten She said, Ill tell mom if you dont She threatened that she would tell stop mom if I didnt stop warn He said, The water is dangerous He warned me that the water was (sbd) dangerous 5. Reporting verb + prep + Ving accuse sbd of She said, You started the fight She accused me of starting the fight
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apologize for 6. Suggest suggest + Ving

He said, Im sorry. Im selfish

He apologized for being selfish

suggest + that + past simple suggest + that + S + should

She said, Lets go to the cinema She suggested going to the cinema She said, Lets go to the cinema She suggested that we went to the cinema She said, Lets go to the cinema She suggested that we should go to the cinema

Ex1. Rewrite the sentences 1. He said, Ill never speak to him again if he doesnt apologize ........ 2. They told us, Well be back next week ........ 3. Craig said, Ive tried to write this article since 8.00 ........ 4. She told me, If you had been on time, we would have caught the bus ........ 5. Ethan said, I didnt have breakfast this morning ........ 6. Paula was in her room a few minutes ago ........ 7. You cant park here, the man told us ........ 8. If I didnt need the money, I would quit, he told me ........ 9. Diane said, Andy wasnt at the party last night ........ 10. The teacher told him, You ought to be more careful ........ Ex 2. Rewrite the sentences using the words given 1. Hurry up!, she said to him. (told) ........ 2. He said, Dont make so much noise, Tom. (told) ........ 3. Dont be afraid, she told me. (to) ........ 4. Give me the money, the thief said to her. (ordered) ........ 5. Dont leave your toys on the floor, she said to her son. (his) ........ 6. The teacher said to us, Read the instructions carefully (to) ........ 7. Please, please, dont drive so fast, Paula said to Jason (begged)
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........ 8. Elsa said to Maggie, Please meet me at the station at six (asked) ........ 9. He said to me, Dont worry (told) ........ 10. Follow that car, the detective said to the driver (ordered) ........ Ex 3. Rewrite the sentences 1. How often do you do exercise?, the doctor asked him ........ 2. Do you speak English?, the tourist asked us ........ 3. When did he call?, she asked her mother ........ 4. Jeff asked her, Can you hear that noise? ........ 5. Emma asked Frank, Have you finished? ........ 6. Are the children still at school? she asked him ........ 7. How old are you? she asked me ........ 8. Wheres the newspaper? he asked me ........ 9. He asked me, Did you have a good time? ........ Ex 4. Rewrite the sentences using the word given 1. I can carry the suitcase for you, Steve told me (offered) ........ 2. I wont tell anyone, Mary said (promised) ........ 3. Ill call the police, I said (threatened) ........ 4. Ill come with you, he told us (agreed) ........ 5. I want to talk to your boss, she told me (demanded) ........ 6. No, I wont let you use my computer, he said to me (refused) ........ 7. Ill type that article for you, she told me (offered) ........ Ex 5. Circle the correct answer 1. Chris offered to lend/ lending me his car
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2. She warned her son not to play/ playing with matches 3. He denied to break/ breaking the vase 4. You promised to let/ letting me wear your sweater! 5. He accused me of lie/ lying 6. Carol apologized for be/ being late 7. He refused to work/ working on Sunday 8. I suggested to have/ having dinner at an Italian restaurant. 9. The policeman ordered her to answer/ answering his question. 10. The boy admitted to break/ breaking the window. Ex 6. Rewrite the sentences 1. He said to me: You told her my secret He accused me of . 2. She told me: Im sorry I hurt your feeling She apologized .. 3. I didnt do anything wrong, I said I denied . 4. He tol me, Yes, I lied to you He admitted .. 5. They told us, Were sorry we didnt come to your party They apologized . 6. You took my jacket without asking me, she said She accused .

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Unit 11. Conditionals and subjunctives


I. Conditionals Types If - clause - Present simple Zero conditional Present tenses First conditional Main clause - Present simple Usage - To refer to actual facts, general truths or states - Future tenses - To refer to sth that it is possible - Modal verbs (present) + to happen in the present or in the V future - Imperative Examples If/ When you frighten the birds, they fly away - If she invites me to the party, Ill go - If it stops raining, we can go shopping - If you see him, tell him about the party - If someone threatened to hit me, I would shout for help - If I were you, Id plant some trees round the house - If a burglar came into my room at night, Id scream. - If he had lent me the money, I would have bought this car - If you hadnt told mom about that, she wouldnt have got so upset If I hadnt so careless, I wouldnt be in the trouble now

