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Cornell University Library
arV19451
Water hammer
in
hydraulic pipe lines
3 1924 031 260 254
olln,anx
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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924031260254
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC PIPE LINES
BY TEE SAME AUTHOR
HYDRAULICS:
And
Its Applications.
Price, 18s.
ne,t.
This is the test book to date ou the subject ; it is, in fact, better than . all the others put together. We can thoroughly recommend the
'
.
book.'
Engineering Times.
consider the work one of the most satisfactory textbooks on
'We
Hydraulics World.
extant.'
Mechanical
CO.
ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE &
LIMITED
WATER HAMMEE
of the Rise or Fall in Pressure in a
IN
HYDEAULIC PIPE LINES
Being a Theoretical and Experimental Investigation
Pipe Line, caused
by the gradual or sudden
closing or opening of a
Valve; with a Chapter on the Speed Regulation
of
Hydraulic Turbines
BY
A. H.
GIBSON,
M.Sc., Assoc.
Mem.
Inst. C.E.
SE^fIOB
DBMONSTKATOK AND ASSISTANT LBCTUEEE IN ENQINEBEINO IN THE MANOHESTEE UNIVBESITT
LONDON
ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE &
10
CO.,
LTD.
OEANGE STREET, LEICESTEE SQUARE
1908
D.
VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY
3WW YORK
gts^
1^
A.3TEo5'lo
PEEFACE
Although
the subject the study of Hydraulics has been very
much
to the fore during recent years, one particular branch of
viz.,
that dealing with the problems involved
during the acceleration or retardation of a water column,
would seem to have been almost entirely neglected.
In
fact,
except for
an experimental investigation by
translation,
Joukowsky, of which we have no English
which only deals with sudden stoppage
available literature dealing with the matter.
and
of flow,
we have no
In the majority of textbooks on Hydraulics the treat
ment which the question
but
is
receives
is
not only of the scantiest
is
as inaccurate as scanty,
and as the whole subject
not without
most interesting
and
is
certainly
practical
importance, perhaps
it is
unnecessary to apologise for the
following account of a theoretical and experimental investigation carried out
by the
author.
The experimental portion of the work was done in the
Engineering Laboratories
of
the
Manchester University,
and the thanks
of the work, for
of the author are
due to the University
authorities for their ready acquiescence in this publication
and
to Mr. J. Hall of the Engineering StafiF
much
help in the preparation of the apparatus and in
carrying out the experiments.
A. H.
GIBSON.
Manchester, September
1908.
CONTENTS
PART.
1.
Introduction,
...
.
CHAPTER
.1
. . . . . . . . . .
PAOB
2.
General theory of gradual closure,
3.
4. 5.
Description of experimental apparatus,
Experimental results,
Gradual opening
of a valve,
.18 .22 .24
CHAPTER
1.
II
Application to the theory of turbine regulation,
27
31
2.
Speed regulation assuming uniform pipeline acceleration,
Effect of a stand pipe on speed regulation,
.
3.
.33
CHAPTER
1.
III
. .
Sudden stoppage
of
motion
theory,
.
.36
41
2. 3.
4.
Valve closed suddenly, but not instantaneously,
Experimental results,
.
.
.42
.
Sudden closure
in nonuniform pipeline, of a valve,
.
.
45
5. 6.
Sudden opening
.48
.
Sudden opening neglecting
effect of elasticity,
50
CHAPTER IV
1.
Further phenomena connected with pipe flow,
Appendix,
Bibliography,
.... ......
.
53
57
60
CHAPTER
Introduction
General Theory of Gradual Closure Description of Experimental Apparatus Experimental Results Gradual open
ing of a Valve.
1.
Introduction.
It
is
a matter of general knowledge, that any retardation
or acceleration of a water column, such as
may
be caused by
the closing or opening of a valve at the outlet from a pipe
line, is
accompanied by a
rise or fall in the pressure
behind
the valve.
In certain cases this change in pressure
equally to every portion of the pipe
line.
is
transmitted
When
may be
and
such a change takes the form of a sudden rise in
pressure, this is
known
as
Water Hammer.
Its
magnitude
large with even comparatively low velocities of flow,
of importance, not only in so far as it affects the
it is
safety of a pipe line, but also in its effect on the ease of
regulation of any prime
mover supplied by the
latter.
In,
this latter respect the fall in pressure
caused by opening the
regulating sluice
is
of even greater importance than a corre
sponding
rise in pressure, since the latter
may
be readily
guarded against by the provision of an adequate relief valve
or pressure regulator.
Although the
of a valve has
rise in pressure
caused by the sudden closing
been investigated by more than one experi
menter, the pressure change due to a gradual closure, or to a gradual opening, has not, to the author's knowledge, been
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC PIPE LINES
Further, those formulae
the subject of previous investigation.
which have, in one or two instances, been educed as giving
such pressures,
may
be shown to be based on assumptions
which are fundamentally unsound, and when tested show
results
which are in general widely at variance with those
which led to the following theoretical
of the subject.
obtained experimentally.
It
was these
facts
and experimental investigation
2.
Gradual Closure of a Valve
a rigid body of weight
General Theory.
has
its
If
lbs.
velocity in
ft.
any
of
given direction changed by an amount 8v
per
sec^n^
gravita
time
seconds,
its
acceleration
is
Sw/Si,
and the^change
momentum
tional units.
per second in this direction
is
^
in
To produce
force
this
this acceleration or
change in momentum, a
F must be applied to the body in the direction in which
change takes place,
:
its
magnitude being given by the
formula
i^^^.^lbs.
g
ot
As an example
of this,
if
water be flowing along a rigid
is
pipe whose crosssectional area at any particular point
sq. ft.,
and
if j
be
its acceleration,
the force necessary to
this point, of
accelerate a short element of the
column at
,,
length
Sx, will
equal
a.6x.^
dt
<>
dv
lbs.,
all
g dimensions being in feet and
w being the weight (624: lbs.)
of 1 cubic foot of water.
This force can only be produced by a difference of pressure
GEADUAL CLOSUKE
at the
3
this pressure
two ends
of the element, and,
ft.,
if
Sy be
difference in lbs. per sq.
we have
bt g the difference of pressure at the
8p=.Sx..
In a pipe of length
I ft.
two ends, due to acceleration
P'
If the
of the
column ==ESp'=j?', so that
(1)
= ~\
jf^^'^^^'^^'^^l^^
if
pipe be of uniform area, and
water be assumed to
be an incompressible fluid so that, no matter what changes
of pressure
may
occur throughout
its
mass, each particle has
the same velocity at any given instant,
we
get, at this instant
p
Where
=
g
dt
lbs.
per
sq. ft.
this measures the
change in pressure at the outlet
is
valve, it will be positive
when the motion
being retarded
and negative when being
accelerated, so that the equation
must be written
,
wl dv
" ~~g'~ii
1,
J.,
,,,,
^^"^
^^
is
^
super
This pressure difference at the two ends of the pipe
posed on that due to steady flow with the velocity obtaining
at the given
instant.
Thus
if
the loss of pressure from
ft.
entrance to exit, due to steady flow with velocity v
sec,
is
per
re
( l+=i
^g\
m/
lbs.
per
sq. ft.,*
and
if
and ^ are
dt
feet,
Here
_ measures the loss of pressure head in
due to change
^ measures the loss of head Igm. In this expression in is the hydraulic mean due depth of the pipe and in a circular pipe has the value (diam. r4), while /is a numerical coeflSoient whose value depends on the physical conditions of the pipe walls and to a less extent on the diameter of the pipe and on the velocity of flow. See. Jlydraidics, Gibson,
from pressure to kinetic energy, while
to pipe friction.
pp. 202204.
WATER HAMMER
IN HYDRAULIC PIPE LINES
spectively the velocity and the acceleration at a given instant,
the pressure at the valve will be less than the statical
pressure under conditions of no flow,
by an amount
Where
^
at
is
constant the
state
of
affairs
is
shown
graphically in Fig.
Here
AC=ps
represents the statical
GEADUAL CLOSUEE
valve at the instant d
is
5
^(i,
thus given by the ordinate,
I
\pd=
JL+n+ZiH
while the actual pressure
is
given by the ordinate pi.
Under these
has
its
conditions the pressure in the pipe evidently
maximum
value BQ, at the instant the valve reaches
its seat, this, at
the valve, being given by
P=Pbj(j^^
and thus being independent
lbs.
per
sq. ft.
of frictional losses in the pipe.
