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Chapter 11 Motivating and Leading

Multiple Choice Questions


1. ____________ suggests the need for job security, whereas people with ____________ would probably be motivated by more risky opportunities for variety and fast-track advancement. a. High uncertainty; low uncertainty (moderate, page 447) b. Low uncertainty; high uncertainty c. High power distance; low power distance d. Lower power distance; high power distance ____________ suggests that most people would be more comfortable with the traditional division of work and roles; in a ____________ culture, the boundaries could be looser, motivating people through more flexible roles and work networks. a. High masculinity; more feminine (moderate, page 447) b. A more feminine culture; masculine c. High uncertainty; low uncertainty d. Low uncertainty; high uncertainty For most people, the basic meaning of work refers to ___________. a. self-fulfillment b. self-identity c. team or group membership d. economic necessity (moderate, page 447) The degree of general importance that working has in the life of an individual is called ___________. a. intrinsic motivation b. extrinsic motivation c. need paradigm d. work centrality (moderate, page 448) Which of the following was NOT one of the factors identified in the Meaning of Work (MOW) research study? a. keeps one occupied b. provides a needed income c. provides contacts with others d. All of the above were factors in the MOW study. (moderate, page 449) Which of the following nations ranked highest in the centrality of work according to the Meaning of Work research study? a. U.S. b. Netherlands c. Belgium d. Japan (moderate, page 449) According to the text, Ronen concludes that ____________ are constant across nationalities and that Maslows need hierarchy is confirmed by those clusters. a. need clusters (difficult, page 452) b. value clusters c. behavioral clusters d. moral clusters

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While American companies tend to stress individual goals, achievement, and reward, Japanese companies tend to stress ___________. a. financial goals b. financial rewards for teams c. groupwide goals (moderate, page 453) d. status recognition Nevis proposes that hierarchy of Chinese needs would have ___________ levels. a. two b. three c. four (moderate, page 453) d. five Which two sets of needs are identified in the Herzberg model? a. productivity and nonproductivity factors b. satisfiers and hygiene factors c. motivators and maintenance factors (moderate, page 453) d. motivators and group factors Which of the following is NOT an intrinsic motivation factor? a. the work itself b. pay (easy, page 453) c. recognition d. achievement Which of the following does NOT accurately characterize workers in the Mexican culture? a. They rank high on power distance. b. They rank high on uncertainty avoidance. c. They rank low on individualism. d. All of the above describe the Mexican workers. (difficult, page 455) In Mexico, ___________ is of central importance. a. pay b. job security c. individualism d. family (moderate, page 455) ___________ is(are) the most common reason(s) given for absenteeism among Mexican workers. a. Illness b. Family reasons (moderate, page 455) c. Dissatisfaction with the job d. Personal problems The ___________ management style works best in Mexico. a. autocratic b. authoritative (moderate, page 456) c. consensus d. rational

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Whereas Americans believe that hard work will get the job done, many Hong Kong Chinese believe that outcomes will be determined by ___________. a. family b. social standing c. luck (moderate, page 459) d. education Which of the following is NOT among the five categories of rewards typical in the American culture? a. job content b. self-fulfillment (moderate, page 460) c. career d. social status In Taiwan, the most highly sought reward is ___________. a. pay b. security c. recognition from peers d. recognition from the top and affection (moderate, page 460) According to Jacques Maisonrouge, The managers quintessential responsibility is to help his people realize ___________. a. profits b. corporate growth c. self-fulfillment through achieving corporate ends d. their own highest potential (moderate, page 460) Which of the following is NOT one of the four personal development strategies (four ts) through which companies and managers can meet the requirements of effective global leadership? a. through travel b. through teamwork c. through training d. through technology (difficult, page 461) According to Mason and Spich, the leaders role is an interaction of which two sets of variables? a. content and context (difficult, page 461) b. personal and professional c. internal and external d. cultural and societal Since effective leadership traits vary with the situation and with the followers according to each context, the idea of ___________ is not valid. a. predictive leadership models b. leadership definitions c. understanding leadership in different cultures d. universal leadership traits (difficult, page 462) Effective _____________ involves the ability to inspire and influence the thinking, attitudes, and behavior of people anywhere in the world. a. global leadership (moderate, page 461) b. ethnocentric leadership c. polycentric leadership d. virtual leadership