Second conditional

- Past simple - Past continous

- would + V - Modal verbs (past) + V

Third conditional

- Past perfect tense

Mixed conditional

- Past perfect

- To refer to sth that does not apply to present and when it is impossible to happen in the future - To refer to sth that we dont expect to happen - would/ could/ should - To refer to sth that could have have + PII happened in the past but did not happen - To express our sorrow or regret about an event in the past - would + V - To refer to the past action - modal verbs (past) + V which has the present result

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Notes: - Provided/ Providing/ As long as + that + clause = If + clause e.g. You will have the money provided that you promise to pay back in time - Unless = If . Not e.g. Theyll kill the boy if they dont get the money = Theyll kill the boy unless the get the money - But for + noun/ Ving/ the fact that = If it werent/ hadnt been for + noun/ Ving/ the fact that .. e.g. But for the bad weather, we would have enjoyed the journey = If it hadnt been for the bad weather, we would have enjoyed the journey But for the money, the job wouldnt be worth doing = If it werent for the money, the job wouldnt be worth doing - Supposing/ Suppose = If e.g. Supposing/ Suppose you won the lottery ticket, what would you do? = If you won the lottery ticket, what would you do? - Otherwise/ Or/ Or else e.g. Give me the money or Ill kill you = If you dont give me the money, Ill kill you Your should come back before 10 p.m. Otherwise, you will be locked outside = If you dont come back before 10 p.m, you will be locked outside. - In case = If e.g. If Tome comes, well buy some more beer. = Well buy some more beer in case Tom comes - Without + noun/ Ving is used in the second and the third conditionals e.g. Without the glasses, he would look very funny = If he werent wearing the glasses, he would look very funny Without my fathers encouragement, I would have failed = If my father hadnt encouraged, I would have failed. II. Subjunctives 1. S1 + wish/ If only + S2 + V (past simple/ past continuous) - To refer to sth that we would like to be different at the present e.g. I wish I had a motorbike I wish you werent leaving He wishes he wasnt having an English lesson now 2. S1 + wish/ If only + S2 + would + V - To complain about sth or to express our desire to change a situation that is annoying us
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e.g.

I wish you would stop making that noise. She wishes you would leave 3. S1 + wish/ If only + S2 + V (past perfect) - To express our sorrow about sth that we would like to have happened differently in the past e.g. If only I had stayed at home last night. 4. Its time/ high time/ about time + for sbd + to do sth = Its time/ high time/ about time + S + V (past simple) e.g. Its time for us to go home Its high time we did something about the traffic Ex 1. Form the zero conditional sentences Ex 2. Complete with the first conditional sentences 1. Jack/ always/ bring/ flowers/ when/ he/ come/ to visit us 1. You (feel) . better if you (take) . an aspirin 2. If they (come) with us, we (have) . great time. 2. If/ you/ mix/ red and blue/ you / get/ purple 3. If it (rain) .. I (might/ stay) . at home 4. (You/ post) . this letter for me if you (not be) . 3. Glass/ break/ when/ you/ heat/ it? too busy? 5. You (should/ apologise) ... if it (be) your 4. If/ you/ not eat/ you/ get thin fault. 6. If David (invite) .. Janice, I (not go) . 5. When/ the weather/ be/ nice/ I/ walk/ to work to his party. 7. If you (not know) . the answer, (ask) . 6. Your brother/ help/ you/ with your homework/ when/ he/ have/ Mr. Walters. time? 8. Jock (move) to Scotland if he (find) . a good job there. 7. I/ usually/ read/ a good book/ when/ I/ not be/ busy 9. If the pain (not stop) ., I (see) .. the doctor. 8. If/ plants/ not get/ enough water/ they/ die 10. If you (not like) .. that dress, (not wear) .. it
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Ex 3. Rewrite the sentences using the word given 1. Ill let you go to Phillips house if you tidy you room. (provided) . 2. Provided I finish work early tomorrow, Ill come with you (if) . 3. If you let me use your computer, I wont tell mom what you did (as long as) . 4. Aunt Josephine will be here at eight as long as her train arrives on time (providing) . 5. You can borrow my car provided you bring it back at four (as long as) . 6. Ill go to the party as long as you come uiwht me (so long as) . 7. If they offer him enough money, he will accept. ( so long as) . 8. Ill tell you all about it as long as you promise to keep it a secret (providing) .

Ex 4. Rewrite the sentences in second conditional 1. I havent got any money, so I wont buy that . 2. Pigs havent got wings, so they dont fly . 3. His marks arent good because he doesnt work hard . 4. Im busy, so I wont come with you . 5. They dont know her, so they wont invite her to the party . 6. I wont call him because I havent got his phone number . 7. She walks to school because she hasnt got a bike . 8. Its cold, so we wont got to the beach . 9. I wont join you because I have to stay at home . 10. He wont lend you his camera because he needs it. .

