Inertia dominated forces on oblique horizontal cylinders in waves near a plane boundary
N. Chioukh, R. Narayanan
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, UK
Abstract
The hydrodynamic forces exerted on horizontal cylinders placed obliquely in plane waves in a laboratory flume have been measured for small KeuleganCarpenter numbers at which inertia forces dominate. Three different gaps between the cylinder and the bed of the channel have been considered for two oblique angles of the incident waves. The linear diffraction theory is numerically solved using the boundary element method to determine the wave forces. It is found that the computed results compare favourably with the experimental results pertaining to the inline forces. The lift forces evaluated through linear theory agree with the empirical results when a correction is made to the pressures taking account of the velocity field around the cylinder, especially when it is close to the bed of the channel.
I. Notation
a d D amplitude o f the incident w a v e depth o f water d i a m e t e r o f cylinder = F x / p g R 2 1 = dimensionless max. normal force = F y / p g R 2 1 = dimensionless max. lift force m a x i m u m normal force m a x i m u m lift force gravitational acceleration gap b e t w e e n cylinder and channel bed = 27r/L = wave number KeuleganCarpenter number w a v e n u m b e r c o m p o n e n t s in x and z directions
fx fy
Fx Fy
g G k
Kc kx, k~
03783839/94/$07.00 1994 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved SSDIO3783839( 93 ) EO050S
186
K0
L I
g/
P
r
R
t
T
U
Um
Ux~ Uy, Uz
x, y, z
OL
[3
F 3/ P
Or
modified Bessel function of second kind of zero order wave length length of cylinder outward normal pressure distance from source point to field point radius of cylinder time wave period fundamental solution of modified Helmholtz equation maximum fluid velocity components of fluid velocity space coordinate axes angle of wave incidence Euler's constant domain boundary coefficients in Eqs. 3 and 4 fluid density velocity potential in (x,y,z,t) space velocity potential in (x,y) space incident velocity potential in (x,y) space circular frequency
Subscripts
D i diffracted wave source point field point
2. Introduction
Wave forces on cylinders are evaluated under two limiting conditions which depend on the size of the cylinder relative to the wave length. For large diameters of the cylinder, the diffraction theory is suitably applied, whereas for small cylinders the Morison formula is used. The importance of the drag force relative to the inertia force in the Morison formula depends on the KeuleganCarpenter number Kc = UmT/D, where Um is the maximum fluid velocity in the undisturbed incident wave at the centre of the cylinder, T is the wave period and D is the diameter of the cylinder. As Kc tends to zero, the wave force is inertia dominated. At large values of Kc, the flow around the cylinder is dictated by viscosity with attendant separation of flow as a result of which the drag term of the Morison formula outweighs the inertia term. As the cylinder is adjacent to the plane boundary, the vortex shedding process is considerably modified. For submarine pipelines, the value of Kc could very well be small as they are normally laid on the bed of deep sea. In the coastal and offshore engineering applications, owing to their directionality, waves can approach submarine pipelines obliquely. In the former, waves
187
can impinge on pipelines at angles other than normal due to the orientation of the pipes across the shoreline and due to the refraction of the waves. Most of the experimental measurements of the wave forces in the inertia regime have hitherto been for the case of wave direction being normal to the cylinder axis for horizontal pipelines. At large Kc values for yawed cylinders, it is customary to use the component of velocity normal to the cylinder axis in the Morison formula to obtain the wave forces. Measurements of inertia dominated forces on horizontal cylinders exposed to normal incidence of waves have been carried out by Schiller (1971), Wright and Yamamoto (1979), Efthymiou and Narayanan (1980), Cheong et al. ( 1987, 1989), Jothi Shankar et al. ( 1987, 1988). The hydrodynamic coefficients involved in expressing wave forces have been studied as functions of the wave length of the incoming wave, the gap between the channel bed and the cylinder, and the depth of water. The independent variables are presented usually in dimensionless form using the diameter of the cylinder as the length scale. Potential flow theory representing the motion of a cylinder in a fluid as an infinite series of distributed doublets is due to Yamamoto et al. (1974). The inertia coefficient and the lift coefficient thus computed are functions of the gap ratio G / D only, G being the gap between the cylinder and the bed. Efthymiou and Narayanan (1980, 1981 ) determined these coefficients through linear diffraction theory employing finite element method as functions of the gap, wave length and depth of water relative to the diameter to the cylinder. These two studies (Yamamoto et al., 1974 and Efthymiou and Narayanan, 1980) concern waves at normal incidence to the cylinder. The diffraction of oblique waves by an infinite cylinder is solved numerically using finite element techniques by Bai (1975) and the wave force on the cylinder in deep sea is determined analytically by Bolton and Ursell (1973). The primary objective of this paper is to report experimental results of wave forces exerted on oblique horizontal cylinders by plane waves in a laboratory wave tank. The inline and lift forces in the inertia dominated regime were measured for oblique cylinders which were kept at various distances from the bed of the tank. The forces are analysed based on the assumption that at low KeuleganCarpenter numbers the wave field around the cylinder is potential. Linear diffraction theory utilising boundary element method is used to evaluate numerically the forces exerted on the oblique cylinder.
