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Office of Justice Programs

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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention J US T I C E P

Shay Bilchik, Administrator April 1996

J U V E N I L E J U S T I C E B U L L E T I N
J U V E N I L E J U S T I C E B U L L E T I N

Curfew: An Answer to
Juvenile Delinquency and From the Administrator
With juvenile crime on the rise in com-

Victimization? munities across the country, increasing


numbers of city and county jurisdictions
are passing curfew ordinances, either
independent of an overall anticrime and
community safety program or as one
Traditionally, the determination of a the 200 cities surveyed, 93 (47 percent) component of such a program. The
minor’s curfew has been considered to had curfews in effect on January 1, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin-
be a family issue, within the parental 1990. Between January 1990 and the quency Prevention has seen a growing
purview, rather than a matter to be de- spring of 1995, an additional 53 of trend of these ordinances being accom-
termined by government. Nevertheless, these 200 cities (27 percent) enacted panied by comprehensive, community-
based curfew enforcement programs
public curfews have been enacted and juvenile curfew ordinances, bringing the
that are receiving strong support from
enforced throughout the Nation’s his- total of those with curfew laws to 146 (73 law enforcement and citizens alike.
tory in reaction to increased juvenile percent). During the same period, 37 of
delinquency, decreased parental the 93 cities with an existing curfew ordi- This Bulletin provides an overview of
the legal challenges to curfew and pre-
supervision, and other social trends. nance revised that legislation.1
sents profiles of seven jurisdictions with
Recent increases in juvenile crime and comprehensive curfew enforcement
victimization have prompted local
communities in many States to once
Legal Challenges programs that both address the factors
that place these youth at risk for delin-
again consider evening curfews (e.g., The question of curfews has raised quency and victimization and promote
from 11 p.m. to 6 a.m. on school days a variety of legal issues and divided the development of healthy behavior.
and from midnight to 6 a.m. on non- numerous communities, as the follow- Comprehensive curfew enforcement
school days) as a viable means to en- ing sample of newspaper headlines programs often bring together the law
hance the safety of the community illustrates: “The Trouble With Curfews,” enforcement community and juvenile
and its children. Although most curfew “Cities Deciding That It’s Time for Teen and family court judges with represen-
Curfews,” “Curfew Not a Good Idea,” tatives from the social services and the
ordinances apply to juveniles under
education, recreation, religious, and
16 years of age, some include 16- and “Curfew Needs To Be Stronger,” “Limit-
medical communities. This collaborative,
17-year-olds. This Bulletin explores ing Kids’ Time on the Streets Elicits community-based approach to curfew
developments in curfew ordinances, Both Relief and Resentment.”2 Differ- enforcement has demonstrated that
legal issues related to curfews, how ences in opinion have led individuals juvenile delinquency and victimization
jurisdictions have responded to legal and civil rights organizations in many can be decreased when communities
challenges, the elements of sound communities to challenge the legality work together to implement a compre-
community-based curfew programs, of juvenile curfew ordinances. The hensive curfew program.
and examples of a range of curfew American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), I am pleased to provide you with this
programs and services from seven the most vocal opponent, has chal- information on curfews, from the court
jurisdictions. lenged the constitutionality of juvenile challenges to the success stories, and
curfew ordinances in jurisdictions hope it will assist in your local decision-
In a recent study of curfew ordi- making process on whether and how
across the country, either directly or
nances in the 200 largest U.S. cities to use a juvenile curfew.
by providing assistance to individuals
(population of 100,000 or greater in
who wish to test such laws in court. Shay Bilchik
1992), Ruefle and Reynolds found a Administrator
dramatic surge in curfew legislation Legal challenges to the constitutional-
during the first half of the 1990’s. Of ity of curfew ordinances are most often

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based on the 1st, 4th, 5th, 9th, and 14th do so whenever one pleases is an integral Qutb v. Strauss.12 The Fifth Circuit held
amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The component of life in a free and ordered that the Dallas curfew satisfied the strict
first amendment guarantees the right to society.” 7 However, the court did not scrutiny test because the city had demon-
freedom of speech, religion, and peaceful find that the curfew violated the fourth strated a compelling State interest in
assembly. The fourth amendment pro- amendment rights of District juveniles: reducing juvenile crime and victimiza-
tects persons against unreasonable “So long as the officer could reasonably tion and because the ordinance was prop-
searches and seizures and has been inter- have believed that the individual looked erly aimed, that is, narrowly tailored to
preted to include protection against un- ‘young,’ the search, seizure or arrest “. . . allow the city to meet its stated goals
reasonable stopping and detainment of would take place on the basis of probable while respecting the rights of the affected
individuals. The fifth amendment guaran- cause and no Fourth Amendment viola- minors.”13 A subsequent appeal was re-
tees citizens the right to due process un- tion would occur.” 8 Although the district fused by the Supreme Court of the United
der the law. The ninth amendment has court invalidated this particular curfew, States without comment in May 1994.14
been interpreted to include a right to in July 1995 the District of Columbia en- However, this ruling neither guarantees
privacy, including the right to family au- acted another juvenile curfew ordinance protection from future constitutional le-
tonomy.3 The 14th amendment protects modeled after one enacted in Dallas, gal challenges to curfews in other circuits
persons against the deprivation of their Texas, that had survived constitutional under the provisions of the U.S. Constitu-
liberty without due process of law and scrutiny by the U.S. Court of Appeals for tion or State constitutions, nor forecloses
includes the right to travel, which is em- the Fifth Circuit in 1993.9 challenges based on nonconstitutional
bodied in the privileges and immunities The seminal issue of the State’s au- grounds.
clause. thority to restrict the constitutional Jurisdictions that seek to enact curfew
In 1975, the first Federal case concern- rights of minors is consistently raised in laws may want to examine how Dallas laid
ing the constitutionality of juvenile cur- juvenile curfew cases. In the Bykofsky the groundwork needed to pass the strict
fews was heard by the U.S. District Court case cited above, the court held that “the scrutiny test. Data on juvenile crime and
for the Middle District of Pennsylvania. In conduct of minors may be constitution- victimization helped meet the compelling
Bykofsky v. Borough of Middletown, the ally regulated to a greater extent than State interest test. The city provided the
court upheld a juvenile curfew that was those of adults.”10 The U.S. Court of Ap- following statistical information:15
challenged on the grounds that it violated peals for the Fifth Circuit, in upholding • Juvenile delinquency increases pro-
juveniles’ 1st and 14th amendment rights the Dallas curfew, applied the reasoning portionally with age between the ages
and encroached upon parents’ rights to of the Supreme Court of the United States of 10 and 16 years.
raise their children, which is embodied in in Hodgson v. Minnesota, which held that
the 9th amendment and in the due pro- a parental notification requirement of • In 1989, Dallas recorded 5,160 juvenile
cess and equal protection clauses of the the State’s abortion statute passed con- arrests, and in 1990, there were 5,425
14th amendment.4 In its opinion, the stitutional muster because States have juvenile arrests, including 40 murders,
court found that the regulations on juve- “. . . a strong and legitimate interest in the 91 sex offenses, 233 robberies, and
niles’ 14th amendment due process rights welfare of [their] young citizens, whose 230 aggravated assaults. From Janu-
were “constitutionally permissible.” The immaturity, inexperience, and lack of ary through April 1991, juveniles were
court further declared that the curfew judgment may sometimes impair their arrested for 21 murders, 30 sex of-
ordinance did not suppress or impermis- ability to exercise their rights wisely.” 11 fenses, 128 robberies, 107 aggravated
sibly regulate juveniles’ right to freedom assaults, and an additional 1,042
of speech or parents’ rights to raise their The Strict Scrutiny Test crimes against property.
children as they saw fit. The court stated, In order to pass constitutional muster, • The most likely time for the occur-
“The parents’ constitutionally protected laws that impinge on fundamental consti- rence of murders by juveniles was
interest . . . which the ordinance infringes tutional rights must pass a two-pronged between 10 p.m. and 1 a.m.; the most
only minimally, is outweighed by the strict scrutiny test that requires jurisdic- likely place was in apartments and
Borough’s interest in protecting immature tions to (1) demonstrate that there is a apartment parking lots and on streets
minors. . . .”5 compelling State interest and (2) narrow- and highways.
Fourteen years later, in 1989, Simbi ly tailor the means to achieve the law’s • Aggravated assaults by juveniles were
Waters challenged a juvenile curfew ordi- objective. The Dallas curfew provides an most likely to occur between 11 p.m.
nance in the District of Columbia on the excellent example of an ordinance that and 1 a.m.
grounds that it violated her first, fourth, has been held by a Federal court to sat-
isfy both prongs of the strict scrutiny • Rapes were most likely to occur be-
and fifth amendment rights.6 The U.S. Dis-
test. tween 1 a.m. and 3 a.m., and 16 per-
trict Court for the District of Columbia, in
cent of rapes occurred on public
Waters v. Barry, found the juvenile curfew The Dallas City Council adopted its streets and highways.
law to be unconstitutional on the grounds curfew ordinance in 1991 after hearings
that it violated the first and fifth amend- that included testimony on increased in- • Thirty-one percent of robberies
ment rights of juveniles in the District: cidences of late-night juvenile violence. occurred on public streets and
“The right to walk the streets, or to meet Challenged by the ACLU, Dallas’ curfew highways.
publicly with one’s friends for a noble ordinance was upheld in 1993 by the U.S. The Court relied on these data in
purpose or for no purpose at all—and to Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in holding that the City of Dallas provided