6. If you (not be) so rude, she (not get) Ex 5. Complete with third conditionals 1. If I (hear) . the weather forecast, I (take) so upset. .. an umbrella with me. 7. If Raymond (not miss) . the bus, he (not be)
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2. If you (come) . to the party last night, you (meet) James 3. If I (listen) . to her, this (not happen) .. 4. If I (know) .. you were at home, I (call) .. you. 5. What (you/ do) if he (not lend) you his car? Ex 6. Write the sentences using would and the prompts given 1. Oh no! Youve broken another glass! You/ be/ more careful. (wish) . 2. My little sister is always asking me questions. She/ not bother/ me all the time (if only) . 3. George is so bossy! He/ stop/ telling me what to do (if only) . 4. You talk too much. You/ be/ quiet (wish) . 5. Mrs. Edwards wants us to write another composition. She/ not give/ us so much homework. (wish) . Ex 7. Write the sentences with wish or if only 1. We spent all our money on CDs. .

late for work. 8. If someone (tell) . me that there was no milk in the house, I (go) to the supermarket. 9. She (not refuse) if you (ask) .... her nicely. 10. (You/ come) ............. with us if we (tell) . you about the concert?

6. Bill and Fred are fighting again. They/ stop/ arguing (wish) . 7. Theres water everywhere. You/ clean up/ after your bath (if only) . 8. Wheres my blue dress? You/ not wear/ my clothes without asking me (wish) . 9. My brother is so untidy. He/ be/ more careful with his things (if only) . 10. My parents dont allow me to go out on weekends. They/ let/ me go out with my friends (wish) .

Ex 8. Complete with its time and the prompts. 1. I look awful! (I/ have) a haircut. 2. Shes been working too hard lately. (She/

take)
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2. You didnt tell me the truth. . 3. I lost my car keys. . 4. I didnt listen to her. . 5. We didnt win the game. . 6. I forgot to call him last night. . 7. I failed the test. . 8. I was late for work. . 9. Jim wasnt at the party last night. . 10. I told her my secret. .

.. some time off. 3. Im tired. (I/ go) . to bed. 4. We have to be at the station at six. (We/ leave) .. 5. (I/ start) looking for a new job. I hate working in the city center. 6. Those windows are very dirty. Dont you think (we/ clean) . them? 7. (You/ buy) a new car. This ones too old.