Whether the pipe
affairs is
line is
is
uniform in section or
not,
and
whether the acceleration
uniform or
variable,' the state of
represented by the general equation,
* As is proved in any treatise on Hydraulics, during the steady nonsinuous flow of any nonvisoous incompressible fluid the energy
per lb. remains constant, as expressed by the relationship
constant.
w 2g This theorem is called after its discoverer, Bernoulli. In the case of a viscous fluid such as water, however, this is not quite true, since energy is lost in overcoming viscous or frictional resistances. If, as is commonly the case, the work done against such
is is
^ +_ + z=
resistances
expressed as ^
per
2g
lb.
per unit length of a pipe through
which flow
taking place, the equation becomes
dx\w
that the acceleration
acceleration
is
if
2gm
If in addition the velocity at
is
any point varies with the time, so
the force per lb. necessary to produce this
this force while
^,
and the work; done by
Sa; is
motion
dt
takes place through a distance
^
Sx.
g dt Since this work is done at the expense of the energy in the water, the equation as finally modified for friction and for acceleration becomes
dx\ w
2g
\g
dt
2gmJ
WATEE HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
is
ft.,
PIPE LINES
datum
and j
where z
level in
the height of some point in the iiuid above
x being
its
distance from some
;
arbitrary point,
measured in the direction of flow
v is the velocity
the rate of change with time of the velocity, at this point.
This, which
is
Bernoulli's equation modified to suit the"
accelerated motion of a viscous fluid, expresses the fact that
the rate of change of energy (pressure per
lb. of
+ kinetic + potential)
is
water in the direction of flow,
equal to the force
necessary to produce the required acceleration, minus the
force equivalent to pipe friction.
Integrating both sides of
(2')
with respect to x we get
\sY
'
+iLV.=ir.^.Xrw.+c.
'
^Whenever
g } adt the acceleration is a
2(jr
2gmJ
...
(3) ^
<,
known
function of the time
or of the dist9,nce travelled
by a
particle,
equation (3)
may
flow
of
be solved and the pressure at any point obtained.
As an example,
through a pipe
length
I.
consider the
uniformly
retarded
area
1
of
uniform
crosssectional
and
Let 3^= a, and
Cut
let
the sufSxes v and
refer to
the pipe immediately behind the valve and to the inlet at the top respectively.
(Fig. 2),
Let x be measured from the
line.
inlet
and
let Va
be the velocity in the pipe
Then
at the inlet,
where x=0, we have p=j>i, 2=i,
[''v\dx=0, so that Jo
c=^+^+, w 2g
from
(3) '
^
when x=l,
Jo
...
I
i.e.
behind the valve,
j

we have p=Pm
7
2='*j
V^dx=Val,
dx=a\ dxa.l;
di (4) ^ '
?l+f+z,=^..l+Pl+f+,,fl w 2g w 2g 2gm g
z^ is
,But tiai+J w Ig
the head equivalent of the statical
GEADUAL CLOSURE
thkt
pressure pa at the vaive with no flow through the pipe, so
we
get
,^=??+_?!5!(l+=^"ifeet
or
of water,
(5)
p,=p,+^aZ?!^l +)}lbs.
per
sq. ft.,
the result previously obtained from general considerations.
Obviously this expression has
its
maximum
value
when
Va=0,
i.e.
at the instant the valve reaches its seat.
In order to get uniform retardation of a column by closing
a valve at its lower end, the rate of closure of this valve would
Fig.
2.
however need
effective valve
coefficient
to be
somewhat complicated.
If
is
the pipe
area, and a the effective valve area at any instant (the
area
is
the actual area multiplied by the
of
discharge),
and
if
v^
is
the corresponding
velocity of
pipeflow,
efflux,
being the corresponding velocity of
so that
we have %=^5,
m aX"' dt^
'
dt}'
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
If a, is the effective valve area
PIPE LINES
to
when the valve begins
close, or if Vi is
the corresponding velocity of pipeflow, the
t
value of a after
seconds
is
given by
'^
= '*\/2.l+2gh^{v,+at) m
I.
In an experiment carried out by Mr.
P. Church,! on a
pipe line 8 inches diameter, and 2395 feet long, fitted with a
nozzle 2 inches diameter at its lower end and discharging into
the atmosphere, the nozzle was closed in 25 seconds, so as,
stated, to give
it is
uniform retardation in the pipe.
lbs.
The
statical
head at the valve was 302 feet (131
per
sq. in.),
and the
lbs. lbs.
pressure at the nozzle during steady flow was 108
sq. in.
per per
The maximum pressure attained was 143
j?^ ps=12
lbs.
sq. in., so that
per
sq. in.
Here, assuming a coefficient of velocity of '985, the velocity
of efflux
would be 985 V2g'X 108x231 = 125 ft. per sec, so that the velocity in the pipe would be 7 '81 ft. per sec. This makes a=312 ft. per sec. per sec, and makes
* If
p=Po, z=2o on the exit side
lb.
energy per
of the valve, assuming that the remains constant during the passage through the valve,
we have ^^ + 5hz = +o::+!!o, w Zg w Zg
al
so that (5) above becomes
+15 =
jg
p,
Va
TiT
fi
Ig
~
Putting
Pi~P(i
=11,
where h
is
the difference of level
of the free surfaces
on the two sides
of the valve, this
becomes
Vo=>/ 2al + 2glii
m Va^.
^, and
since =! + a,
From
this
we
get no=''^=
'"'"'
.
"
where t is the time since the valve began to close, this gives us both the velocity of efflux and the valve opening at this instant, t Journal o/FranUin Institute. April and May 1890.
GKADUAL CLOSURE
624 X 312x2395 "11= w = ,,,^ per sq. ft. 1455 lbs. ^^ = 10'1 lbs. per sq. in.,
J
as
compared with the observed value 12
lbs.
per
sq. in.
Uniform Closing of a Valve.
The most
case to
useful case in practice, however, appears to be
is
that in which the valve
closed uniformly,
and
it is this
which the present investigation has been more
pipeline, of
particularly applied.
Let the
uniform area a
sq. ft.,
discharge at
its
lower end through a valve into a chamber where the pressure
is
uniformly p^
lbs.
per
sq. ft.
Let times be measured
its seat,
backif
ward from the instant the valve reaches
the valve be closed uniformly in
so that,
seconds, using the
as giving
closure
is
same
notation as before
we have ao=aim
t
the valve
complete.
(3)
opening
at
an
instant
sees,
before
line.
Let
Va
be the velocity in the pipe
Equation
now
becomes
w
St
2g
gjodt
f
2gmJ
(6)
being negative.
p=Pi, z=^u
Also
since,
when x=0,
7 j ^dt'^^^'
fd'o
"1
2g
i.e.
Again, when x=l,
on the outlet side
of the valve,
neglecting losses in the valve,
we have
dv)
I Y,dx=t dt ] ,dt
1)=Vo,
v'^dx
Val,
10
WATEE HAMMEE IN HYDEAULIC
PIPE LINES
(7)
so that
"VV+=^+.^,^lfe^
Writing
difFereiMje
^+^+2, ^= A w w 2g
of statical
feet,
where h
is
the
head on the two sides
(7)
of the valve
with no flow taking place, equation
becomes
^ ^
2g
g\
its
dt
2m J
On
substituting for ^,
value
i*^ + ''o^[>
;",
^^^^
bee. .. + .*.={:(l + ^),*}....(9>
and on dividing throughout by the
coefficient of
we get
]vbv^c
21 dtta
Icja^
kaj
If /* is small, so that the '
term i( .)
m\
is
small in com6, c,
ft
parison with unity, and
ki,
may
therefore be neglected,
and
become constants having the values
0=
21 da.
a dt
3^: c=2gh; ' "
'
k=
2Z
This will always be the case as the valve gets close to
its seat,
and when in consequence the hammer
able.
effect is
most
notice
In such a case both sides of (10) become integrable.
this in the
Writing
form
^"
f
U/
,
,
b'V
+ by^
D^,^logJ.
ha,
(11)
^ '
UNIFOEM CLOSUEE
and determining
o
11
from the consideration that when < =7",
v,
has a
known
value
we have
loge
V4
r
or
,
llogj!^.tM=^log.^....(12)
m
^qv
r
r+v^J
hay
i^
'v.;
_2
qv\
t
ft.
per sec
(13)
where,=y+^4
at
,=y.+ ^ + ; .=2^0+^
efflux,
This gives the velocity of
from which the velocity
Va
any instant
(
Mrithin the
range of valve opening over which
is
I
negligibly small,
may be
readily obtained. *
Writing p^ for the difference
of the valve at
of pressure
on the two sides
any instant during
closure,
we
get, as in
equation
(5),
^/
and, on substituting for
from
(8) this
becomes
Where J I _2
is
J
not negligible the treatment follows the lines
outlined on page 28. This case is, however, not of great practical importance, since the rise in pressure before the valve gets near to its seat, and hence before the state of affairs hypothecated obtains, is usually very small.
12
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
^,=^,+^?^^^a
lbs.
PIPE LINES
. . .
per
sq. ft.,
is
(14)
Evidently this has
its
maximum
(13),
value
when v^
i.e.
maximum
and
therefore,
from
the valve reaches
limiting value
q,
its
when t seat. At
becomes
vanishes,
at the instant
this instant v^ attains the
while
Vg,
zero, so that
lbs.
we get
{:Pv)max=Ps+{^gh\
But
per
sq. ft.
y^gh=++^c+gh
It follows that the rise in pressure
behind the valve at the
instant
when
closure
is
complete, above that obtaining with
is
no flow through the pipe,
given by
where
a, is the
is
maximum
eflfec'tive
valve opening in sq.
ft.,
and
the time in seconds, taken to close the valve
uniformly.