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sufficient evidence to establish that the JJDP Act core requirement prohibits a based program designed to protect both
ordinance was in keeping with the State’s status offender (i.e., a juvenile who has the community and the juvenile from vic-
compelling interest in reducing juvenile committed an offense that would not be timization and to serve as a constructive
crime and victimization. a crime if committed by an adult, such as intervention against developing patterns
Second, the Dallas legislation was nar- truancy or curfew violations) or nonof- of delinquency.
rowly tailored to address the specific fender (i.e., a dependent or neglected Each of the jurisdictions described
needs enumerated by the jurisdiction by child) from being held in secure deten- below collected statistical data on juve-
the least restrictive means possible. The tion or confinement. However, Office of nile crime and victimization prior to pass-
Dallas curfew was applied to youth under Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Preven- ing a curfew ordinance. This activity also
the age of 17 and in effect from 11 p.m. tion (OJJDP) regulations allow detention laid a foundation for formulating a curfew
through 6 a.m. Sunday through Thursday for brief periods in a juvenile detention ordinance that addressed the jurisdic-
and from midnight to 6 a.m. Friday and facility—not to exceed 24 hours exclusive tion’s unique juvenile crime and victim-
Saturday. The statute exempted juveniles of weekends and holidays—necessary for ization problems. Although juvenile crime
who were: pre- or postcourt appearance, processing, is not restricted to evening hours, the
release to a parent or guardian, or trans- data analysis done by these cities demon-
• Accompanied by an adult. fer to court or an appropriate nonsecure strated that their rates of juvenile crime
• Engaged in activities related to inter- facility. The statute also makes excep- and victimization were serious enough
state commerce or protected by the tions that allow the detention or confine- to warrant a carefully crafted evening
first amendment. ment of status offenders who violate a curfew program.
valid court order or who violate State law
• Traveling to or from work. Each of these seven cities has its own
provisions prohibiting the possession of
• Responding to an emergency. a handgun. Status and nonoffender juve- unique and innovative approach to ad-
niles cannot be detained or confined in dressing the problem of juvenile crime
• Married.
an adult jail or lockup for any length and victimization through a curfew ordi-
• Attending a supervised school, reli- of time. To comply with the DSO core nance. The approaches demonstrate a
gious, or recreational activity. requirement of the JJDP Act Formula range of community partnerships and
The Fifth Circuit found, in Qutb v. Grants Program, and to reduce the bur- nonpunitive strategies designed to pro-
Strauss, that the exemptions under the den on police, Dallas and many other mote early intervention to prevent the
Dallas ordinance, which permitted juve- cities have established comprehensive, development of delinquent behavior and
niles to exercise their fundamental rights community-based curfew programs that to address the issues of parental respon-
and remain in public, demonstrated that provide local sites, such as community sibility, discipline, and family dysfunc-
the ordinance was narrowly tailored to and recreation centers, where police of- tion. The strategies have been credited
meet the city’s legitimate objectives. ficers can bring curfew violators for tem- with helping to prevent juvenile crime
porary detention pending release to their and victimization and repeated curfew
Other challenges to juvenile curfews violations while providing protection and
have been based on the concepts of parents or other appropriate disposition.
These sites provide an atmosphere safety to the community.
vagueness and overbreadth. A statute
is void for vagueness if it is too general conducive to investigation, processing, While the comprehensive, community-
and its “. . . standards result in erratic prerelease counseling, and planning for based curfew programs implemented by
and arbitrary application based on indi- appropriate followup services. the seven cities employ a variety of strat-
vidual impressions and personal predilec- egies, each program includes one or more
tions.”16 A statute that broadly restricts Representative of the following common elements:
fundamental liberties when less restric- Curfew Programs • Creation of a dedicated curfew center
tive means are available may be void on or use of recreation centers and
the grounds of overbreadth. Therefore, Local governments have enacted juve- churches to receive juveniles who
when constructing juvenile curfew ordi- nile curfews pursuant to their general have been picked up by the police for
nances, in addition to considering consti- police powers or State statutes specifi- violating curfew.
tutional issues that involve fundamental cally authorizing such ordinances. The
seven cities whose curfew programs are • Staffing of curfew centers with social
rights, jurisdictions should ensure the
discussed below enacted their ordi- service professionals and community
legislation is both precise in its language
nances pursuant to specific authorizing volunteers.
and limited to necessary restrictions.
State legislation. • Intervention, in the form of referrals
In addition to constitutional and struc-
Law enforcement professionals gener- to social service providers and coun-
tural challenges to juvenile curfews, juris-
ally view a juvenile curfew ordinance as seling classes, for the juveniles and
dictions enacting curfew laws should
an effective means to combat late evening their families.
also bear in mind the core requirement
of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency crime. However, curfews are also intend- • Procedures for repeat offenders,
Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974, as ed to protect youth from becoming vic- including fines, counseling, or sen-
amended, which addresses the deinstitu- tims of crime. The curfew ordinances tences to community service.
tionalization of status offender and non- described below were enacted in the con-
• Recreation and jobs programs.
offender juveniles (DSO).17 In general, this text of a comprehensive, community-

