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LUBNA RAHMAN

LECTURER DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE UNIVERSITY OF DHAKA

Submitted by:

SL. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 NAME K. M. SHAHRIAR PERVEJ JOBAYER MOHAMMAD EIDNAN MOHAMMAD NAZMUL HASAN MD. SADDAD HOSSAIN MINHAJ BIN ISLAM MD. AZHARUL ISLAM ROLL NO. 16-057 16-101 16-143 16-127 16-177 16-067 MARK

LETTER OF TRANSMISSION

11 April, 2011 Lubna Rahman Lecturer Department of Finance University of Dhaka Subject: Submission of the Report. Dear Madam, With profound reference towards the dignity of yours, we, submit our term paper on A Statistical Report on Income Level & Superstores. Thank you, Madam, for assigning us with this project. We are grateful and thankful to you for the kind hand of help, support and guidance that you extended to us while preparing this report and always during the course. We hope and pray that you would be kind enough to redirect us if there is any mistake here or anywhere in our way. Sincerely yours,

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

For the completion of this study, we cannot deserve all praise. Many people helped us by providing valuable information, advice and guidance for the completion of this report in the scheduled time. Course report is an essential part of B.B.A. program as one can gather practical knowledge within the short period by observing and doing the works of practical life. In this regard, our report has been arranged on . At first, we like to pay our thanks to almighty Allah, for helping us to do all the works with perfection. We would like to pay our gratitude to our supervising teacher Lubna Rahman, who instruct us in the right way and give us proper guidelines for preparing this report and also thank the persons who help us by giving different kinds of required information. We prepared this report only to meet our academic purpose and not for any other reason. It might not be used for the benefit of any other purpose.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Statistics is the science that deals with the methods of collecting, classifying, presenting, comprising and interpreting numerical data collected to throw some light on any sphere of enquiry. An organization has to collect different types of data, process the data by using different types of statistical tools, which helps the company to take different kinds of decision and by applying statistical tools in collected information, a company can easily forecast on different important issues. In our course Business Statistics (I) We have learned some statistical rules of collecting, processing and interpreting data. For the preparation of our report, we make a survey on 30 families living in Malibagh, Mirpur, Jatrabari. Our survey topic is How many people go to super market or normal market to purchase their daily commodities and the relationship of their going super market or normal market with their income level. Here we have only taking the necessary information for the report.

Contents

CHAPTER ONE

Page 2

CHAPTER TWO

Introduction

3-4

5-6

CHAPTER FOUR INNOVATIVE MARKETING STRATEGY FOR AGORA SUPERSTORE CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS

7-8

10

Chapter One

This report is generated under the academic supervision Lubna Rahman, Lecturer, Department of Finance, University of Dhaka. This report is prepared as the requirement of Business Statistics I (F-202) course. The topic is A Statistical Report on Income Level & Superstores.

To learn some opinion on innovative marketing given by the scholars. To learn some strategies about innovative marketing

To learn how the innovative marketing helps the marketers to sustain in the competitive market. To fulfill the partial requirement of our course of Principles of Marketing

Methodology

Chapter Three

Statistics

The science that has to do with the collection and classification of certain facts respecting the condition of the people in a state. Classified facts respecting the condition of the people in a state, their health, their longevity, domestic economy, arts, property, and political strength, their resources, the state of the country, etc., or respecting any particular class or interest; especially, those facts which can be stated in numbers, or in tables of numbers, or in any tabular and classified arrangement. The two types of statistics are:

Descriptive Statistics

A set of brief descriptive coefficients that summarizes a given data set, which can either be a representation of the entire population or a sample. The measures used to describe the data set are measures of central tendency and measures of variability or dispersion. In another word, Measures of central tendency include the mean, median and mode, while measures of variability include the standard deviation (or variance), the minimum and maximum variables, kurtosis and skewness. Descriptive statistics provide a useful summary of security returns when performing empirical and analytical analysis, as they provide a historical account of return behavior. Although past information is useful in any analysis, one should always consider the expectations of future events.

Inferential statistics

A branch of statistics that uses sample data to make a judgment about a population of data. For example, suppose a researcher has compiled years of data for stock prices and dividends. Inferential statistics might compare the risk-adjusted historical returns of different categories of stocks in order to provide guidance for the best types of stocks to own. Correlation Coefficient The correlation coefficient a concept from statistics is a measure of how well trends in the predicted values follow trends in past actual values. It is a measure of how well the predicted values from a forecast model "fit" with the real-life data.

The correlation coefficient is a number between 0 and 1. If there is no relationship, between the predicted values and the actual values, the correlation coefficient is zero or very low (the predicted values are no better than random numbers). As the strength of the relationship between the predicted values and actual values increases so does the correlation coefficient. A perfect fit gives a coefficient of 1.0. Thus the higher the correlation coefficient the better. We have made two frequency distributions based on the income level of the families from the collected data of the survey. One is how many people go to super shop according to their income level and how many people go to normal market with their income level. At first, we have calculated the frequency distribution of the families who go to the super shop and their income level:

Income 1-20000 20000-40000 40000-60000 60000-80000 80000-100000 People go to super shop 1 2 4 4 2

By using above-mentioned frequency, we have to find out the correlation between income level and people going to super shop to purchase their daily commodities:

INCOME 0-20000 2000040000 4000060000 6000080000 80000100000 MIDPOINT (X) 10000 30000 50000 70000 90000 SUPER SHOP (Y) 1 2 4 4 2 (X-X1) -40000 -20000 0 20000 40000 (Y-Y1) -1.6 -0.6 1.4 1.4 -0.6 (X-X1)2 1600000000 400000000 0 400000000 1600000000 4000000000 (Y-Y1)2 2.56 0.36 1.96 1.96 0.36 7.2 (X-X1) (Y-Y1) 64000 12000 0 28000 24000 80000