Pipe of varying crosssedimal areas.
If
the pipe
line,
Ix
instead of being uniform in section,
of sectional area ax, a length
:
consists of a length
tty,
ly
of area
and so
on,
we
have, at any instant
Velocity
in section
x=Vx=''^
..AcceW..,
.=*.=J_(./^+..}
It
may
then be readily shown that the
maximum
rise in
UNIFOKM CLOSUKE
pressure behind the valve, at the instant of closure,
is
13 given
So
These
far the effects of the elasticity of the pipe line
and
of
the compressibility of the water column have been neglected.
factors,
however, tend to reduce the
to
maximum pressure
effect is likely to
attained,
and the extent
which their
modify the
results obtained above,
may be
seen as follows
Bernoulli's Equation as modified for the elasticity of the water
column.
In any elastic
fluid,
where
is
not constant but depends
equation
(2), p.
5,
on the pressure, on neglecting
friction,
becomes
d /
di\jw2g'^
Now
in water,
if
f^i^iA _ _ J_ ^
)
g
{o'\
df^'^'
mass at atmo
V be the volume
we have
of unit
spheric pressure {^0),
nj?
^~XV
where
is
the modulus of compressibility of the water
of about 43,200,000 lbs. per sq. foot.
and has a mean value
From
this
we have
~^ = 1 + J.
p
lbs.
Pr, if
is
the volume
corresponding to a pressure
spheric,
If w'
per
sq. foot
above atmo
p=l.
and
^^^^'^^
r^^'^^'^
^^^
are the corresponding ^weights per cubic foot
1
this gives us
^=
 ,
ui
"^
I^V
From
this
we get [ll'=Ll(l^)dp=l^ w 2Kw' wj\ A J J w
14
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
So that equation
(2')
PIPE LINES
becomes
1+^1+^2
jl= Let +c.
(3')
the term
^5^* 2aw
representing the resilience, or strain energy
of the liquid, per lb.
Where
the liquid
is
being compressed in an elastic pipe
this requires further modification because of the fact that
part of the energy of the water
pipe.
is
expended in stretching the
the efiect of
This modifies the apparent value of K, and,
the pipe supports be neglected,
follows
:
if
may
be taken into account as
Effect of elasticity of pipe line.
Suppose the pipe to be
tively small thickness
it is
t
of radius r
ft.,
and of comparawhich
sq. ft.,
ft.,
and
let the material of
composed have a modulus
ratio .
(T
of elasticity
E lbs.
per
and a Poisson's
Then
if
at
any section
of the pipe the increase in pressure
due to retardation
*
is p' lbs.
per
sq. ft.,
the increase in the
ft.,
If
the rise in pressure
is
p'
lbs.
per
sq.
the increase in
is
resilience per cubic foot is
 ,
and therefore per
lb.
J^
For
consider a cubical block whose sides are of unit length, subjected to a pressure which increases steadily from zero to p'. The change in volume of the block is p' r K, and therefore the change in length of each
But during the period of compression the mean vaXai of the pressure is half the final pressure p, so that the work done by each of the three opposite pairs of pressures is
side isp' iZK (very approx.).
2
.
ZK
.
6K'
 $
Total work done on block, i. e. resilience stored in block
_ p^
2K'
EFFECT OF ELASTICITY
circumferential stress in the pipe walls
is
15
^
V
and
in the
longitudinal stress
If,
is
^
lbs.
per
sq. ft.
then,
Sa;
is
the change in length of an element of the
x,
pipe at this point, whose original length was
we have
Sx_ p'r
p'r
tBV
The change given by
in the
2(rJ
volume
of this element is therefore
7r{(r+Sr)'(a;+Sa!) r^'a;},
,,.
c.
>
fneglecting small quantities
I of
the second order.
="KS('i)+S('l)}
F~2m
But the
while
its
<Ty
of
actual
new volume
the liquid
Jir^xf 1
^
\\,
apparent
new volume =7rr
''a;!
l^^=( 5
so that the effective value of K,
is
which
will be
denoted by K',
given by the relation
For iron pipes
o
may
be taken as 3'6 approximately.
16
WATEE HAMMEE IN HYDEAULIC
From
equation
(3')
PIPE LINES
is
it
appears that where flow
taking
of the
place so that Bernoulli's equation holds, the ratio
resilient
energy per
lb.
to the pressure energy per
lb.
being
^ this will in all cases be so small as to be negligible.
In the author's experiments the value of K' was found to
be 251,000 100
lbs.
lbs.
per
sq. inch,* so
is
that where
is as
great as
per
sq.
inch this ratio
only 'OOOa.
is,
A
ever,
further effect of the elasticity of the column
how
more important
is
and,
in fact,
is
allimportant where
the time of closing
very short.
fact that, because of the elasticity the
This
efifect
is
due to the
of any change in the pressure, velocity, or acceleration
at the valve, will not be felt at a distance x along the pipe,
until an interval of time xiVp seconds has elapsed.
Here
Vp
to
is
the velocity of propagation of pressure waves along the
water column and has a value generally ranging from 4200
4600
If at
ft.
per second.
t
an instant
seconds before
is
it
reaches its seat the
<^(t),
retardation at the valve
represented by
therefore be
the retar
dation at a distance x will the valve at an instant
*
xi
the same as at
will be
Vp seconds sooner, and
As
will be seen later, the velocity of propagation of pressure
is
waves through water
is
given by K,
=\/ V
to
ft.
per second, where K'
In these experiments this velocity was in lbs. per sq. foot. measured by closing the outlet valve suddenly and timing the oscillations of the pencil lever of a Crosby indicator mounted on the pipe. In this way it was found that the velocity of propagation was 4310 ft. per second, this making ^'=251,000 lbs. per sq. inch. Assuming ^=300,000 lbs. per sq. inch, and taking r=Z'Zt as in this
experimental pipe
line,
this
makes ^=10'
lbs.
per sq. inch.
As
these pipes are castiron, and have spigot and faucet joints with lead caulking, this would appear a very probable value for E.
EFFECT OF ELASTICITY
represented by
17
<^(<+^Y
This
is
true at all times, after
closure.
an instant =^ seconds from the beginning of the
If
the time of closing
is
greater than l^V^,
therefore at the instant of closure, on equating
acceleration) over the whole length
of
we have 2 (massx
pipe to the force
o''^Af^''^'^
producing this acceleration
^^
c^~
Now
<t>{t=:o)
is
the retardation at the valve at the instant of
closing, so that the second term,
which
is
negative,
marks
the effect of elasticity in reducing the
attained at the valve.
maximum
pressure
This
may be
evaluated for the case
under consideration by substitution for
substitution in this expression
for;''
^
from
(8)
and by
in terms of <from (13).*
The
expression, however,
is
too cumbrous for any useful
purpose, and simply serves to
show that
this effect is pro
portionately greater as the length of pipe increases and as
the time of closure diminishes.
It is usually of importance
for values of T<4:liVp, but for greater values of
Tmay in
general be neglected without serious error.
In such cases formula (15) requires no correction, and the
first of
the present series of experiments was carried out
of testing its accuracy.
is
with a view
If the
retardation at the valve
uniform, <f>(t+ j^)
= <j>{t) =
^=a,
dt
at all times after xiVp seconds from the beginning of
If the retardation increases uniformly
the closure.
((>(t+
(dv^\
,^
^,andwege't' = !^^//'^^
+^
J 1,
the second term being negative.
18
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
3.
PIPE LINES
Description of Apparatus.
by the
of the
The experimental portion of the work was made possible provision, at the Whitworth Engineering Laboratories
Manchester University, of a CastIron Pressure Main,
ft.
3"75 ins. in diameter and approximately 560
long, this
Fio.
3.
bringing water for experimental purposes into the laboratory
from an elevated tank 107
ft.
above the laboratory
floor.
ft.
The main
consists, in chief, of
a vertical leg about 110
ft.
long and a horizontal leg 450
long,
and has eight
right
angled bends in the course of
portion of the pipe
is
its
length.
The
horizontal
ft.
buried, except for the 80
nearest
to the outlet, the vertical portion being clamped, at intervals, to a wall, but otherwise being free.
The
joints throughout
are of the spigot and faucet type, with lead caulking,
and the
thickness of the metal
is
approximately 
in.
DESCRIPTION OF APPAEATUS
The main
a point 18
is
ft.
19
is
blanked
off at its
lower end, and
tapped at
ins. ins.
from
ft.
diameter and 8
in diameter,
end by a wroughtiron pipe 2^ long, which carries an outlet valve, 2J
this
and
of the design
shown
in Fig. 3.
This,
which
was used in the experiments, has a brass
metaltometal on the
flat
disc valve,
bedding
of the
brass seat.
The pressure
water tends to keep the valve
off its seat.