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• Antidrug and antigang programs. Dallas, Texas be fined up to $500. Business establish-
• Hotlines for followup services and In developing a juvenile curfew for Dal- ments may be cited for allowing minors to
crisis intervention. las, government officials and the police remain on their premises after curfew
department worked together to create an hours. In addition to these enforcement
The cornerstone of each of the seven mechanisms, the Dallas curfew program
programs is creative community involve- appropriate and effective curfew pro-
gram. The curfew, which went into effect features comprehensive youth programs
ment that works to transform the juvenile that address juvenile crime and victim-
curfew from a reactive, punitive response on May 1, 1994, applies to all youth under
the age of 17. Prior to the effective date of ization, including Law Enforcement
to a proactive intervention against the Explorers, a School Liaison Unit, Law
root causes of juvenile delinquency and the curfew ordinance, the Dallas Police
Department engaged in a media campaign Enforcement Teaching Students (LETS),
victimization. supervised midnight basketball (with a
to promote curfew awareness. The multi-
Tables 1 and 2 summarize the key fea- component campaign included public curfew exception on tournament nights),
tures of the juvenile curfew ordinances service announcements on radio, posters and a Police Athletic League (PAL).20
enacted by the seven jurisdictions pro- in English and Spanish that were distrib- During the first 3 months of curfew
filed in this bulletin, including the excep- uted at recreation centers and at public implementation, warnings and citations
tions adopted by each jurisdiction that schools, and a well-covered press confer- were issued to curfew offenders, and eight
reduce the potential for successful court ence. Also, 1 week before the curfew took tickets were written to adults for permit-
challenge on constitutional grounds. A effect, warning fliers were handed out by ting curfew violations. No arrests were
summary of the statutory provisions re- police officers to youth in public during made for curfew violations, but 15 juve-
lating to curfews in U.S. cities with a the hours of the curfew.19 niles were arrested and taken into cus-
population of more than 100,000 can tody on other charges. The Dallas Police
be found in the Sourcebook of Criminal When Dallas police apprehend juvenile
curfew violators, they may give them a Department conducted an assessment of
Justice Statistics—1994, published by the the effectiveness of the juvenile curfew
Bureau of Justice Statistics.18 verbal warning, take them home, issue a
ticket with a fine as high as $500, or take after 3 months of enforcement. The De-
them into custody. In cases of repeated partment found that juvenile victimiza-
curfew violations, a child’s parents may tion during curfew hours dropped 17.7

Table 1:
Statutory Provisions of Juvenile Curfew Ordinances in Seven Jurisdictions

Jurisdiction Age (years) Weekday Times Weekend Times Parental Fines: Discretionary1

Dallas, TX Under 17 11 p.m.–6 a.m. 12 a.m.–6 a.m. Up to $500


Phoenix, AZ 15 or under 10 p.m.–5 a.m. 10 p.m.–5 a.m. Up to $75
16 and 17 12 a.m.–5 a.m. 12 a.m.–5 a.m. Up to $75
Chicago, IL Under 17 10:30 p.m.–6 a.m. 11 p.m.–6 a.m. $200–$500
New Orleans, LA Under 17 8 p.m.–6 a.m., 11 p.m.–6 a.m. $500 and/or serve 60 hours of
September–May community service at discretion
9 p.m.–6 a.m., of judge; $23 court fee per ticket.
June–August
Denver, CO Under 18 11 p.m.–5 a.m. 12 a.m.–5 a.m. None2
North Little Rock, AR 17 or under 10 p.m.–6 a.m. 12 a.m.–6 a.m. Fine for second violation, but
suspended for 1 year if no further
curfew violations occur.
Jacksonville, FL Under 18 11 p.m.–6 a.m. 12 a.m.–6 a.m. None

1 Note:Fines in many of these jurisdictions also apply to proprietors of business establishments who knowingly permit a minor to remain on the
premises after curfew.

2 Youth and parents who choose not to participate in an assigned diversion program, or who fail to complete such a program, may be assessed a fine.

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percent, from 1,950 during the period PRL allows the Phoenix Police Depart- PRL personnel conduct postdiver-
from May to July 1993, to 1,604 during the ment to use four of the city’s recreation sion followup contacts with curfew viola-
same period in 1994. Further, juvenile ar- centers as reception facilities for juvenile tors and their families to determine if ad-
rests during curfew hours decreased 14.6 curfew violators. Once paperwork is pro- ditional referrals to other agencies, such
percent, from 294 during the period from cessed by police officers, the juveniles as health and social services, are needed.
May to July 1993, to 251 during the same are supervised by recreation specialists These followup procedures have been
period in 1994. These initial statistics in- until their parents arrive. The administra- favorably received by the community.
dicate that the efforts of the Dallas cur- tive requirements for police officers are Twenty-one percent of Phoenix’s cur-
few enforcement program have reduced kept to a minimum in order to allow offi- few violators are gang members.23 The
juvenile crime and victimization.21 cers to return sooner to patrol duties. curfew ordinance provides the police
When a curfew violation is charged, with a legal basis to separate minors
Phoenix, Arizona the juvenile and the parents have the op- from gangs, at least temporarily. Gang
In Phoenix, a multifaceted approach tion of attending a diversion program that members are taken to the reception
has been developed to implement the includes classes in parenting, interper- facility, where they receive special coun-
city’s curfew ordinance. A review of the sonal communication, conflict resolution seling and exposure to positive alterna-
city’s original curfew legislation, enacted training, and community service. When tives to gang affiliation. The Phoenix
in 1968, found it ambiguous and unen- the police department receives notifica- Police Department reports statistics that
forceable. New legislation was enacted in tion that the juvenile and parents have bear out the fact that the curfew appears
1992, and a partnership was established completed the program, the charge is dis- to be working. A comparison made since
between the Phoenix Police Department missed. If the diversion program is not the citywide implementation of the cur-
and the Department of Parks, Recreation, completed, a petition is filed in juvenile few program in May 1993 showed a 10-
and Libraries (PRL).22 The curfew ordi- court, where the outcomes can include a percent decrease in juvenile arrests for
nance is designed to impact crimes in fine for the juvenile, counseling for both violent crimes (homicide, sexual assault,
which the suspect, victim, or both is a the juvenile and the family, and commu- robbery, aggravated assault) during the
juvenile. nity service. A parental responsibility 11-month period from June 1993 through
provision in the curfew law could also April 1994 as compared with the period
result in a fine to the parents. from June 1992 through April 1993.24