= 80000/ (40000000007.20) = 80000/ 169705.6275 = 0.4714

Regression

A statistical measure that attempts to determine the strength of the relationship between one dependent variable (usually denoted by Y) and a series of other changing variables (known as independent variables). The two basic types of regression are linear regression and multiple regressions. Linear regression uses one independent variable to explain and/or predict the outcome of Y, while multiple regressions use two or more independent variables to predict the outcome. The general form of each type of regression is: Linear Regression: Y = a + bx Where, Y = the variable that we are trying to predict X = the variable that we are using to predict Y a = the intercept b = the slope We know, Y = a+bx b = (x-x) (y-y)/(x-x) 2 = 80000/ 4000000000 = 0.0000 a = y-bx = 2.6- 0.0000250000 = 2.6-1 = 1.6 Y = 1.6+0.00002x

Regression Curve

Explanation:

From the above correlation, we see that there is a moderate relationship existing between income levels and going to super shop. As the value of the correlation is positive, the relationship existing between income levels and going to super shop is also positive. It means that as the income level increases, the tendency to going to super shop also increases. The regression equation tells us that if income increases by Tk. 1000, the tendency to going to super shop will increase by 0.00002.

Then, we have calculated the frequency distribution of the families who go to the normal market and their income level

Income 1-20000 20000-40000 40000-60000 60000-80000 80000-100000 People go to normal market 5 7 3 1 1

By using the above-mentioned frequency distribution, we have to find out the correlation between income level and people going to normal market to purchase their daily commodities.

INCOME

MIDPOINT (X)

MARKET

(X-X1)

(Y-Y1)

(X-X1)2

(Y-Y1)2

(X-X1) (YY1)

0-20000

10000

(Y) 5

-40000

-1.6

1600000000

2.56

-64000

20000-40000

30000

-20000

3.6

400000000

12.96

-72000

40000-60000

50000

-0.4

0.16

60000-80000

70000

20000

-2.4

400000000

5.76

-48000

80000-100000

90000

40000

-2.4

1600000000

5.76

-96000

4000000000

27.2

-280000

X = 250000/5 = 50000 Y = 13/5 = 2.6 r = (x-x) (y-y)/ (x-x) 2 (y-y) 2 = -280000/ (400000000027.2) = -280000/ 329848.450 = -0.848 Regression Equation We know, Y = a+bx b = (x-x) (y-y)/ (x-x) 2 = 280000/ 4000000000 = - 0.00007 a = y-bx = 3.4- (-0.0000750000) = 3.4+ 3.5 = 6.9

y = 6.9-0.00007x

Regression Curve:

Explanation:

From the above correlation, we see that there is a moderate relationship existing between income levels and going to normal market. As the value of the correlation is negative, the relationship existing between income levels and going to normal market is also negative. It means that as the income level increases, the tendency to going to normal market decreases. The regression equation tells us that if income increases by Tk. 1000, the tendency to going to normal market will decrease by 0.00007.

In fine, we can say that statistics is the combination of theoretical and applicable part. Through this report, we have found out that when income level increase, tendency of a particular person to go to super shop is increasing. This is clear to us by the correlation between income level and tendency of a particular person SL. to go to super shop .because correlation between income level and tendency to Shop Family (Name) Address Occupation Income S. Shop N. go to super shop is positive. Controversy, when income level is low, tendency of yes 1 Mizanur Rahman Jatrabari Govt. serviceman 18000 a particular person to go to super shop is decreasing but tendency to go to 2 Yakub Khan Jatrabari Serviceman 15000 normal market is increasing. It is clear to us by the negative correlation between yes incomeAlam and tendency to go to normal market. By completing the report, we yes 3 Khairul level Jatrabari Businessman 70000 have got some practical knowledge about statistical method which we have 4 Abdur Rauf Jatrabari Businessman 90000 yes learned in our course. We hope this practical knowledge will help us in our future 5 Md. Samsuddin Jatrabari Govt. serviceman 25000 yes study.

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Rafiqul Islam Habibur rahman Ariful Islam Abdur Rahman Farah Nazlee Omer Faruk Romijuddin Zakir Hossain Mofazzol chowdhury Abul Hasnat Harun-or-Rashid Alomgir Hossain Abdul Jalil Saria Rahman Sheikh Shahjahan Mojibur Rahman Jalaluddin Ahmed Rowson Ara Chowdhury Sirajul Islam Khan Mohammad Ali Abdur Rashid Khan Dr. Farzia Rahman Jatrabari Jatrabari Jatrabari Jatrabari Jatrabari Mirpur Mirpur Mirpur Mirpur Mirpur Mirpur Mirpur Mirpur Mirpur Mirpur Malibagh Malibagh Malibagh Malibagh Malibagh Malibagh Malibagh Businessman Govt. serviceman Businessman Govt. serviceman Business Govt. serviceman Businessman Govt. serviceman Businessman Govt. serviceman Govt. serviceman Businessman Govt. serviceman Businessman Businessman Govt. serviceman businessman Govt. serviceman Businessman Serviceman 50000 18000 90000 9000 70000 35000 55000 38000 85000 30000 7000 75000 32000 65000 50000 28000 55000 25000 42000 14000 45000 65000 yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes

The data that we have collected during our survey over 30 families in Malibagh, Mirpur & Jatrabari 28 Mahmudur Rahman Malibagh Govt. serviceman yes area about who go to the super shop and who go to the normal market 27000 are presented below:

29 30 Riffat Ara Riya Md. Al Amin Chowdhury Malibagh Malibagh Govt. serviceman Serviceman 52000 45000 yes yes

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