After passing this valve the water rises through a short
vertical leg, passes
fig.
through a second valve, shown at
motion
in
14, this being
is
kept wide open during the experiments,
its
is
and
led into a tank where
steadied
by
baffles.
It is
then allowed to escape over a rectangular notch 4
ins.
wide into a lower calibrated tank.
vided with a
float
The upper tank
scale,
is
pro
and graduated
from which the
can
quantity per minute passing the notch
ascertained.
be
directly
This
is
scale,
which
is
in general use for laboratory purposes,
checked at frequent intervals, and
may
be taken as giving
results
which are correct within
pressures, a
%.
To measure
A,
5
fig.
ft.
Crosby Steam Engine Indicator
outlet pipe at a point about
4, is
mounted on the
pipe.
from the large
carries a pulley
The drum
of this
indicator
derives its motion from a cord coiled around the spindle B,
which
and
is
driven by a leather band from
a light pulley mounted on the valve spindle S.
R is geared to a
which
carries a
light cylindrical
smoked
is
paper.
The spindle drum B, 5J ins. diameter, As the valve spindle rotates,
by a
fine pointer carried
a wave diagram
traced out on this
by
5
the tuning fork G, which makes 100 complete vibrations
per second.
sees.,
Where
fork
the time of valve closing exceeds about
replaced
this
is
by a
horizontal
pendulum
making eight beats per second.
20
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
By
PIPE LINES
counting the number of waves corresponding to the
trayel of the valve, the time of closure can be estimated to
the nearest 005 second in the shorter, and to the nearest
05
second in the longer experiments, while by counting the
DESCRIPTION OF APPAEATUS
number
of
21
waves per unit length
of the paper, the rate of
closing at
any instant can be estimated with considerable
accuracy.
In each experiment, the valve spindle was rotated by hand
by means
of a lever 2 feet long, this being
possible.
it
done as steadily
and uniformly as
After some practice,
became possible to obtain wave
the
diagrams in this way which showed that the valve motion
was
sensibly
uniform
over
whole
range
of
valve
opening.
As a check on the accuracy
two mercury gauges are
a ^
in.
of the indicator,
and
to deterpipei,
mine accurately the resistance to steady flow along the
fitted side
by
side,
one coupled to
lead pipe leading directly to the elevated supply
tank, and thus measuring the statical head, and the second
coupled to the foot of the main near the outlet at P.
third mercury gauge at
enables
the
pressure
usually small
at the
outlet side of the valve, to be deter
mined.
During
all
experiments the gauge at
P was kept closed.
is
The pitch
of the thread on the screwed valve spindle
125 inch, while measurements showed that the discharge
area for one turn of the spindle was '00680
sq. ft.
The
mean
of a
number
of consistent experiments
with
difiierent
heads and valve openings gave a mean value of '932 for the
coefficient of discharge,
thus giving an effective discharge
area of "OOGSi sq. area of the main
ft.
for
one turn of the spindle.
As
the
is
approximately '0767
sq. ft., this gives
a ratio of pipe area: effective valve area =121
for one
in. all
turn of the spindle, and this value has been used
calculations.
As an examination
of equation (16), p. 13, will show, the
22
WATEE HAMMEK IN HYDKAULIC
length of 2^
in.
PIPE LINES
effect of the short 5fbot
is
pipe at the outlet
8foot length
practically the
same as that of an additional
of 3 '75 in. pipe, so that in calculating the
hammer
pressures,
formula (15)
has been used,
being taken as 550
feet.
line,
Although the central portion of the pipe
position, did not
is
being in
this
admit of very accurate measurement,
probably within 2 per cent, of the correct value.
4.
Experimental Results.
Appendix (Table
I.)
These are tabulated as a whole in the
The
following, however, gives a brief resvmi of the experi:
ments
Series
A.
Valve open
'62 of a
complete turn;
= 19 '5.
:^=284
i,
ft.
= 123 lbs. per sq.
per
sec.
inch.
= 3'03 ft.
A= 1046
ft.
Experimental results plotted at
dotted curve
Series B.
A (Fig. 5). The A A' shows the calculated results.
Valve open 349 of a complete turn; _=34'7.
^=62 1bs. persq. in.
= 2155
ft. ft.
per
sec.
A= 1046
Experimental results plotted at
B (Fig. 5).
The
dotted curve BB' shows results as obtained
by
calculation.
<jo
80
70
60
Hi
_z
^:t
a
if)
a
0
40
3;
DC
1/1
50
:i:
iS
3:
^^
^^
ao^xJi.
==^:;
/o
^c
B
E
10
18
IS
nipie.
OF cQSiN<^ Vjilye: in
SeconiPS
Fia. 5. open. those obtaining with steady flow with valve Pressures attained behind valve, in exols of
EXPERIMENTAL KESULTS
Series G.
23
Valve open '167
of a complete turn;
= 72"5.
^^=1"6
lbs.
per
sq. in.
r= 1095 ^=1055
ft.
per
sec.
ft.
Experimental results plotted at
(Fig. 5).
The
dotted curve C'C shows results as obtained
by
calculation.
VfiLVEL
Closed
Pig.
6.
Time
of closing, 1*25 seconds.
increase over pressure obtaining with steady flow = 47 lbs. per sq. in.
Maximum
D.
Valve open Vil complete turns;
=8*6;
^=
2gm
?;
180
ft.
=78
per
lbs.
per
sq. in.
= 2'405 ft.
ft.
sec.
h=104:
Dotted
Experimental
line
results
plotted at
(Fig.
5).
D'D' shows results as obtained
by
calculation.
24
WATER HAMMER IN HYPRAULIC PIPE LINES
From
^
c
these
results,
which
to
cover
a ramge of
valms of Vo,from 1095
3'03 feei per second, a, from 8 '6 to a range of values of the ratio a
:
S"
78'6,
to
and
ha/ve times
of closing varying
from
22
13 seconds, ample verification of the validity of
is
^ M g 5
forrrmla (15)
obtained.
Fig. 6 shows a typical indicator diagram,
and
Fig. 7 the corresponding
wave diagram
of
as obtained
from one of the experiments
Series
I.
g
ft
When
pressure
the valve has reached
falls
its seat
the
below that corresponding to
backwards and
This portion of
the statical head, then rises again, a wave
0)
a
o<
of
pressure being
reflected
2
"^
forwards along the pipe.
J S g a
o
11
the phenomenon, due solely to the elasticity
of the
I ^
j^
water column, will be explained
later.
If the indicator
drum be
of
is
rotated uniformly
and independently
the valve spindle,
'
diagram similar to Fig. 8
obtained.
5.
Gradual opening of Valve.
be gradually opened, so that
g>
If the valve
J
g
both valve area and velocity of pipe flow
increase
with time,
equation
(6.)
becomes
^
'
H M
.2
w
If
2g
the valve
g}dt
is
2gmj>,
opening uniformly, on pro
Deeding as before (9) becomes
GRADUAL OPENING
and on making the assumption that (^j J
becomes
f .fl' jv^'+bv^ c
fdf +D = ]\a kji
1 is
25
small, this
When
Then
<=0,
let
v^^v^, the flow being steady, and let =,.
ao=a,+^=a,+Kt,
at
where
K=^. at
VflSi+Zif/
^Vo+q from which we get
rJ
"'
ft.
per second,
_^_
where
p.
r, j,
m and ^ have
the meanings attached to them on
11 viz.,
This gives the velocity of efiSux after an interval of
seconds from the commencement of the motion, in terms of
SJftLVE.
CLOSED.
Fig.
8.
the valve opening and velocity of eflSux at the latter instant.
This only holds so long as the valve
valve to be stopped at an instant
*
is
opening.
its
Suppose the
is ',
when
opening
10.
Here
6=
and c=2oA as on page
26
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
a,! ia^n.
PIPE LIPTES
v^'.
the velocity of efflux at this instant being calculated to be
Let
From this time onwards 3^=1
3^1
and equation
(9') be
comes^=[V{l+.l}_,,]
So that
where c =:
/A+^r/*
;
^3
m
Integrating
m
1
,
we get
^/c'+^o
,
j_
t
ifc''
2^/e' ^ V?o
When
Using
f=0,
i.e.
immediately the valve comes to
rest, o=*'o'
this to determine
D, we
finally get
as the velocity of efflux after
seconds from the stoppage of
the valve.
It will
be noted that as
increases, this tends to the limit
CHAPTEK
II
Application of the foregoing work to the theory of turbine regulation Regulation of a Pelton wheel of a Pressure turbine Speed regulation assuming uniform acceleration in the pipe line Effect of a stand pipe on speed regulation.
1.
Application of the foregoing
work
to the Theory
OF Turbine Eegulation. In the ease
line is well
of a Pelton
wheel
installation,
where the pipe
velocity of
designed so as to give a
maximum
flow of about 5 feet per second, the term (t) \ a /
JL
will in
general be negligibly small over the whole range of nozzle
opening, and
may be treated as being so in equation (9'), p.
error.