Table 2:
Exceptions to Juvenile Curfew Ordinances in Seven Jurisdictions

Attending
Interstate School or a
Commerce/ First Travel Religious or Sidewalk
Adult Travel Amendment To and Emergency/ Married Supervised Bordering
Jurisdiction Escort Activities1 Activities2 From Work Necessity Juvenile Activity Residence3

Dallas, TX ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
Phoenix, AZ ✔ ✔ ✔
Chicago, IL ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

New Orleans, LA ✔ ✔ ✔
Denver, CO ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
North Little Rock, AR ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
Jacksonville, FL ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

1 Interstate business or travel activities that are protected by the U.S. Constitution.

2 Participation in activities that are protected by the first amendment, such as meetings or rallies.

3 Presence on a sidewalk that may be considered a public area yet borders a home or other residence of the juvenile.

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Community leaders and parents project under the direction and manage- turned home by district personnel. A
strongly support the curfew ordinance ment of the commander of a 20-member followup investigation is conducted when
because of its comprehensive, commu- Youth Division Strike Force. The Fourth the officer is unable to locate the parent
nity-based character. According to the Police District CAPS site aggressively at the time of the curfew violation, and
Phoenix Police Department, the ordi- implemented Operation Timeout by get- the parent is issued a citation. Parents
nance is an effective component of ting community support for sending cur- who refuse to appear in court or refuse to
Phoenix’s citywide crime prevention and few enforcement teams of officers from pay a fine may have a judgment entered
reduction program. In addition to the cur- the Department’s School Patrol Unit into against them. For the parents of repeat
few enforcement program, Phoenix has targeted areas within the fourth district curfew violators, special assistance such
strengthened its commitment to crime with a single mission: to enforce the city’s as parenting classes and joint counseling
prevention and reduction through com- curfew ordinance vigorously.26 sessions may be provided. In addition,
munity policing, newly enacted weapon The Operation Timeout curfew en- parents of “children requiring authorita-
laws, and police-led programs in elemen- forcement program is designed to reduce tive intervention” under State law may be
tary and junior high schools. juvenile crime and victimization and to given assistance through court-appointed
Examples of these programs include foster communication between the Patrol social service agencies.
Drug Abuse Resistance Education Division, the Youth Division, and the com- The Fourth District reports that a
(DARE)—developed with funds from the munity. To support the program, the Chi- comparison of data from 1993 to 1994
U.S. Departments of Justice and Educa- cago Police Department’s Neighborhood demonstrated a decrease in the number
tion, with major contributions from the Relations sergeants work with communi- of serious juvenile crimes reported. The
private sector—and Gang Recognition ties to prevent curfew violations. When most notable decreases were in burglar-
and Education Awareness Training special events are held, for example, they ies (from 304 in 1993 to 269 in 1994), ve-
(GREAT), initiated by the Phoenix Police encourage sponsoring organizations to hicle theft (from 255 in 1993 to 177 in
Department with funds provided by the comply with curfew hours when develop- 1994), and theft (from 522 in 1993 to 177
U.S. Department of the Treasury. The ing the event schedule. in 1994). Operation Timeout appears to
Police Department’s Cease Violence The city advocates a “no-tolerance” be an effective curfew initiative, and com-
program—a unique partnership with policy for curfew violators through ag- munity support for its continuation re-
other city agencies, the private sector gressive enforcement and the required mains high. As a result of the success of
(Motorola), and various elementary and involvement of a parent or guardian the Fourth District program, four addi-
junior and senior high schools—employs when a juvenile is picked up for a cur- tional police districts have been added to
traditional and nontraditional methods to few violation. The specialized curfew Operation Timeout. All 20 police districts
address the crime problem. This program enforcement teams utilize “Care-O-Vans” in Chicago are expected to become a part
produced a video on gang and teen pres- to pick up curfew violators. Teams using of Operation Timeout in the near future.
sures entitled “Wake-Up,” geared to youth the van process all curfew violators in the
7 to 17 years of age. Another Police De- district on a given evening, including New Orleans, Louisiana
partment program, Project Interact, seeks those picked up by beat patrol officers. Based on an assessment of juvenile
to promote better relationships between This approach reduces the downtime of delinquency in New Orleans, a compre-
at-risk youth and the department. In beat patrol officers, who can turn over hensive and collaborative prevention
monthly 90-minute workshops, patrol the curfew violators to the team shortly strategy was initiated by Mayor Marc
officers meet with youth to share infor- after they are apprehended and return Morial. A dusk-to-dawn curfew ordi-
mation and ideas, with the goal of estab- immediately to beat patrol duty. First- nance was part of the Morial Adminis-
lishing a code of conduct for both officers time offenders are returned to their tration Crime Initiative (MACI) that began
and youth. The program is facilitated by a homes, and a parent or guardian is issued in May 1994. To manage and implement
police supervisor; students attend at a a warning notice. Parents or guardians of the curfew program, the city opened the
ratio of two students to one officer.25 a first-time curfew violator may also be Central Curfew Center (CCC), which is
charged with “contributing to the delin- staffed with trained professionals from
Chicago, Illinois quency of a minor” if it is determined that government agencies and the religious
Chicago passed its first curfew ordi- they “. . . knowingly or willfully permitted, and medical communities. The sheriff’s
nance in July 1948. It has been amend- caused, aided, abetted, or encouraged office assigned 30 deputies and several
ed several times, most recently in June such child to commit a violation of this or other staff to CCC and provided 15 two-
1992. In April 1993, the Chicago Police any ordinance” and fined $200 to $500. man units to patrol the streets. Each
Department initiated the Chicago Alterna- night the New Orleans Police Department
Repeat offenders are taken to the Chi-
tive Police Strategy (CAPS) program. has more than 50 police officers on the
cago Police Department’s Fourth District
CAPS is a community policing initiative streets and 5 to 6 officers from the Juve-
station. Parents are required to pick up
that started in 5 of Chicago’s police dis- nile Bureau onsite at CCC. A local group
their child, are issued a nontraffic citation
tricts and is now operating in all 20. In of ministers, All Congregations Together,
for the ordinance violation, and are re-
1994, the Chicago Police Department’s has several ministers at CCC each night
quired to appear in court to answer the
Bureau of Investigative Services sup- to counsel juveniles and their parents or
complaint. Children whose parents are
ported an experimental research project, guardians on the ramifications of the
working, cannot be reached, or are un-
“Operation Timeout,” a summer curfew curfew violation. Also on duty at the
willing to pick up their children are re-