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In Latin American countries, leaders are respected as___________. a. people possessing machismo b. bosses in total authority c. representatives of workers d. multidimensional social beings (difficult, page 464) The ___________ model of leadership style has been recommended by American research studies as one more likely to have positive results with American employees. a. autocratic b. charismatic c. transactional d. democratic (moderate, page 464) Which of the following is NOT a leadership style and behavior that was found to be culturally contingent? a. charismatic b. participative c. autonomous d. virtual (moderate, page 466) The _____________ leader is someone who is, for example, a visionary, an inspiration to subordinates, and performance-oriented. a. charismatic (easy, page 466) b. team-oriented c. participative d. self-protective A(n) _____________ leader is someone who exhibits diplomatic, integrative, and collaborative behaviors towards the team. a. charismatic b. team-oriented (moderate, page 466) c. participative d. self-protective The ____________ leader is one who delegates decision making and encourages subordinates to take responsibility. a. charismatic b. team-oriented c. participative (easy, page 466) d. self-protective The ____________ dimension describes a leader who is self-centered, conflictual, and status conscious. a. charismatic b. team-oriented c. participative d. self-protective (moderate, page 466) According to Hofstede, employees in countries that rank high on power distance are more likely to prefer a(n) ___________ leadership style. a. autocratic (moderate, page 468) b. participative c. charismatic d. transformational

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In a large power distance society, subordinates ___________. a. expect superiors to act autocratically (difficult, page 469) b. have weak dependence needs c. expect superiors to be resourceful democrats d. frown upon status symbols Employees in countries that rank low on power distance are more likely to prefer a(an) ___________ leadership style. a. autocratic b. participative (moderate, page 468) c. charismatic d. transformational According to Hofstede, the critical fact to grasp about leadership in any culture is that it is a complement to ___________. a. the leaders personality b. the needs of the leaders boss c. the demands placed on the leader by the organization d. subordinateship (moderate, page 468) Laurent concluded that ___________ significantly affects the perception of what is effective management. a. educational background of followers b. type of organization structure in place c. the needs of subordinates d. national origin (moderate, page 468) Managers in Sweden, the Netherlands, U.S., Denmark, and Great Britain seem to believe that employees prefer which style of leadership? a. autocratic b. charismatic c. participative (moderate, page 468) d. laissez faire In the Middle East, leaders are expected to ___________. a. show a highly authoritarian tone b. give rigid instructions c. provide too many management directives d. All of the selections are correct. (moderate, page 471) Indian culture stresses ___________ rather than personal goals. a. creativity b. obedience c. moral orientation and loyalty (moderate, page 474) d. hard work and perseverance Sinha proposes that a leader in India has to be a(an) ___________. a. autocrat b. friend c. family member d. nurturant (moderate, page 474)

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Kaizen in the Japanese system is ___________. a. quality control circles b. leadership improvement programs c. subordinate enthusiasm programs d. continuous improvement efforts (easy, page 475)