24,
without sensible
For example, consider a Pelton wheel working under a
head of 200
diiimeter
ft.,
and supplied through a
ft.
pipeline 2
ft.
in
and 500
long
(/= 006).
Here /?= 006x500x2 = 6
and, if=5,
2gm
^=234
ft.
The
975
velocity of efflux will then be approximately equal to
^2^(200 2 34) = 110
.
ft.
per
sec.
\a/n
..
iiir
_L. 22
{(^YM =^=0124. \.\a/ mjmaa
is little
In this case the energy lost in the pipe line
more
28
WATEK HAMMEK IN HYDRAULIC
be
still
PIPE LINES
than one per cent, of the energy of discharge, while this value
will
further reduced as the valve closes.
is
Where
the valve
replaced
by the regulating
sluice, or
still
the gates of a pressure turbine, the friction term will
general be negligibly small where the ratio
in
ZeA is less
than
about
4.
'
Where
this ratio is large, as
is
where the supply, under a which should never be
comparatively low head,
brought a considerable distance
of affairs
through a pipe line
allowed in good practice
into account.
a state
24,
this
term must, however, be taken
In such a case the
p.
difficulty in integrating equations (9)
10,
or
(9') p.
may be overcome by
dividing the
period during which the gates are in motion, into a series of
short intervals during each of which the friction term
may
be taken as sensibly constant
(a,
having
its
mean value
throughout the interval though varying from interval to
interval).
If
the velocity at any instant be known, the
velocity at the beginning or end of the interval containing
that instant, and thus the velocity at the beginning or end
of the preceding or following interval
Proceeding in this
the whole period
may thus be obtained. way the velocity' at any instant during may be obtained. This case is, however,
fitted as
not so important, since in such an installation a stand pipe
would invariably be
near to the turbine as practic
able, the effect of this being to greatly reduce the accelera
tion along the supply main.
Neglecting this for the time being,
it
may
be postulated
that for successful governing on an increasing load,* the
*
By
at the turbine,
load.
the provision of an adequate relief valve or pressure regulator no difficulty is experienced in governing on a falling
TUKBINE KEGULATION
inertia of the rotating parts of the turbine
29
must be
so great
that the energy rendered available during a certain (fixed)
reduction in speed (the
strictly limited
maximum permissible
reduction being
by the conditions
of service), together with
the energy entering the turbine during the period of pipe
line acceleration, will equal the
demand
for energy during
that period by the driven machine.
Two
cases
may
be considered
(a) Pelton Wheel.
Here the energy entering the wheel per second, when the
jet velocity is v^
ft.
per
sec.
=^5
ft. lbs.
Suppose the wheel to be running steadily under a load ft. lbs. per second, which necessitates an energy supply of and suppose the load to be suddenly increased and to
demand ft. lbs. per second. The original amount of energy enter\ _ j^_ a(,%'
ing wheel per second
'
,,
^9
If
Next
uniform,
let
^,
at
the rate of nozzle opening, be known.
in terms of
asi
is
known
and
t,
from
(18), p. 26, so
that, equating
^^
^9
to
M, we get the time
after
which the
supply
is
once more equal to the demand.
the
Let
this interval of time=ti.. this
interval,
Then, during
the
excess
of
energy
demanded over that supplied by the water
=/:
and
this
dtML
2^
ft. lbs.
must be capable of being supplied by the kinetic given out by the rotating parts during a fixed reducenergy
tion of speed.
30
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
Thus
if
PIPE LINES
is
(0= angular
vel. of rotation
when
load
thrown on
(radians per second)
o)i= reduced angular velocity,
1
= moment =
Wr'
9
of inertia of
wheel
of gyration
where r=its radius
we have
(5)
Presswre Turhine.
Exactly the same reasoning and method of solution holds
for this class of turbine, except that the
energy entering the
wheel
is
is
now
partly in the potential form, and, per second,
given by
where the
runner.
suffix
refers to the state of affairs at the exit
from the guide vanes and at the entrance to the turbine
Now
if
the datum plane be taken as passing through the
if
turbine 2o=Oj ^^nd
in addition
we
assume, as
is
the case
with a welldesigned turbine running steadily, that
^
1)
bears
a definite ratio to
?,
7} V so that 5= J, 5,
1g
we have
>.*
2g
Energy entering wheel per second=55 l+ki
*
Here
^ has the following approximate values
:
'
TUEBINE KEGULATION
N.B.
31
Vo is
no longer the velocity of
7)
efflux
due to
head h but to a head
hw
running quite steadily
The
facts that the turbine is not
during this period, and that, owing to the variation in the
velocity of inflow, its efficiency
is
not constant, prevent any
accurate calculations being made, however, and
when
it is
remembered how comparatively far our preliminary data may be from being accurate, and that the expressions resulting from this method of treatment are most unwieldy,
it
appears preferable on
to simplify the
all
counts, from a practical point of
view,
treatment
is
by assuming that the
acceleration in the pipe line
uniform.
On
is
this assumption,
which cannot be widely at variance
with the conditions actually obtaining in practice, and which
probably more justifiable than that of uniform valve
opening in the case of a modern turbine governed through
an hydraulic
relay,
:
the whole
question
may
be readily
examined as follows
2.
Speed Eegulation assuming Uniform PipeLine
Acceleration.
sq. ft.
Let a=area of penstock, at entrance to turbine casing,
A = supply head in
feet.
?)i= velocity of steady flow through pipe line under the
least probable load.
?>2= velocity of steady flow through pipe line under the
greatest probable load.
Ag= pressure head at entrance to turbine casing, in feet. Then when turbine is running steadily under least load,
the energy entering casing per second
= &2im,{h'"^\
ft. lbs.
32
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
And when running
steadily
PIPE LINES
this
under greatest load
energy per second
= Q24.a/vJh^J^]
I
itAha.
2gmj
During the
the value
transition period, after the extra load has been
thrown on and before the velocity of pipe flow has attained
v^'
necessary for giving the required supply, the
is
water column
a
being accelerated, and during this period,
if
is the uniform acceleration,
t
and v the
velocity,
:
we
have,
at an instant
seconds after throwing on the load
^^^
Energy entering wheel per sec. = 624a[ A
[ft. lbs.
But v=Vi+ai, so that this becomes Energy entering wheel per sec.
= 62M^, + at)h"^^^4^^]
If
<j
ft. lbs.
is
the length of the transition period, in seconds, so
that (fa l)^<l=a,
we have the
total
energy entering the
wheel from the penstock during this period given by
62.4<./;.[(.,+<.0{&i^}]^Ub.
an expression which
terms involving the
small, in
is
readily integrated.
Usually the
coefficient of friction /, are negligibly
which case we get
transition period
dt
ft. lbs.
Energy entering wheel during
= 624a/"*'r(.+a<){A}1
=E^
If
ft. lbs.
the
maximum
value of
n,
consistent with good speed
regulation, be
known from
experience of existing plants, the
foregoing expression
may
be solved numerically ; and so far
as the data at the author's disposal go, these tend to
show
TUEBINE EEGULATION
that the acceleration should not exceed the value given
33
by
the formula
a=2'4=V
ft.
per
sec.
per
sec.
Now,
for satisfactory governing, the total
demand during
the transition period must not be greater than the supply
entering at the penstock together with, the energy rendered
available
by the slowing
and and
la^
of the flywheel
and rotating
parts,
so that
if (Oi
are the angular velocities before throwing
on the
load,
after the speed has settled
down under
the
new
load,
we have
is
where
e,
the
demand
for energy, per second,
under the
increased load.
3.
Efebct of Stand Pipe on Speed Regulation.
pipe, area
Suppose a stand
stand pipe.
sq.
ft.,
to be fitted at the
is
entrance to the turbine casing, so that hg
the head in the
Then with steady
flow at vel.
Vi
As=A ^l+^
^s=h^{l\
f
ft.
and with steady flow at
vel.
v^
ft.
So
"l
that,
during the transition period, a volume of water
"^'"l
4^11^'"
cub.
ft.
has flowed into the turbine
casing from the stand pipe under a
mean head
h' feet,
and
has carried in an amount of energy approximately equal to
= Es it.
Ihs.
Here h'^h'^^L+^^i + ij approx.
c
34
WATER HAMMEE IN HYDRAULIC
In this case then,
PIPE LINES
we have,
for satisfactory speed regulation,
an expression from which
may be
obtained
if Wi,
toj, a,
and
are known, or from which the necessary value of
if
may
be obtained
the other factors are known.
As an example, consider a turbine supplied under a head of 80 feet through a penstock 4 feet in diameter and 250 feet long, and working under a normal load of 400 b.h.p. stand pipe is to be designed to keep the speed within 4 % of the normal (250 revs.), under an increase of load up to 600 b.h.p., the turbine being fitted with a flywheel whose
moment
of inertia
?
= 7000 foot
lb. units.
Assume the
efficiency to
be constant, and equal to
'80.