6
center to provide counseling are staff Denver, Colorado by providing referrals and data to assist
from the Louisiana State University Medi- During the summer of 1993, a group of them in grant procurement.)32 Through
cal Center’s Department of Psychiatry 2,500 citizens in Denver met in a Safe this collaboration, the curfew program
and from the City of New Orleans Tru- City Summit to discuss their concerns has become a revolving door of informa-
ancy Center. In addition, a 24-hour curfew about youth crime, violence, and safety. tion, linking “demand” with “supply” by
hotline has been set up to respond to Their recommendations included estab- identifying citizens’ needs, noting gaps in
questions about the curfew policy and its lishing a program to authorize police to service for identified problems, and con-
enforcement.27 take youth in violation of Denver’s necting citizens with current resources.
Curfew violators brought to the CCC amended curfew law to a safe place and As indicated above, youth and par-
are screened by counselors, and their increasing parental involvement with ents are given the option of participating
parents or guardians are contacted. Par- and responsibility for children under the in an appropriate diversion program
ents are required to pick up their children age of 18. Mayor Wellington E. Webb re- rather than going to court. If they suc-
at the center and to participate in coun- sponded to the citizens’ recommenda- cessfully complete the program, the case
seling sessions with trained volunteers. tions with a 10-point Safe City Plan, one is dismissed. Youth and parents who do
Parents of repeat offenders are issued a component of which is the SafeNite After not elect to participate in or complete a
court summons and risk being fined for Curfew (SafeNite) program, developed in diversion program go to court and may
failure to keep their children from violat- collaboration with community groups, be required to pay a fine or complete
ing the curfew. These steps are designed parents, police, recreation, and social court-ordered community service. Re-
to help promote and support dialog be- services staff. SafeNite, which was peat curfew violators and/or their par-
tween parent and child, establish paren- launched in July 1994, provides a safe ents are dealt with on a case-by-case
tal accountability, and set new ground place—either a recreation center or a basis, and incremental sanctions apply.
rules within the home. church—where youth found on the These sanctions may include a court ap-
Summer youth programs are a key streets during curfew hours are taken by pearance with assessed fines, commu-
component of MACI. A $500,000 city fund- police to wait for a parent or guardian.31 nity service or a more intense diversion
ing reallocation was provided to the New Youth taken to SafeNite locations are program, or probation status. 33
Orleans Recreation Department (NORD) processed and served a citation from Denver officials credit the SafeNite
to increase summer programs such as police officers onsite. SafeNite staff con- program with fostering more consistent
evening swimming and volleyball. The tact the youth’s parents or guardians to enforcement of the city’s curfew ordi-
number of NORD summer camps in- pick them up. The parent may also re- nance and with providing a secure and
creased from 17 to 41, serving more than ceive a ticket, at police discretion. The safe environment for curfew violators
100,000 youth. The number of swimming youth and parent are seen onsite by a until they are reunited with their fami-
pools increased from 4 to 14. Addition- professional counselor who helps ad- lies. The only time required of the police
ally, the city created 1,300 new summer dress family issues and obtain social officer is the time needed to drive to and
jobs for youth under a local public- services if needed. Counseling services from the SafeNite site. The enforcement
private partnership and also received are available on a variety of issues, as of SafeNite is credited with helping to
$1.8 million in Federal funding from are workshops on conflict resolution and deter graffiti, vandalism, car theft, and
AmeriCorp’s Youth Action Corps to pro- interpersonal communication skills. more violent crimes while decreasing
vide year-round employment for youth On nights when SafeNite sites are not juvenile victimization, increasing paren-
in local education, park, and recreation in operation, curfew counselors in the tal involvement, and assisting families.
programs.28 municipal courtroom interview and offer Initial statistics on SafeNite from the
The combination of curfew, the sum- diversion to the ticketed youth and their Denver Police Department for the period
mer jobs program, and the revitaliza- families. Currently, SafeNite locations are from July 1994 through December 1995
tion of recreation programs resulted open Friday through Sunday. However, are encouraging: More than 168 cases
in a 27-percent reduction in juvenile the program is flexible, and the days of were dismissed per month, alleviating
crime during curfew hours in 1994, operation may be changed to respond court congestion; 61 percent of the 4,676
compared with the previous year.29 The to shifting patterns of youth activity. For youth served by the program and their
crimes most significantly reduced were example, when youth began to gather families have completed or are in the
armed robbery, down 33 percent, and “en masse” on nights when the SafeNite process of completing diversion; and the
auto theft, down 42 percent. New Orleans center was closed, the center’s operating recidivism rate is down to 7 percent from
Sheriff Charles Foti calls the curfew pro- schedule was altered to reflect this 56 percent at the start of the program.
gram “. . . a coordinated effort, of unprec- change. The law enforcement community also
edented proportions, between private The Denver curfew program enjoys a believes SafeNite has contributed signifi-
and public agencies across the City to a collaborative partnership with 234 com- cantly to the 11-percent drop in serious
unified end—to reduce crime and protect munity programs to which children and crime during each of the first 2 years of
the young people of this City” and reports their families are diverted. Of these pro- curfew implementation. Specifically, the
that the program “. . . has earned the un- grams, 80 percent are at no cost to category of motor vehicle theft, which is
qualified support of the New Orleans SafeNite or to the client. (The program often a juvenile crime, was reduced 17
community.” 30 leverages community service providers percent in 1994 and 23 percent in 1995.

