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Introduction

Out of the total 4, 22, 000 flowering plants reported from the world more than 50,000 are used for medicinal purposes .In India, more than 43% of the total flowering plants are reported to be of medicinal importance . Utilization of plants for medicinal purposes in India has been documented long back in ancient literature However, organized studies in this direction were initiated in 1956 and off late such studies are gaining recognition and popularity due to loss of traditional knowledge and declining plant population. Right from its beginning, the documentation of traditional knowledge especially on the medicinal uses of plants, has provided many important drugs of modern day .Even today this area holds much more hidden treasure as almost 80% of the human population in developing countries is dependant on plant resources for healthcare. In the interior areas of western Himalaya plants become the only source of medicine and well being. However, information on the uses of plants as traditional medicines has not been documented from various interior areas of western Himalaya such as Chhota Bhangal. Due to its remoteness and lack of modern health facilities dependence on plants for medicine is very high. Ironically, information on the uses of plants for medicine from this area is completely lacking. At the same time, the area is undergoing rapid transformations due to its recognition as an ideal paragliding site and is therefore becoming more market oriented. This can be seen in the changed cropping patterns of the local people. The role of market economy in depletion of traditional knowledge has been well documented in many parts of Himalaya . Thus many important leads to drug discovery may be lost in absence of proper documentation.

Keeping this in view, the present study was initiated, with an aim to identify knowledgeable resource persons and document their knowledge of on the utilization of medicinal plants in Chhota Bhangal area of western Himalaya.

NAME BOTANICAL NAME FAMILY SANSKRIT SYNONYMS Sadaphala, Sailoosha AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES :

: : : :

Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos Linn. Corr. Rutaceae Vilva, Maloorah, Sreephala,

Rasa : Kashaya, Tikta Guna : Lakhu, Rooksha Virya : Ushna

PLANT DESCRIPTION height.

Medium sized thorny deciduous tree grows up to 10 m in Leaves are trifoliate, aromatic, and alternate. Leaflets are ovate-lanceolate. Lateral leaflets are sub sessile and terminal long petioled. Flowers are greenish white, found in axillary panicles.

Fruits are globose woody berry with yellow pulp. Seeds are numerous, oblong and embedded in pulp. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES : Plant pacifies vitiated kapha, vata, body pain, poison, diarrhoea, dysentery, vomiting, and intermittent fever. Pulp of unripe fruit is constipating whereas that of ripened fruit is laxative. Leaves cure diabetes, cough, inflammation and asthma. USEFUL PART : Leaves, Root, Fruits

NAME BOTANICAL NAME (Aloe barbadensis Mill) FAMILY SANSKRIT SYNONYMS Grihakanya AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES : :

: : :

Aloe vera Aloe vera (Linn.) Burm. Liliaceae

Kumari, Grithakumari, Rasa: Tikta, Madhura Guna: Guru, Snigdha Virya: Seeta

PLANT DESCRIPTION

A perennial shrub grows with fleshy leaves and short stem. Leaves are fleshy, sessile, with prickles on margins. Flowers are in long spikes, fruits capsules, often sterile. Reproduction is by budding. Leave juice dried in air is called elio. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES :

Plant pacifies vitiated vata, pitta, amenorrhoea, wounds, ulcers, burns, colic, hepatitis, skin diseases, constipation, tumor, malignancy, low back pain, edema, arthritis and general debility. USEFUL PART : Leaves juice.

NAME BOTANICAL NAME FAMILY

: :

Azadirachta indica Azadirachta indica A.Juss. : Meliaceae

SANSKRIT SYNONYMS Hinguniryasa, Manda, Tiktaka AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES

Nimba, Arista,

Rasa: Tikta Guna: Lakhu, Snigdha Virya: Ushna

PLANT DESCRIPTION : A moderate to large sized tree grows up to 30 m in height. Leaves are imparipinnately compound, leaflets opposite, serrate and acuminate. Flowers are yellowish white, found in axillary panicles. Fruits are elliptical one seeded drupes yellowish when ripe. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES : Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, skin diseases, eczema, fever, wound, ulcer, burning sensation, tumor, worms, cough, diabetes, inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. USEFUL PART Seed, Oil. : Bark, Leaves, Flowers,

NAME BOTANICAL NAME G.Don FAMILY SANSKRIT SYNONYMS AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES : : :

Catharanthus roseus

Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) Apocynaceae Rasa: Tikta Guna: Lakhu, Rooksha Virya: Ushna

:Nityakalyani.

PLANT DESCRIPTION

An erect annual herb grows up to a height of 1 m in height. Leaves are deep green oblong, flowers in cymose, axillary clusters, deep rose or white in colour. Fruits are cylindrical follicle. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES : Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, kapha, diabetes, hypertension, leukemia and malignancy. The root is stomachic and tonic. USEFUL PART : Whole plant

NAME BOTANICAL NAME variety) FAMILY SANSKRIT SYNONYMS Girikarnika.

: : :

Clitoria ternatea (Blue variety) Clitoria ternatea Linn (Blue Fabaceae : Sankapushpam, Aparajita, : Rasa: Tikta Guna: Lakhu, Rooksha Virya: Ushna Prabhava: Medhya

AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES

PLANT DESCRIPTION

Leaves are compound, imparipinnate, leaflets 5 7, sub coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, obtuse. Flowers are blue, solitary, axillary or in facicles.