This
necessitates a supply of energy)
"8 under normal load Also since the energy then entering the"! _ c:oa^ (j, _ ?i!/?\ ^\ / 2ymj wheel casing per second where a=Jl2'57 sq. ft. ; h = 80 ft. ; /='0O4 say; this gives us on substitution and reduction
. .
:
.J
^ 400x550 ^ ^^
^^_
^^^
^^
Vi
= 4"41
ft.
per
sec.
while with steady flow under the increased load 'U2 = 6"64 ft. per sec.
Now in the first case
the head at the stand pipe=fe  J! 1
^
+<
2g l = 80303{l
m]
lffc.
+ l}
= 79394
while in the second case the head
is
ft.
h ^j 1 +! \
2g\.
TO
= 80 2 X 685 = 78630 ft.
Fall in level at stand pipe
764
ft.,
ft.
The mean height
energy leaving
it
in stand pipe = 79
so that if J.
is its area,
the
during the transition = 764 X 79 X 624 x^
ft. lbs.
=3760^
ft. lbs.
Now putting
after
a = 24^
b
= 24 x  = 768
f.s.s.,
so that the velocity
is
an interval of
^50 seconds from throwing on the load
441
+ 768(
TUEBINE KEGULATION
ft.
35
per sec, we get the energy entering the casing from the penstock during the transition period of tj seconds (J?i, p. 32), given by
624a f\i4:l
+ 768t)80  '2^1^^\dt
dt foot lbs.
ft.
foot lbs.
= 784 /''i(327 + 57)
J
= 784{327ti + 285fi2}
On
putting
1^
lbs.
=
(
'768
= 2 '9, this expression reduces to
784{950 + 83} = 800,000 ft. lbs. If now <B is the mean angular velocity of the runner in radians per second, and if 8E is the energy given out by the wheel in slowing down through So), it is easily shown that
8(0
_ SM
"04
;
But
=
0)
and
a>
= 277
X 250
'
so that
hE=
60 04 X 7000 X
9
ff2
X 625
Now under
= 192,000 ft. lbs. the increased load, the demand per second
600x550^^^
8
'
is
OQ
f^
H,3
so that for effective regulation
we have
x
ij
37604 + 800,000 + 192,000 = 412,500
..
= 1,196,000
4 = 543 sq.ft.
corresponding to a diameter at the top, of 8 ft. 4 inches. This stand pipe would probably take the form of a vertical pipe 4 ft. in diameter and carrying a circular cistern at the top 8 ft. 4 in. diameter. The top of this would be about 82 ft. above the centre of the turbine,
and
its
bottom about 77
ft.
above the same
level.
The method here outlined is equally applicable to the case of a Pelton Wheel or a Pressure Turbine, and while the results
obtained are admittedly only rough approximations, yet they
are suflBciently near for
all practical
purposes.
CHAPTER III Sudden stoppage of Motion Theory Valve closed
quickly but not instantaneously Experimental results Sudden closure in a nonuniform Pipe Line Sudden opening of a Valve Sudden opening, neglecting effect of elasticity.
1.
Sudden Stoppage of Motion
have
Ideal
Case.
If a column of water, flowing with velocity v along a
uniform pipe (supposed
rigid),
its
motion checked by
the instantaneous closure of a rigid valve, the phenomena
experienced are due entirely to the elasticity of the column,
and are analogous to those obtaining in the case of the
tudinal impact of an elastic bar against a rigid wall.
longi
At
the instant of impact, the motion of the layer in conis
tact with the valve
suddenly stopped, and
resilience, or
its
kinetic
energy
is
changed into
energy of
strain,
with
a consequent sudden rise in pressure.
rise in pressure is
This stoppage and
almost instantaneously transmitted to the
on, the state of zero velocity
p'
adjacent layer,
and so
and
maximum
v)
pressure (this at any point being
above the
pressure obtaining at that point with steady flow at velocity
being propagated as a pressurewave along the pipe, with
Fp.
velocity
[P^
i.e.
is
the same as the velocity of
ft.
sound
through water,
slightly
about 4700
per second, depending
on temperature.]
i
This wave reaches the open end of the pipe after
where t^l~Vp.
is
seconds,
At
this instant the
whole of the column
instantaneously at rest in a state of compression.
SUDDEN STOPPAGE OF MOTION
At the open
tained,
37
is
end, however, a constant pressure p^
main
and
in consequence the strain energy of the
end
layer
is
reconverted into kinetic energy, this (neglecting
its
losses),
rebounding with
original velocity v
this point
and with the
of
normal pressure obtaining at
under a state
steady flow towards the open end with this velocity.
This state of normal pressure and of
velocity
{v)
is
then propagated as a wave towards the valve, reaching the
latter after a second interval
l^Vp seconds.
is
At
this latter
is
instant the whole of the column
unstrained and
v.
moving
instant
towards the open end with velocity
At the same
is
{jp'
the motion of the layer nearest the valve
stopped,
and a
wave
of zero velocity
and
of pressure
below the pressure
obtaining at the point at the instant before the stoppage of
the motion, or
p below
the pressure at the point with no
is
flow through the pipe)
Reflected
transmitted along the pipe to be
of
from the open end as a wave
v towards the valve.
normal pressure
and velocity
When
this
is
wave reaches
and the
the valve, UiVp seconds after the latter
ditions are the
closed, the con
same
as at the beginning of the cycle
whole
is
repeated.
ideal conditions the state of affairs behind the
Under such
valve, as regards pressure,
would be represented by such a
an
elastic,
diagram as Fig. 9 A, the
cycle, in the case of
non
viscous fluid, being repeated indefinitely.
At any other
point in the pipe, at a distance
l^
from the open end, the
pressuretime diagram would appear as in Fig. 9 B.
Actually the valve does not close instantaneously, while
the stretching of the pipe and the viscosity of the water
cause the
maximum
pressure attained to be less than in the
also
ideal rigid pipe,
and
cause the
pressure waves to
diminish rapidly in amplitude.
The
state of affairs is then
38
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
which
PIPE LINES
as indicated in Fig. 10, of
represents a diagram
from behind the valve, and dpen end of the pipe
line
B from a point
15 feet from the
experimented on by the author.
In this case the valve was closed in 07 seconds, and the
StTRric
ffTflOS
STKTie
"tmos
Fig.
9.
Press
vibrations died out so that the motion of the pencil of the
indicator
became imperceptible,
after
about 30 complete
oscillations.
Magnitude of rise in pressure at
If p'
the
sudden closing of a Valve.
per
sq. ft.,
be the
rise in pressure in lbs.
and
if
be
the velocity of flow at the instant of stoppage (supposed
SUDDEN CLOSUKE
instantaneous),
39
we
have, assuming the pipe line rigid, on
lb.
equating the loss of kinetic energy per
resilience
:
to the increase in
2g~'2Kw
^=^Jl
Putting
this
fKw
(19)
ft.
;
K= 300,000 X 144 lbs. per sq.
p=9160
w= 62'4
ft.
gr=322
becomes
lbs. per sq.
= 637 V lbs.
per
sq. inch.
A closer approximation
to the actual rise in pressure
may
be obtained by assuming that while the pipe
line is rigid
ST/trie
Pj^a&s
L,^
ffrnos
PtlS&,
Hthos,
._L ^
is
i___j_ t
Fig. 10.
that the motion
is felt
instantaneously stopped, yet the elasticity
in its effect
on the value of K,
this
adopting the value
K' where
1^=^+^(51).
P. 15.
In the experimental pipe line this makes ^'=251,000 58 '4 v lbs. per sq. inch. 144 lbs. per sq. ft., and makes
y=
40
WATEE HAMMER IN HYDEAULIC
The following demonstration shows how the
PIPE LINES
elasticity of the
pipe line and water column
may
Vm,
o,
be taken fully into account.
Let K' and E have the meanings already attached to them,
and
let
and Wm,
of,
Fand
and a^, be the weights
in,
of
unit volume
the velocities of wave propagation
and
the sectional areas of the water column and metal of the
pipe wall respectively.
Then, with instantaneous closure the ends of the water
and metal columns move, at impact, with a common
u,
velocity
and waves, respectively
of compression
and
of extension,
travel along the water
column and the pipe
wall.
St,
Hence, after a very short interval of time
lengths FSi
and Vm^t
of the water
u,
column and
of the pipe will be
moving
:
with velocity
momentum {wa V+ WmOm VrnflJ^t = Wa VvU
and the equation
1
of
gives us
='ij^waF'
waV
Each element
passes
of the
it,
of the
column and
of the pipe, as the__wave
u,
takes suddenly the velocity
while each element
water column takes the compression
^^^ and
there
fore the stress (' m)\/
and each element
stress u.
of the pipe
takes the extension
^==^
and the
Substituting for m
we have
9 the pressure rise in the water
^/
^
^"'^
'
given by
/=*"],
^
waF \x/
U)mamym,]__
H^s.
per
sq.
ft.
Since
V=J^ and V
Zi?