7
Plans are under way to apply the SafeNite Keeping curfew enforcement and pro- duction in the categories of homicide,
diversion model to juveniles who commit cessing simple has kept police support rape, robbery, and assault and a 10-
such offenses as shoplifting, petty theft, high. The North Little Rock curfew ordi- percent reduction in burglaries. 36 Local
and giving false information.34 nance is a key element in a multifaceted law enforcement officials attribute these
set of solutions that are part of North crime reductions in great measure to the
North Little Rock, Arkansas Little Rock’s overall community policing curfew enforcement program. Based on
In North Little Rock, community life plan. With the cooperation of city admin- these initial results, other jurisdictions
was adversely affected in the late 1980’s istrators, the police department was able in Arkansas have begun similar curfew
by organized juvenile gangs that traf- to increase its personnel to provide addi- enforcement programs.
ficked in drugs and whose members car- tional officers in the schools, facilitating
ried high-powered weapons on city the development of joint programs by Jacksonville, Florida
street corners. In 1991, the local police the police department and the school In response to high rates of juvenile
department, Neighborhood Watch district. Programs include a school re- crime and victimization, the City of Jack-
groups, elected officials, and city admin- source officer program to reduce in- sonville instituted a juvenile curfew ordi-
istrators joined together to organize a school conflicts, school crime, truancy, nance in April 1995, giving police officers
collaborative response to increased seri- and dropping out, and introduction of the authority to stop and question sus-
ous crime in general, and juvenile crime the DARE program for students in kin- pected curfew violators.
and victimization in particular. One of dergarten through sixth grade. The local
school district also created an alterna- When a juvenile is stopped on suspi-
their first proposals was to establish a cion of curfew violation, the officer first
curfew law. With strong support from tive school to provide a place to which
juveniles who are truant or suspended determines whether he or she falls under
dozens of neighborhood organizations, a curfew exemption. A juvenile who is
the city council passed a curfew ordi- for disruptive behavior could be brought
instead of being sent home. found to be in violation of the curfew
nance in July 1991. In creating a practical may either be taken home by the officer
and effective curfew ordinance, particu- With support from 10 corporate spon- or brought to the Juvenile Assessment
lar attention was given to two important sors, North Little Rock also instituted a Center (JAC), at the discretion of the of-
issues: increasing parental supervision supervised midnight basketball program ficer. While each of the cities described
of children and keeping the police de- to provide at-risk youth with an alterna- in this bulletin provides a range of serv-
partment process simple.35 tive to being on the street. This program, ices to curfew violators, Jacksonville is
The North Little Rock Police Depart- which serves boys and girls ages 12 to one of the few cities in the country with
ment recognized that its limited re- 18, combines athletic activity with aca- a centralized intake and assessment fa-
sources required a curfew process that demic tutoring, mentoring, and an em- cility for juvenile offenders, including
was as straightforward and simple as ployment orientation program that juvenile curfew violators. 37
possible. A concentrated effort was covers the importance of a good work
ethic, how to complete an employment JAC is a centralized, multiagency facil-
made to simplify the extensive reporting ity with multidisciplinary staffing. By co-
requirements for a juvenile arrest by cre- application, and the development of job
interview skills. The program is held at ordinating law enforcement and social,
ating a 1-page form for a curfew violation educational, and mental health services
that required the officer to complete just the local recreation facility, Sherman
Park, on Friday and Saturday evenings at one location, JAC provides juveniles
10 items of information. When a juvenile and their families with easy access to a
is picked up for a curfew violation, he or from 8 p.m. to midnight. Participants
are instructed to return directly home comprehensive range of services. By
she is taken to police headquarters and providing access to needed services at
turned over to a juvenile officer. The ju- because the curfew goes into effect at
midnight. On tournament nights, the pro- the earliest possible time, JAC hopes
venile is detained in a nonsecure area of to provide early interventions that will
headquarters designated for curfew vio- gram runs until 1 a.m., with a 1-hour ex-
ception made to the curfew. Periodic avert a pattern of at-risk and delinquent
lators while arrangements are made with behavior.
a parent or guardian to return the juve- followup checks with the recreation and
nile home following a review of the cur- police departments have indicated that Curfew violators brought to JAC are
few ordinance and the circumstances of participants are adhering to the program also screened to determine if they have
the violation with the parent or guardian guidelines. committed additional violations that re-
and the child. The North Little Rock ordi- To monitor the impact of the compre- quire court review. Those who have are
nance provides that a juvenile’s second hensive curfew enforcement program, moved to the secure section of the facil-
curfew violation can result in charges the North Little Rock Police Department ity for further screening and assessment.
against the parents. Generally, a fine is completes daily reports that track the Curfew violators are held in the nonsec-
imposed but suspended for 1 year and location of curfew apprehensions, along ure section of JAC and screened to deter-
dismissed if no further curfew violations with statistical information on age, sex, mine whether they are experiencing
occur. After three curfew violations, a and race. Statistics from 1992, the first problems relating to drug and alcohol
referral to the State’s Department of full year of curfew enforcement, showed abuse, mental health, or family dynamics.
Human Services for consideration of a a significant reduction in crimes against Parents are then contacted to pick up
juvenile-in-need-of-services petition is persons. Compared with 1991, the city their child. If the home situation appears
required. However, such referrals have experienced an average 12-percent re- too volatile and unsafe for the juvenile, a
been necessary in only a few cases.