Short Essay Questions


41. What is the concept of work centrality and how is it important to cross cultural management? The concept measures the central importance of work as a motivating factor in a persons life. The centrality of work will greatly influence both the content and process of motivation. (moderate, page 448) What attributes did the MOW group consider when they investigated cross-cultural motivation. The MOW research looked at work across six dimensions: provides a needed income, is interesting and satisfying, provides contact with others, facilitates a way to serve society, keeps one occupied, and gives status and prestige. (moderate, page 449) What hierarchy did Nevis propose to replace Maslow in the Chinese culture? Nevis found a different order for Chinese: (1) belonging, (2) physiological needs, (3) safety, and (4) self-actualization in the service of society. While the categories are similar, the Chinese require a completely different motivational structure. (moderate, page 453) What is the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation? Intrinsic needs come from within the individual, such as the need for recognition and self-fulfilling work. Extrinsic needs come from the organization or society. According to research, intrinsic needs are stronger motivators than extrinsic. (moderate, page 454) Identify five things that motivate the typical Mexican worker. Family membership; paternalistic management; fringe benefits; respect from the organization; bonuses; recognition of birthdays; healthcare facilities. (easy, page 455) List the four development strategies through which companies and managers can meet the requirements of effective global leadership. The four personal development strategies are through travel, teamwork, training, and transfers. (moderate, page 461) Distinguish between leadership content and context. Content comprises the attributes of the leader and the decisions to be made, while context refers to all those variables of the particular leadership situation. (moderate, page 461) List four of the six roles on which managers on international assignments try to maximize leadership effectiveness. The six roles include (1) a representative of the parent firm, (2) the manager of the local firm, (3) a resident of the local community, (4) a citizen of either the host country or of another country, (5) a member of a profession, and (6) a member of a family. (moderate, page 461) Identify the four broad contingency factors affecting leadership abroad. Attributes of the person, attributes of the job position, characteristics of the decision situation, and characteristics of the firm and business environment. (moderate, page 462) 46

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On what common dimensions does most research on American leadership focus? Autocratic versus democratic; participative versus directive; relations-oriented versus task-oriented; initiating structure versus consideration. (moderate, page 464) List the six leadership styles and behaviors that were found to be culturally contingent based on the research conducted by the GLOBE project. The six leadership styles and behaviors are (1) charismatic, (2) team-oriented, (3) self-protective, (4) participative, (5) humane, and (6) autonomous. (moderate, page 466) What is subordinateship? What are the characteristics of subordinateship in large power distance countries? Employee attitudes toward leaders, and how employees act upon those differences. Subordinateship varies across cultures. Subordinates have strong dependence needs, expect their superiors to act autocratically, ideal superior is a benevolent autocrat, everyone expects superiors to enjoy privileges, laws and rules differ for subordinates and superiors, and status symbols are important. (moderate, page 468) Characterize preferred behavior for leaders in Indian culture. Indian leader behavior is hierarchical, autocratic, loyalty-oriented. It has centralized decision making. The pursuit of social goals is an important element of leader behavior. Also, hiring and promotion decisions are influenced by nepotism. (difficult, page 473)

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Comprehensive Essay Questions


54. Do Japanese motivation and leadership practices work with U.S. employees? Are some more applicable than others? Can we conclude that they are applicable across cultures, or does it depend on the situation? Discuss you conclusion. While the Japanese emphasis on sense of identify from work would appear to be appealing to many American workers, one must be careful not to assume that all Japanese motivational techniques would be as effective. Because Americans are much more individualistic in their motivational profile, the Japanese emphasis on subordination of self to the group would not work as effectively in the United States as it would in Japan. As numerous research studies have concluded, one must be very careful in over-generalizing about universal motivational appeals across cultures. (difficult, page 454) Discuss Herzbergs two-factor theory of motivation as it relates to different countries around the world. What can we conclude and use in management, regarding this theory? What are we not able to conclude, and why? A review of research shows some support for Herzbergs two-factor theory (motivators versus satisfiers). This allows us to draw tentative conclusions that managers around the world are motivated more by intrinsic than by extrinsic factors. However, there remains considerable doubt about the universality of Herzbergs theory. (moderate, page 454) Discuss the six suggestions provided by Mexican executives surveyed regarding the implementation of work teams. (1) Foster a culture of individual responsibility among team members; (2) anticipate the impact of changes in power distribution; (3) provide leadership from the top throughout the implementation process; (4) provide adequate training to prepare workers for team work; (5) develop motivation and harmony through clear expectations; and (6) encourage an environment of shared responsibility. (moderate, page 457)

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