V,^=J^ * this may be written V
Win
unit cross  sectional area to impinge with velocity v in the direction of its axis, against a rigid wall. After
of
* Imagine a bar
SUDDEN CLOSUKE
41
The
longitudinal stress
action,
/,
j=
lbs.
per
sq.
ft.
v/A^^sl;/hammer
which equals u
,
(=)
produced in the pipe walls by
/ '"''m^ then becomes, on
substitution,
{
__
/_2_
,
1
\
/='i
IV Ewm'^
pressure
is
H^s. per sq. g iT'wJ
ft.
while since the circumferential stress in a pipe exposed to
twice the
longitudinal
stress,
the
maximum
is
increment of stress in the metal, due to this action,
to 2 /.
equal
2.
Valve shut suddenly, but not instantaneously.
of closure of a valve becomes less andr less,
rise in pressure
As the time
the
maximum
will evidently
tend to the
limit given
by formula
20, p. 41.
is
Now
if
the time of closure
so short that
= > T= ^,
a very short interval St seconds, a mass "'
"*
has been brought to
9
and, if p is the (uniform) pressure on the end of the bar during this interval we have, equating the force x time, to the ehan'ge of
rest,
momentum
^8< = '2LZ!f
orp = '^
V^
V lbs.
But p = vk/
get
, so
that, equating these
two expressions we
V~ = \/
it.
per> second.
42
the
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
disturbance
x,
PIPE LINES
travelled
initiated
at
the valve
has
distance
and has not arrived at the open end when the
the retardation
/
latter reaches its seat.
In this case
(17), p. 17,
if
is
uniform
= a),
equation
becomes v
adx=^ lbs.
gjo
9
Buta=^=?!^,
sothat
9
this being the value obtaining
^9
with instantaneous stoppage.
closing,
if
It follows that
whatever the law of valve
less
this is
completed in a
time than liVp the pressure rise will be
the same as with instantaneous closure.
For values of
T between
li
Vp and
lliVp the falling off in
it is
pressure will usually be comparatively small, so that
in general sufficiently accurate for all practical purposes to
count as 'sudden,' any stoppage occupying a shorter time
than
this.
For values
of
T>'2,liVp,
formula
(1),
p.
3,
when
is
modified for the effect of elasticity as indicated on p. 17,
to be used, while this elasticity correction
may
reasonably
be neglected where r>4ZiF^.
3.
Experimental Results with sudden closing OP THE Valve.
iT'
Taking
sq. ft.
;
= 25 1,000x144;
(p. 16), in
.=10,000,000x144
formula
(20), this
lbs.
per
=1'275;
becomes
^=7780
=54'0
V lbs.
per sq. foot
V lbs. per sq. inch.
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
43
For comparison the results observed by the author are shown in Table I. against those obtained by using this formula.
Table L
Experiment
44
WATER HAMMEE IN HYDEAULIC
From
13
PIPE LINES
these results it appears that so long as
is
less
than
seconds (l~Fp=l3) the calculated and observed
pressures are in every case in close agreement.
This agree"21 seconds,
ment
while
is
substantially maintained until
T= about
is
when T='26
seconds, the
mean
error involved in
using the uncorrected formula in this case
about 14%.
Other Experimental Besults.
In a series of experiments carried out by M. Joukowsky *
on castiron pipes
of 4"
and
6" diameter, having lengths of
1050 and 1066 feet respectively, the time of valve closing
being '03 seconds in each case, the observed
agrees closely with the formula, p=57'V.
are
rise in pressure
The
following
some
of the results obtained
by interpolation from the
plotted results of these experiments.
4INCH Pipe.
Vel.
ft.
per sec
SUDDEN CLOSURE
4.
45
Sudden Closure of a Valve
in a Pipe Line of nonunifokm section.
In such a case the phenomena become very complicated.
Let
li, l^, Is,
etc.,
be the lengths of successive sections of the
pipe, of areas a^, a^, a^,
extremity of the length
and suppose the valve to be at the l^. Imagine the pipes rigid and the
Following sudden closure of
the
water incompressible.
valve, a
wave
of zero velocity
is
and
of pressure (637i lbs.
per
sq.
inch above normal)
then transmitted to the juncmaintained during the
is
tion of pipes 1
and
2.
Here the pressure changes suddenly
This
is
to 63'7j above normal.
passage of the wave through the second pipe, and
followed
by a change of pressure to GS'lv, at the junction of 2 and 3, and so on to the end of the pipe line. But immediately the pressure at the junction of 1 and 2 attains its value 6372,
the wave in pipe 1
of pressure 6372
flected
is
reflected
back to the valve, as a wave
and
of velocity
i Wj, being again
zero
velocity
re
from the valve as a wave of
63'7{)2
and
pressure
(tii Wj)}
above normal.
1,
This wave then travels to and fro along the pipe
making
and
3
a complete journey in hrFp seconds, until such time as
the wave in pipe
3, reflected
from the junction
of 2
with pressure 63'73 above normal and with velocity v^v,,
again reaches the junction of
1
and
2.
This occurs at an
instant ?2rf^ seconds after its reflection.
it
At
this instant
takes up a velocity and pressure corresponding to the
velocity
and pressure at the junction end
of pipe
1,
and as
this pressure
and velocity may be either positive or nega
tive
depending on the ratio of the lengths of the branches
1 and 2, it is evident that after the first passage of the wave the pressure conditions at any particular instant are The greater the number of variapractically indeterminate.
46
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
PIPE LINES
tions in area
and the more involved does the phenomenon
is
hecome.
Where a
pipe
very short, the period of the oscillations
of
of pressure at
any point becomes so small that the pencil
is
the ordinary indicator
records the
unable to record them, and simply
mean pressure in the pipe. Thus where a short branch of comparatively small
is
diameter
bore,
used as the outlet from a long pipe of larger
the pressure as recorded
by an
indicator will be
sensibly the
same at any
instant, as in the large pipe at the
point of attachment of the outlet branch.
This point, as well as the
effect of
an enlargement of the
pipe section on the magnitude of the
well brought out
hammer
pressure,
is
by the following
results of experiments
by E. B. Weston.*
In each experiment of this series the outlet valve was
closed suddenly, but the exact time of closing
f
is
not given.
111
ft.
of 6" pipe.
Series I.
Pipe line consisting of
58
EXPEKIMENTAL RESULTS
'111
ft.
47
of 6" pipe.
58
Series II.
Pipe line consisting of
48
WATEE HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
5.
PIPE LINES
Sudden opening of a Valve.
falls
If
the valve at the lower end of a pipe line be suddenly
opened, the pressure behind the valve
by an amount
towards the
lbs.
per
sq.
inch,
and a wave
(approx.)
[,
'
of velocity v
valve \'n=pf,/
I
^ K'w
of
and
of
pressure
below
statical, is
propagated towards the pipe
inlet.
The magnitude
depends on the speed and amount
if
of
opening of the valve, and
the latter could be thrown wide
fall to
open instantaneously the pressure would
ing on the discharge
side.
that obtain
In the author's experiments,
'5
with the valve thrown open through
the
of a complete turn
lbs.
maximum drop
in pressure
lbs.
was 40
per
sq. inch,
the
statical pressure
being 45
per
sq. inch.
With the
valve opened through '10 of a complete turn the
lbs.
maximum drop was 20
case the time of opening
per
sq. inch,
lbs.
and with
sq. inch.
of a
complete turn the drop was 11
per
In each
was
less
than '13 seconds (l^Vp).
is
In the case of a horizontal pipe, or one which
that the absolute statical pressure
is
so situated
everywhere greater
than
p,
this
pressure wave reaches the pipe inlet with
its original
is
approximately
amplitude, and at this instant the
velocity v
whole column
moving towards the valve with
and pressure p below normal.
The pressure at the inlet is, however, maintained normal, wave returns from this end with normal pressure and with velocity 2v. At the valve this wave is reflected
so that the
with a velocity which
is
the difference between 2v and the
velocity of efflux at this instant, and with a corresponding
pressure.
As the velocity of efflux will now be greater than V, the wave velocity will be less than v, and the rise in This wave is reflected pressure less than p above normal.
SUDDEN OPENING OF VALVE
from the
inlet to the valve,
49
is
and here the cycle
repeated,
the amplitude of the pressure wave diminishing rapidly until
steady flow ensues.
Fig. 11 shows a diagram obtained
by the author from the
its inlet, so that,
experimental pipe line under these conditions.
Where
pressure
the pipe slopes upwards towards
beyond a certain point
is less
in its length the absolute statical
than
the drop in pressure
caused at the valve
by sudden opening,
then on the passage
of the first
wave
of
^''* ^^
negative pressure the wave motion becomes partially discon
tinuous after this point
is
reached,* and the wave travels on
Vru/c. opeNtij.
Fig. 12.
to the inlet with a gradually diminishing amplitude.
The
amplitude with which
probably 2 or 3
it
reaches the inlet, and which will be
lbs. per.sq. in. less
than the absolute
statical
pressure at inlet, decides the state of velocity of the reflected
* Actually before this, since
water gives up
its
dissolved air rapidly
when the pressure
falls to
within 2 or 3
lbs. of
a complete vacuum.