8
temporary housing arrangement is se- computer skills by engaging in computer programs can provide may not be easily
cured until a further evaluation is com- games as a reward for completing their quantifiable—at least in the short term.
pleted. Depending on the nature of the homework. PAL also offers a range of Phoenix curfew staff have observed that
services warranted, either a letter is pre- sports activities that include basketball, many of the curfew violators brought
sented to the parents recommending boxing, karate, and other activities for into the recreation centers that function
followup services, which they can accept boys and girls between the hours of as curfew reception centers welcome the
or reject on a voluntary basis, or a court 4 p.m. and 10 p.m., 7 days a week. opportunity for social interaction with
referral is made for a “family in need of It is too early to determine the impact other youth and with program staff. Of-
services.” Services available include of Jacksonville’s comprehensive curfew ten these youth seek advice, assistance,
counseling, parenting training, treatment program. The program has been in op- and counsel from program staff. Parents
for drug and alcohol abuse, treatment for eration for less than a year, and collec- sometimes bring their son or daughter to
mental illness, and training in family dy- tion of data on its effectiveness and a curfew site to seek assistance and ad-
namics and interpersonal communica- impact is ongoing. However, community vice on the best approach for curfew
tion skills. Repeat curfew violators are support has been strong, and State At- compliance or to deal with other prob-
also taken to JAC to be screened to de- torney Harry L. Shorstein has expressed lem behaviors.
termine what services may be provided his office’s support, stating that “The Communities that develop and imple-
the youth and their families to help ad- curfew program is viewed as one compo- ment curfew ordinances in conjunction
dress the situation. nent of a comprehensive crime preven- with programs and services designed to
Florida State law allows local jurisdic- tion program that can help fight juvenile assist youth and families to solve under-
tions to assess both the parent and the delinquency and protect our youth from lying individual or family problems have
child a $50 fine for a curfew violation. victimization.”38 an opportunity to enhance positive youth
However, Jacksonville’s curfew ordi- development, prevent delinquency, and
nance did not adopt this portion of the reduce the victimization of children.
State statute, and fines for curfew viola-
Summary
tion are not levied. Curfew ordinances are in effect in a
majority of the Nation’s largest cities. Notes
In support of the curfew ordinance,
While curfews have been challenged in 1. Ruefle, W., and Reynolds, K.M. (In
the Jacksonville Police Department, the
many jurisdictions on a variety of consti- press). “Keep Them at Home: Juvenile
Duval County Parks, Recreation, and En-
tutional and other grounds, narrowly Curfew Ordinances in 200 American Cit-
tertainment Department, and the Duval
crafted ordinances designed to address ies.” American Journal of Police.
County School Board provide a range of
specifically identified problems appear 2. Hood, J. (May 28, 1991). “The Trouble
community-based delinquency preven-
able to withstand such challenges. Statis- With Curfews,” The (San Francisco) Daily
tion programs. One innovative program
tical analyses of the impact of curfew Journal. Potok, M. (June 6, 1994). “Cities
supported by all three organizations is
ordinances on delinquency and juvenile Deciding That It’s Time for Teen Cur-
the combined Safe, Accessible, Flexible
victimization in many communities con- fews,” USA Today. “Curfew Not a Good
Enrichment and Teaching for Educa-
tinue to be conducted. The information Idea.” (July 6, 1994). Sentinel & Enter-
tional Achievement through Math and
made available by the communities high- prise. Kane, T. (July 14, 1994). “Curfew
Science (SAFE/TEAMS) program. This
lighted in this bulletin and by other com- Needs To Be Stronger,” The Leominster
multi-agency program includes teachers,
munities where curfew programs have (Massachusetts) Times. “Limiting Kids’
recreation specialists, and school re-
been implemented indicates that com- Time on the Streets Elicits Both Relief
source officers. These officers provide
prehensive, community-based juvenile and Resentment.” (August 20, 1994). Dal-
guidance, counseling, mentoring, and
curfew programs are helping to reduce las Morning News.
overall program security. The SAFE/
juvenile delinquency and victimization.
TEAMS program is available 2 hours 3. See Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 U.S.
It is important for communities that are
each school day and on Saturday morn- 510 (1925); Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U.S.
enforcing curfews or considering a cur-
ings for children in Duval County’s 23 205 (1972).
few ordinance to keep abreast of legal
middle schools. It provides juveniles a
developments, establish a firm founda- 4. Bykofsky v. Middletown, 401 F.Supp.
place to receive tutoring on school work,
tion for the ordinance, and model the 1242 (1975).
with an emphasis on math and science,
curfew program after community-based
and an opportunity to participate in arts 5. Id. at 1264.
efforts in other jurisdictions.
and crafts, horseback riding, field trips, 6. Waters v. Barry 711 F.Supp. 1125 (1989).
clubs, recreation, and athletics. The initial evidence offered by the
seven communities profiled in this Bulle- 7. Id. at 1134.
The Jacksonville PAL provides at-risk
tin is that community-based curfew pro- 8. Id. at 1138.
children an opportunity to interact with
grams that offer a range of services are
police officers who serve as mentors 9. See Qutb v. Bartlett, 11 F.3rd 494 (5th
more easily and effectively enforced, en-
during their nonduty hours. Jacksonville Cir. 1993).
joy community support, and provide a
has added a new dimension to its PAL
greater benefit in preventing juvenile de- 10. Bykofsky, 401 F.Supp. 1242, 1254
program through a newly donated com-
linquency and victimization. In addition, (1975).
puter laboratory. The lab allows juve-
several of the benefits of positive inter-
niles to develop their academic and
ventions that community-based curfew

