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Eras Ancient Era Beginning of time to 1600 AD Empiric Era 1600 to 1940 Industrialization Era 1940 to 1970 Patient

nt Care Era 1970 to present Biotechnology and genetic engineering Ancient Era From the beginning of time to 1600 AD Early man used materials in his surroundings, Leaves, mud and cool water were used to stop bleeding and heal wounds. Dry clay was used to splint broken bones. They copied animal behavior . At some point man began to document healing practices on clay tablets 2600 B.C. One of the earliest known records written around 1500 B.C. was the Ebers Papyrus named by George Ebers. Ebers Papyrus Contains formulas for more than 800 ancient remedies. The Romans conquered the Greeks and the medical and pharmaceutical cultures merged, it is known as the Greco-Roman era. Greek Figures Hippocrates The father if Medicine was a philosopher, Physician and Pharmacist. He liberated medicine from the mythical Bad Spirits He also wrote the Oath of Hypocrites Theophrastus Known as the Father of Botany He studied the adverse effects of plants

Paracelsus Theophrastus Phillippus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim. Swiss born physician who believed in chemical treatment of disease rather than botanical. Roman pharmacy titles: Pharmacopeia: Maker of remedies Pharmacotritae: Drug Grinders Unguentarii: Makers of ointments Pigmentarii: Maker of cosmetics Pharmacopolae: Seller of drugs Aromatarii: Dealers of spices Pharmacist of today had not yet evolved The Arabian Influence: Major advances in this era Formularies: The continuation of documentation of drug information. They also had different drug forms which are now used: Syrups, Conserves, Confections and juleps. The first Pharmacy shop in the world was in Baghdad about 792 A.D. The Renaissance 1350- 1650 A.D. (End of the ancient era)

Pharmacy became separated from medicine. Pharmacy Regulation began. University education for pharmacists was now required. More and new drugs were imported from the orient. New chemicals were introduced. Renaissance (Ancient Era) Guilds we formed for the profession of Pharmacy. Physicians did not take pharmacists seriously. In small towns they were put in the same guild as spicers. The Empiric era 1600-1940 Pharmacopeias were used to protect public health. Roots, Bark, Herbs Flowers etc. were used and controlled by the government. They questioned the toxicological effects on the human body. Created interest in testing of drugs and how they affected the body. Empiric Era Cont. In 1751 Benjamin Franklin started the first hospital In Pennsylvania, PA. It was moved but still stands today.The first hospital pharmacist to work in that hospital was Jonathan Roberts. William Proctor The father of American Pharmacy Spent most of his life to the advancement of pharmacy. He owned an apothecary shop, teacher, editor and a scientist. New drugs and chemicals: Science grew in the 17 th and 18 th centuries Many new drugs and chemicals were identified. Nitrogen, Chlorine, Zinc, Oxygen, Atropine, Quinine, Caffeine, Morphine, Codeine, Penicillin, Testosterone, Phenobarbital Niacin. Industrial Era More people needed drugs for injuries and illnesses from the wars, so mass production of medications were made through industrial machines . Industrial Era Scientific research was also growing in the industrial era. Investigations into medicines and their effects were studied. Due to all the research many new drugs and uses of old drugs were being used which caused more reactions and interactions with medications. Patient Care Era New problems Complications like allergic reactions, multiple drug interactions with other drugs and food. Increased the therapeutic duties of patient care in the pharmacies and hospitals. Biotechnology Era Gene therapy is being conducted. Some diseases are linked to genetic defects. Modifying the genetic makeup of people may prevent or cure diseases. Reincomant DNA technology: Recombinant DNA is a form of synthetic DNA that is engineered through the combination or insertion of one or more DNA strands, thereby combining DNA sequences that would not normally occur together. Genetic modification.