Fruits are nearly straight flattened pods. Seeds are 6-10 smooth yellowish brown. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES : Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, migraine, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, tuberculosis, ascites, ulcers and fever, jaundice and skin diseases. Seeds are used in abdominal cramps and promote intellect. USEFUL PART : Root, leaves, seeds.

NAME stramonium BOTANICAL NAME Linn. FAMILY SANSKRIT SYNONYMS Unmatta, Durdhura :

Datura Datura stramonium

Solanaceae

: Dhattura, Dusthara,

AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES Vyavayi, Vikashi

: Rasa: Tikta, Katu Guna: Lakhu, Rooksha, Virya: Ushna Vipaka: Katu

PLANT DESCRIPTION height.

An erect spreading annual or biennial plant grows up to 2 m in Leaves are simple, alternate, triangular and unequal at base. Flowers are large, solitary and white. Fruits are globular capsules covered with numerous prickles, containing numerous yellowish brown seeds. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES :

Plant pacifies vitiated vata, kapha, arthritis, cough, asthma, muscle spasm, fever, ulcer, skin diseases, lumbago, sciatica and dandruff. USEFUL PART : Whole plant

NAME

Mentha piperita

BOTANICAL NAME FAMILY SANSKRIT SYNONYMS Rochani AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES Teekshna

: : : :

Mentha piperita Linn Lamiaceae Pootiha, Pudina, Rasa: Katu, Guna: Lakhu, Rooksha, Virya: Ushna

PLANT DESCRIPTION

Aromatic annual herb grows up to 60 cm. Leaves are simple, opposite and ovate or lanceolate. Flowers are lilac coloured seen in axillary whorls. Fruits are nutlets. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES :

Plant pacifies vitiated kapha, vata, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, dental caries, jaundice and urinary retention. USEFUL PART : Leaves

NAME

Mimosa pudica

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BOTANICAL NAME FAMILY SANSKRIT SYNONYMS Raktapadi, Namaskari, :

: :

Mimosa pudica Linn. Lajjalu, Samanga,

Mimosaceae

Kharatvak, Sankochani AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES : Rasa: Kashaya, Tikta Guna: Lakhu, Rooksha Virya: Seeta PLANT DESCRIPTION :

A diffuse under shrub grows up to 60 cm in height. Leaves are bipinnately compound, pinnate 2-4 digitally arranged with 20-30 pairs of leaflets and touch sensitive. Flowers are pink in round heads. Fruits are bristly pods, flat, consisting 3-5 one seeded segments. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES :

Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, kapha, oedema, allergy, bronchial asthma, haemorrhoid, ulcer, jaundice, arthritis and fever. USEFUL PART : Whole plant.

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NAME BOTANICAL NAME (Black variety) FAMILY SANSKRIT SYNONYMS AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES Tikta

: : : :

Ocimum sanctum Ocimum sanctum Linn Lamiaceae Rasa : Kashaya, Guna : Lakhu,

: Tulasi, Surasa, Svetatulasi.

Rooksha Virya : Ushna PLANT DESCRIPTION height. Leaves are pale dark brown in colour, simple, opposite, elliptic, oblong, obtuse or acute, serrate, entire, pubescent on both sides. Petiole is slender and hairy. Flowers are purplish in elongate recemes. Fruits are nutlets, smooth, not mucilaginous when wet. :

An erect much branched under shrub, grows up to 1 m in

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MEDICINAL PROPERTIES

Plant pacifies vitiated tridoshas, cough, asthma, bronchitis, fever, toxins, vomiting, lumbago, gastric distension, genitourinary diseases, ringworm and skin diseases. USEFUL PART : Whole plant.

NAME BOTANICAL NAME FAMILY SANSKRIT SYNONYMS Peetakaraveera, Asvaghna, : : :

Taivetia neerifolia

Taivetia neerifolia Juss Apocynaceae Karaveera,

Asvamaraka, Hayamaraka AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES Kashaya Guna : Lakhu, Rooksha, Teekshna Virya : Ushna Vipaka: Katu : Rasa : Katu, Tikta,

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PLANT DESCRIPTION

An evergreen shrub grows up to 7-10 m in height. Leaves are three in a whorl, linear-lanceolate, acute, and yellowish green. Flowers pale yellow colored and fragrant; Fruits are globular and 4 chambered. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES :

Plant pacifies vitiated vata, skin diseases, arthritis, pruritus, and ulcers for external use. Internal use will cause toxic symptoms. USEFUL PART : Roots, Leaves

Conclusion It can be concluded from the study that Bhangalis inherit a rich traditional knowledge and documentation of this knowledge has provided novel information from the area. They still depend on the plants for medicinal purposes and are very much concerned about their degradation in wild as they now have to travel even more far to collect these plants. The incoming of roads and coming up of the area as an important tourist destination has allured the younger generation towards market economy, this certainly will have larger implications.

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Thus, the present documentation of traditional knowledge from an area where novel information has been generated will not only provide recognition to this knowledge but will also help in its conservation vis--vis providing pharmacological leads for the betterment of human society.

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