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UNIT 13. RELATIVE CLAUSES I. Defining relative clauses Subject Object Possessive Who/ that Who/ whom/ that Whose For people Which/ that Which/ that Of which/ whose For things 1. As subject of relative clauses e.g. The man robbed you. He has been arrested The man who/ that robbed you has been arrested The stairs lead to the cellar. They are rather slippery The stairs which/ that lead to the cellar are rather slippery * Notes: when relative pronouns substituting for things stand after all, everything, little, much, something, anything, none, no and the superlatives, we should use that instead of which e.g. All the apples that fall are eaten by the pigs. This is the biggest hotel that has been built there Ann said something that was annoying 2. As object of relative clauses e.g. He employs some girls. They are always complaining about their pays. The girls (who(m)/ that) he employs are always complaining about their pays. My car hit a motorbike. This motorbike was badly damaged. The motorbike (which/ that) my car hit was badly damaged. * Notes: as an object of relative clauses, relative pronouns can be omitted 3. Relative clauses beginning with whose or of which - Whose substitutes possessive adjectives and s case e.g. The film is about a spy. His wife lost her memory suddenly The film is about a spy whose wife lost her memory suddenly - With non-animated nouns, use with + noun phrase to substitute whose or of which e.g. Can you see the house? The doors of this house are green Can you see the house whose doors are green? the doors of which are green? with green doors? 4. Relative clauses beginning with where, when, why - Where = in/at which (place) e.g. Last week I visited a city. I was born in this city Last week I visited a city which I was born in/ where I was born. - When = in/on which (time) e.g. I still remember the year. I joined the army in that year I still remember the year which I joined the army in/ when I joined the army - Why = for which (reason) e.g. Do you know the reason? Peter was late for this reason Do you know the reason which Peter was late for/ why Peter was late? II. Non-defining relative clauses Subject Object Possessive Who/ that Who/ whom/ that Whose For people
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Which/ that Which/ that Of which/ whose For things 1. As subject in relative clauses e.g. My friend works in a bank. He is going to lend me a big sum of money. My friend, who works in a bank, is going to lend me a big sum of money. The train 8.15 is usually punctual. It was late today. The 8.15 train, which is usually punctual, was late today. 2. As object of relative clauses. e.g. She introduced me to her husband. I hadnt met him before. She introduced me to her husband, who(m) I hadn't met before She gave me this jumper. She had knitted it herself She gave me this jumper, which she had knitted it herself * Notes: dont omit relative pronouns in non-defining relative clauses 3. Relative clauses beginning with "whose" e.g. Ann is trying to get a job. Her children are at school all day. Ann, whose children are at school all day, is trying to get a job His house needs repairing. The windows of this house were all broken in the storm His house, whose windows were all broken in the storm, needs repairing. 4. Relative clauses beginning with "where, when" e.g. He went to Hollywood, where he made his first film Ill never forget the year 2000, when I won the lottery ticket for $100000 III. Some special cases 1. Relative clauses beginning with which to substitute for the information mentioned in the previous clause e.g. He failed the exam, which disappointed everyone. The clock struck thirteen, which made all of us laugh 2. When relative pronouns is an object of prepositional verbs, the prepositions can be put before the relative pronouns. e.g. the man who/ that I talked to = the man to whom I talked the ladder which/ that I was standing on = the ladder on which I was standing Mr. John, who/ whom I was looking for = Mr. John, for whom I was working 4. It + to be + noun/ pronoun + defining relative clause (beginning with who, that) e.g. It is the speed that caused the accident It was wine that we ordered Its the manager that I want to see It was Tom who broke the window It was the monitor who helped me do all the exercises 5. Relative clauses To infinitive a, After the ordinal words (first, second, last, only ) or the superlatives e.g. I was the first person who told them the good news = I was the first person to tell them the good news She was the only one who understood my point = She was the only one to understand my point Is this the cheapest thing that you can buy? = Is that the cheapest thing to buy?
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b, When relative clauses express the purpose of the nouns or the duty or permission to do sth with the nouns e.g. He has three more shirts that he has to wash = He has three more shirts to wash She had something that she had to do = She had something to do They need a garden that they can play in = They need a garden to play in 6. Relative clauses Ving: the verbs in relative clauses are active voice e.g. The girl who is standing over there is my cousin The girl standing over there is my cousin Boys who attend this school have to wear a uniform Boys attending this school have to wear a uniform 7. Relative clauses Ved/ Being + Ved: the verbs in relative clauses are passive voice e.g. The weapon which was used in the murder has now been found The weapon used in the murder has now been found 6. Is that the reason . she got angry? Ex 1. Complete with relative pronouns 1. The man . called didnt leave a 7. I dont know the girl is having the message. party 2. Did you see the letter .. came for 8. This is the restaurant we had you this morning? dinner last night. 3. The shop .. she works is in 9. The book .. Im reading at the Cherry Street. moment is a historical novel 4. Do you remember the day you first 10. The boy .. brother is a tennis met? champion is in our class 5. The woman car was stolen went to the police station Ex 2. Join the sentences using the relative 6. An old lady called the fire brigade. Her cat had got stuck in a tree. pronouns 1. The girl said she wanted to speak to Tim. She called 7. Do you remember the day? We first came to this school then. 2. The men have been arrested. They robbed the bank. 8. The woman smiled proudly. Her daughter won first prize. 3. The care has been repaired. It was damaged in the accident 9. The architect from Sweden. He designed this building 4. Thats the book shop. Lisas sister works there. 10. The painting costs me $1000. It is hanging on the sitting room wall 5. The cheese sandwiches are for you. Theyre on the kitchen table. 5. Thats the room. She spends most of her Ex 3. Join the sentences in two ways 1. I dont know anyone. You can sell your time in it.
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car to them 2. This is the hotel. We stayed at this hotel last year. 3. This is the restaurant. We usually go to it. 4. Shes the woman. I borrowed the money from her Ex 5. Join the sentences 1. Jane didnt even say hello. This was very rude of her 2. Bob didnt pass the exam. This made his parents very angry 3. He says he has met the Prime Minister. This cant be true 4. Ive been working. This is why I feel so tired.

6. History is a subject. Ive always been good at it. 7. Shes a friend. I share all my secrets with her. 8. This is the box. Mom keeps her jewellery in it. 5. She is more than two hours late. This is very annoying. 6. Mary had a fight with Nick. This explains why she looks so upset. 7. Gavin gave me a watch for my birthday. This was very kind of him 8. Its their anniversary. This is why theyre having the party

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