9
11. Qutb v. Bartlett, 11 F.3d 488, 492 (5th Anniversary of Curfew.” New Orleans, Columbia Journal of Law and Social Prob-
Cir. 1993) citing Hodgson v. Minnesota, LA: Office of the Mayor (press release). lems 24:381–417. NCJ 153040.
497 U.S. 417, 444 (1990). 30. Foti, C.C., Jr. (Summer 1994). “Juve- Hunt, A.L., and Weiner, K. (1977). “The
12. Qutb v. Strauss, 11 F.3rd 488 (5th Cir. nile Curfew Center Operational.” The Impact of a Juvenile Curfew: Suppression
1993). Louisiana Sheriff 7(1):8. and Displacement in Patterns of Juvenile
13. Id. at 494. 31. Safe City Initiative. (1994). Denver, Offenses.” Journal of Police Science and
CO: Office of the Mayor (fact sheet). Administration 5(4):407–412. NCJ 044614.
14. Qutb v. Bartlett, 114 S.Ct. 2134 (1994).
32. Barnett, M.C. (January 15, 1996). International Association of Chiefs of
15. Qutb v. Strauss, 11 F.3rd 488, 494 (5th Police. (May 1994). “Juvenile Curfew En-
Cir. 1993). “SafeNite After Curfew Quarterly/Cumu-
lative Report and Statistical Composite forcement” (Concepts and Issues Paper).
16. Bykofsky v. Middletown, 401 F.Supp. Addendum.” Denver, CO: SafeNite Pro- Alexandria, VA: International Association
1242, 1249 (1975) citing Interstate Circuit gram, p. 8 (memorandum). of Chiefs of Police, National Law Enforce-
v. Dallas, 390 U.S. at 684–685. ment Policy Center. NCJ 159572.
33. SafeNite After Curfew. Denver, CO:
17. Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Pre- Office of the Mayor. International Association of Chiefs of
vention Act of 1974, as amended (Public Police. (1994). “Juvenile Curfew Enforce-
Law 93–415), Section 223(a)(12)(A). NCJ 34. Browne, S. (September 6, 1995). ment” (Training Key #445). Alexandria,
036136. “Safety Effectiveness of SafeNite Curfew VA: International Association of Chiefs of
Program.” Safety Office of Policy Analy- Police. NCJ 159571.
18. Maguire, K., and Pastore, A.L. (Edi- sis, Denver Police Department, pp. 1–12
tors). (1995). Sourcebook of Criminal Jus- (memorandum). Barnett, M.C. (July “Juvenile Curfews and Gang Violence:
tice Statistics—1994. U.S. Department of 1995). “SafeNite After Curfew Quarterly/ Exiled on Main Street.” (1994). Harvard
Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Cumulative Report and Statistical Com- Law Review 107(7):1693–1710. NCJ
Washington, DC: USGPO, pp. 124–129. posite Addendum,” pp. 1–28. Reported 159570.
NCJ 154591. Crime Statistics. (July 1995). Denver, CO: Marketos, A.K. (1995). “The Constitu-
19. Click, B.R. (1994). “Statistics in Dallas Denver Police Department, Research and tionality of Juvenile Curfews.” Juvenile
Encouraging.” The Police Chief 61(12):33– Development Division. and Family Court Journal 46(2):17–30.
36. NCJ 159573. 35. Nolan, W.P., Chief, North Little Rock NCJ 156120.
20. Youth Programs for the Dallas, Texas, Police Department, Arkansas. (August Ruefle, W., and Reynolds, K.M. (1995).
Police Department, 1995 (brochure). 1995). Personal communication. Nolan, “Curfews and Delinquency in Major
W.P. (1994). “Innovative Curfew Enforce- American Cities.” Crime and Delinquency
21. Click, B.R. “Statistics in Dallas En-
ment.” The Police Chief 61(12):59–61; 41(3):347–363. NCJ 156331.
couraging,” p. 36.
NCJ 159574. Veilleux, D.R. (1983). Validity, Construc-
22. Garrett, D.A., and Brewster, D. (1994).
36. Nolan, W.P. “Innovative Curfew tion, and Effect of Juvenile Curfew Regula-
“Curfew: A New Look at an Old Tool.”
Enforcement,” p. 61. tions. NCJ 153036.
The Police Chief 61(12):29–33. NCJ
153037. 37. Shorstein, H.L. (June 15, 1995). “State- Watzman, N. (1994). “The Curfew Re-
ment on Juvenile Justice.” Jacksonville, vival Gains Momentum.” Governing
23. Ibid., pp. 31–33.
FL: State Attorney’s Office. 7(5):20–21. NCJ 149382.
24. Garrett, D.A. (June 15, 1994). “Com-
38. Shorstein, H.L. (January 30, 1996).
prehensive Review of the Citywide Juve-
nile Curfew Program.” Phoenix, AZ: City
Personal communication. For Further
Council Report, p. 2. Information
25. Cherrick, J. (February 1996). Phoenix
Additional Reading • The Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse
Police Department, Patrol Administra- “Curfew Laws Are Being Enacted To (800–638–8736) can provide addi-
tion. Personal communication. Rein in Kids on the Loose and Charge tional information on juvenile curfew
Parents for Violations.” (1994). Outlook and contacts for each of the seven
26. Bartik, R.M., Commander, Youth Divi-
From the State Capitals 48(24):1–4. NCJ jurisdictions discussed in this bulle-
sion, Bureau of Investigative Services,
153038. tin. Documents cited in this bulletin
Chicago Police Department (July 25,
Davidson, H. (1996). “No Conse- that are available from the clearing-
1995). Personal communication.
quences: Re-examining Parental Respon- house are indicated by an NCJ (Na-
27. Wilson, P. (October 12, 1994). “Visit tional Criminal Justice) number at the
sibility Laws.” Stanford Law and Policy
to Curfew Center Reveals Value of Pro- end of the reference.
Review 7(1) (in press).
gram.” The (New Orleans) Times Pica-
Frerking, B. (August 13, 1995). “Cur- • The National Institute of Justice (NIJ),
yune, p. B–7.
fews Today Try To Protect Innocent Office of Justice Programs, U.S. De-
28. Morial, M.H. (January 30, 1995). “Our partment of Justice, funded two
Kids.” The Sacramento Bee.
Juvenile Curfew Is Working.” The Wash- research studies in 1995: The Effects
ington Post. Horowitz, S.M. (1990–1991). “A Search of Juvenile Curfews on Violent Crime
for Constitutional Standards: Judicial (awarded to Sam Houston University,
29. Morial, M.H. (June 2, 1995). “Mayor
Review of Juvenile Curfew Ordinances.”
Morial Reports Juvenile Crime Down on

10
College of Criminal Justice), and An Curfew Ordinance To Withstand Con- the Bureau of Justice Assistance,
Analysis of the Juvenile Curfew in stitutional Challenges” by Mark Office of Justice Programs, U.S. De-
New Orleans, Louisiana, as a Crime Hessel, and other helpful resources. partment of Justice. The model policy
Prevention Measure for American Cit- To obtain a copy, contact Nathan and paper are designed to assist law
ies (awarded to the University of New Ridnouer at the National League of enforcement executives in tailoring
Orleans, College of Urban/Public Af- Cities by telephone, 202–626–3188, or their own policies to the requirements
fairs). The results of both studies will e-mail, ridnouer@nlc.org. and circumstances of their communi-
be available in 1996. For information • The International Municipal Lawyers ties and their law enforcement agen-
contact Rosemary N. Murphy, Pro- Association (IMLA, formerly the Na- cies. To obtain copies of these
gram Manager, National Institute of tional Institute of Municipal Law Offi- materials, contact Philip Lynn, Man-
Justice, at 202–307–2959, or the Na- cers, Inc., or NIMLO), has published a ager, IACP, National Law Enforcement
tional Criminal Justice Reference Model Juvenile Curfew Ordinance that Policy Center, by telephone, 703–836–
Service at 800–851–3420. includes a discussion of legal chal- 6767, or fax, 703–836–4543.
• The U.S. Conference of Mayors an- lenges to juvenile curfew ordinances
nounced in December 1995 the results and provides curfew drafting guide-
of a 387-city survey of trends in cities’ lines. IMLA has also published Sam This bulletin was prepared by Donni
use of youth curfews. For information Lindsay’s 1994 NIMLO Mid-Year Semi- LeBoeuf, Senior Program Manager, OJJDP,
nar Paper, “Juvenile Curfews and the with assistance from OJJDP Intern Patricia
on the survey and its findings, contact
Brennan and the Juvenile Justice Resource
John Pionke or Mike Brown at the U.S. Constitution: The Latest Round in a
Center.
Conference of Mayors by telephone, Continuing Debate.” Copies of both
202–293–7330, or fax, 202–293–2352. can be obtained by contacting IMLA
by telephone, 202–466–5424; fax, 202– The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin-
• The National League of Cities’ publica-
785–0152; or e-mail, IMLADC@aol.com. quency Prevention is a component of the Of-
tion Juvenile Crime Prevention:
Curfews and Youth Services, which is • The International Association of fice of Justice Programs, which also includes
part of the series Issues & Options: Chiefs of Police (IACP) has developed the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau
Practical Ideas for Local Government a Model Policy on Juvenile Curfew of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of
Leaders, provides background infor- Enforcement, with an accompanying Justice, and the Office for Victims of Crime.
mation, a section on “Drafting a discussion paper, under a grant from

11
U.S. Department of Justice BULK RATE
Office of Justice Programs POSTAGE & FEES PAID
DOJ/OJJDP
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Permit No. G–91

Washington, D.C. 20531

Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300

NCJ 159533