50
WATER HAMMER IN HYDRAULIC
PIPE LINES
wave.
case,
This will evidently be less than in the' preceding
and under such circumstances the wave motion dies out very quickly. As the valve opening becomes greater, the efficiency of the valve as a reflecting surface becomes
less,
so that with a moderate opening the pressure
may
never even attain the pressure due to the statical head.
This
is
shown
in Fig. 12,
which
is
a diagram obtained by
the author from the experimental pipe line
when
the outlet
valve was opened suddenly (time <13 sees.) through half a
complete turn.
6.
Sudden Opening neglecting Elasticity of
Water Column.
Neglecting the
effect of elasticity of
the water column, the
pressure behind the valve and the velocity of efflux accompany
ing a sudden valve opening
may be
calculated as follows
Imagine the
effective
a
valve opening to instantaneously
of
this
assume a value
and to remain
(6), (p. 9),
value,
so
that
^=^ a
at
^. at
Equation
now becomes
w^2g^
dvt
gj.df
2gmJ,
'
while equation (9) becomes
"'di .^=l{^('+^(^)")^*}
<>
or
k'f2=c'<at
where
SUDDEN OPENING OF VALVE
so that
51
j^^ + r=ijit
we
get
(11")
From
this
ilog?^ + Z? = i,
while since
Vi,
=
;;
when i=0, we have I)=0.
^
2*
.
\it.
+ ei
per sec,
(12")
' J
giving the velocity of efflux at an instant
valve opens.
seconds after the
As
increases, this approximates to the value c or
'2gh
J
By
substitution in (9") the value of
ji
at
any instant and
this
therefore of
j:
may be
obtained,
and knowing
the
pressure behind the valve
may be
readily obtained.
series of experiments recently carried out at the Uni
versity of Wisconsin * on a hydraulic ram, in which the
velocity of flow
down
the drivepipe, corresponding to a
given interval of valve opening was measured, enable the
results obtained
by using formula
(12"),
or
its
modification,
to be verified.
Values of
85 '35
ft.
Va,
as obtained
by experiment on a
drivepipe
long and 2'05 inches diameter, are plotted in
In this
Fig. 13 against the curve representing this formula.
case
/= '09
(by experiment); a7a,=:397.
No. 205, 1908,
p. 143.
* Bvlletm of the University of Wisconsin,
52
WATEK HAMMEK IN HYDRAULIC
its seat
PIPE LINES
The valve used
consisted of a flat disc 4*5 ins. in diameter,
the inside diameter of
being 2'75
ins.
Its
lift
was
Fig. 13.
5 ins.,
and in every case the time
of
opening was too short
to be measured.
The experimenter
states that in these experiments the
recorded velocities are somewhat low owing to the effect of
the friction of the rod carrying the disc used to measure the
velocity.
The agreement between observed and
calculated values
is,
considering the nature of the apparatus, very close indeed.
CHAPTER IV
1.
Further Phenomena connected with Pipe flow.
carrying out the experiments already described,
.
While
further
phenomena were observed by the author which would appear to be of some importance
when
considering the
question of the fluctuations of
pressure likely to be obtained
in a given pipe line.
To
it
follow these
more
clearly
should be understood that the
water after passing the main
regulating valve
(Fig.
14),
passes through a second valve
B, before being measured.
the
In
de
experiments
already
scribed the valve
was kept
differs
wide open. from
This valve
Fig. 14.
in only one particular.
its seat,
Instead of bedding metal to metal on
washer,
Fig. 15,
seat.
a thin leather
as
^Y
thick, is fixed to the valve
is
body
shown
in
its
and
thus interposed between the valve and
In one or two experiments, the valve
being wide open,
was opened
slightly.
Whenever
pipe,
noticed that pressure waves were set
from end to end of the
but
it
it was up and were reflected was found that these,
this
was done
d2
54
WATEE HAMMER IN HYDEAULIC
maximum,
after
PIPE LINES
up
to a
instead of dying out actually increased in amplitude
certain
which this amplitude was maintained
seemingly indefinitely.
It
having been noted within what range of opening of
this occurred,
was closed and
set to
some point within
this
range.
was
then
opened very slowly so as not
h':fi:

to set
up any
of
perceptible dis
turbance
o
the
indicator
lever.
Flow would then take
steadily
for
place
few
seconds or even minutes, but
always,
Fig. 15.
after
short
time
the
slightly,
pencil
would
tremble
and the
as
oscillations
would grow
sq. inch).*
until the amplitude
approached that obtained by a sudden opening of the valve
(as
much
28
lbs.
per
In fact experiment
showed that over a certain range
impossible to maintain steady flow.
of valve
opening
it
was
On
entirely closing valve B, the oscillations died out, how
ever, in about
30 seconds.
In every case the period of a
complete oscillation of the pencil lever was '26 seconds.
When
it
is
remembered that the pressure of the water
its seat, this
tends to keep the valve off
phenomenon seems,
fact of the
at first sight, very paradoxical.
Its explanation
may, however, be found in the
leather washer fixed to the valve body, for while the pressure
in the annular space between this washer and the valve
is
body
c.
the same as that on the outlet side of the valve
Fig. 15
that between the washer and the valve seat
at a or
will
be
* Data obtained from a number of the experiments are given in the Appendix, Table II,
FUKTHEE PHENOMENA
less
55
than this (by Bernoulli's theorem), since the velocity
c is
of flow at
less
than at any point between
and
6.
Also,
the greater the volume passing the valve per
second at
c,
any
instant, the greater will
be the pressure at a and at
and, for a given valve
difference of pressure
opening, the greater will be the
of the washer,
between the two sides
its seat.
tending to force the latter to
Now
a sudden opening
is
followed by a reduction of
is
pressure behind the valve and flow
attains a certain value
v,
initiated.
When
this
depending on the valve opening,
the difference of pressure on the two sides of the washer
becomes
sufficient to cause
it
to flutter to its seat.
The
end
pressure rises suddenly due to the stoppage of motion and a
wave
of pressure
above normal
it is is
is reflected
to the open
of the pipe.
Here
This
reflected with
normal pressure and
velocity v.
reflected
from the valve with pressure
p below normal and
zero velocity, and again from the open
end with normal pressure and velocity v towards the valve.
But following the drop
its
in pressure, the washer will leave
seat
is
and flow
is
set up, so that this state of velocity v
is
which
propagated towards the valve
v'.
superposed on a
its seat
velocity of flow
As
the valve flutters to
under
the
influence
of
the increasing pressure,
the
maximum
v.
pressure rise will
now be
proportional to v+v' instead of to
is
The
cycle as outlined above
thus repeated, but with a
pressure variation which becomes greater at each succeeding
cycle until such time as a balance
is
obtained between the
energy entering the pipe during each cycle and that expended
in stretching its walls
and in giving kinetic energy to the
escaping water.
The
flow
is
initiation of this
phenomenon from a
state of steady
in all probability
due to pressure fluctuations caused
56
"WATER
HAMMER
IN HYDRAULIC PIPE LINES
side of the
by uneven eddy formation on the discharge
valve.
The above explanation
with valve
is
borne out by the fact that
oscillations
it
was
found impossible to obtain these
with valve A, or
when the
leather washer
affairs
was removed. any main
fitted
Evidently this state of
may
exist in
with an outlet valve of a type similar to that illustrated, and
it
would appear very inadvisable to use any such valve on a
branch pipe communicating with a pipe line used for supplying
a prime mover, or in any other case where (as
when coupled
acci
up
to a
water meter) such a fluctuation of pressure,
dentally set up, would prove detrimental.
CD
P
Ph
Pi
II
g s ^
II
88
C3
APPENDIX
59
TABLE
II.
Experimmtal Results on waterram caused by sudden or gradual
opening of valve B.
60
WATEK HAMMEE IN HYDRAULIC
PIPE LINES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Water Hammee
/
^
Carpenter, E. C. Trans. Am. Soc. Mechamccd Engineers. Vol. 15. Church, I. P. Jowrnal of Franklin Institute. April and May
1890.
Gibson, A. H.
Boston Journal of Commerce. 1896. Trans. Ass. O.E. of Cornell University, 1898. Hydraulics. Constable & Co., London. 1908.
P. 213. Bulletin University of Wisconsin.
Harza,
L. F.
JoDKOWSKT, N.
^
^
No. 205. 1908. Pp. 152, 157. Journal of Imperial Academy of Sciences of St.
Petersburg.
1900.
Merriman. Hydraulics. Wiley & Sons, New York. 1903. P. 390. Unwin, W. C. Hydraulics. A. & C. Black, London. 1907. P. 196. Walckenaer, M. Ann. des Ponts et ChaussMs. Trimestre. 1899. 'Weston, E. B. Trans. Am. Soc. C.E. June 1885. P. 308.
Printed by T. and A. Cokstaele, Printers to His Majesty at the Edinburgh UnivBrsity Press