Você está na página 1de 2

Q#1.A modified NRZ code known as enhanced-NRZ (E-NRZ) is sometimes used for high density magnetic tape recording.

E-NRZ encoding entails separating the NRZ-L data stream into 7-bit words; inverting bits 2, 3, 6, and 7; and adding one parity bit to each word. The parity bit is chosen to make the total number of 1s in the 8-bit word an odd count. What are the advantages of E-NRZ over NRZ-L? Any disadvantages? Q#2.An NRZ-L signal is passed through a filter with r = 0.4 and then modulated onto a carrier. The data rate is 3200 bps. Evaluate the bandwidth for ASK and FSK. For FSK assume that the two frequencies used are 40 kHz and 65 kHz.

Q#3.Consider audio signals with spectral components in the range 200 to 2000 Hz. Assume that a sampling rate of 5 kHz will be used to generate a PCM signal. For S/N = 25 dB, what is the number of uniform quantization levels needed? Assume a = 0.09 What data rate is required Q#4.What S/N ratio is required to achieve a bandwidth efficiency of 5.0 for ASK, FSK, PSK, and QPSK? Assume that the required bit error rate is 10-8 Q#5.Consider the use of 1000-bit frames on a 1-Mbps satellite channel with a 290-ms delay. What is the maximum link utilization for? a. Stop-and-wait flow control? b. Continuous flow control with a window size of 7? c. Continuous flow control with a window size of 127? d. Continuous flow control with a window size of 255? Q#6.What is the purpose of using modulo 2 arithmetic rather than binary arithmetic in computing an FCS? Q#7.For P = 110011 and M = 11100011, find the CRC. Q#8.Two neighboring nodes (A and B) use a sliding-window protocol with a 3-bit sequence number. As the ARQ mechanism, Go-back-N is used with a window size of 4. Assuming A is transmitting and B is receiving, show the window positions for the following Succession of events: a. Before A sends any frames. b. After A sends frames 0, 1, 2 and B acknowledges 0, 1 and the ACKs are received by A. c. After A sends frames 3, 4, and 5 and B acknowledges 4 and the ACK is received by A. Q#9.It is clear that bit stuffing is needed for the address, data, and FCS fields of an HDLC frame. Is it needed for the control field? Q#10.Why is it that the start and stop bits can be eliminated when character interleaving is used in synchronous TDM?

Q#11.A character-interleaved time-division multiplexer is used to combine the data streams of a number of 110-bps asynchronous terminals for data transmission over a 2400-bps digital line. Each terminal sends characters consisting of 7 data bits, 1 parity bit, 1 start bit, and 2 stop bits. Assume that one synchronization character is sent every 19 data characters and, in addition, at least 3% of the line capacity is reserved for pulse stuffing to accommodate speed variations from the various terminals. a. Determine the number of bits per character. b. Determine the number of terminals that can be accommodated by the multiplexer. c. Sketch a possible framing pattern for the multiplexer. Q#12.The UIIT has two locations. The international headquarters is located at Shamsabad, Rawalpindi, while the other is at BIIT, 6th Road, about 25 miles away. The UIIT has four 300-bps terminals that communicate with the central computer facilities at headquarters over leased voice grade links. The UIIT is considering installing time-division multiplexing equipment so that only one line will be needed. What cost factors should be considered in the decision? Q#13.Assume that the velocity of propagation on a TDM bus is 0.8 c, its length is 10 m, and the data rate is 500 Mbps. How many bits should be transmitted in a time slot to achieve a bus efficiency of 99%? Q#14.Assuming no malfunction in any of the stations or nodes of a network, is it possible for a packet to be delivered to the wrong destination?