188
~_~
,~
o
J
'
J
hl////////////////A
_ _
 
t/x
Deflnltlon of Angle a
and then analysed by a computer. Wave heights were measured by a resistance type probe in conjunction with a wave monitor. Two such probes placed along the flume were used to measure the wave length of the incident wave. The heights of the incident waves ranged from 40 m m to 100 m m and wave lengths from 1 m to 2.5 m. The maximum value of the KeuleganCarpenter number obtained in our experiments was 3.42. Experiments were carried out to determine the wave forces exerted on the cylinder for the various heights and periods of the waves. Three different gaps ( G = 1, 2 and 70 m m ) and two inclinations ( a = 20 and 30 ) of the cylinder with respect to the incident wave were studied. The maximum value of a = 30 was dictated by the limitations of the existing measuring arrangement. Values of ~ > 30 required extensive modification to the system which unfortunately could not be carried out.
4. Experimental results
Experimental results of the peak normal and lift forces fx andfv on the cylinder lying on the horizontal plane are presented in dimensionless form.
189
190
(a)
e V Experlmen~e L f x ExperlmontsL fy* ExperlmenteL f y Olffreclon modlL
dlR=12.0 GID=I.OO0
L 0 X
kR=0.1466
0.4
0.5
O.2
~  ~
fx fY+ LIn fy
Kc ~ 1.50 a= 30
0.0
.....................
0.8
0.9
O.B
(b)
V Exp~lment= L fx Exper I =~nt L f7+ Exp~Imente L FX
0.5 O. 4
0.3
0,2
fy+ Lln fy
0.0
0,2
O. ~,
0.6
O.B
I.0
1.2
I.~.
1.6
1.8
t=/R
191
(c)
9 ExperlmenteL fx ExpePtmentmt fy+
d/R=l 2. 0
,,_x
L 0
O.S fx 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0,2 0.6 0.6 0.8 a/R 1.0 1.2 1.6 1,6 1.8 fY
(d)
fyn~H:~C
fx
a=
3o"
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8 a/R
1.0
1,2
1,4
1,6
t.
Fig. 2. Variations of force coefficients with relative wave amplitudes (continued on p. 192).
192
(e)
Q V .
d/R:12.0 0.5 t 0 0.4 f x G/D=O. Olk kR=O. 1k66 Ke ~ 1.58 0.3 0.2 0.! fy_
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8 elR
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0,9 O.B
(f)
Ext~mme~n~. fx L
t fy
Ex~l~
0.? O.6 fx
DI f f r ~ l o n mwx~L
L o
fY
00
~
0.0 / ....... _. . .v v . ~
tin fy
fY.
0.0
0.2
0,4
0.6
O.B elR
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.B
Fig. 2 (continued).
193
0.9
0.8
(a)
Exl~r.I metl t e t f x Exl:mr'l m~'lt s t f y * Exp~"lmant* t
fy
0,7 0.6
 
O I f f r ' e o t l o n model
dlR=12. 0
O. 5
t 0
fx
0.4
0.3
Kc ,~ 3. 42
a2o"
0.2 fy
0.0
0.2
0.4
0,6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.6
1,6
1.8
e/R
o.9
0.8 0.7 fx
(b)
I~ V
, D l f f r o c t l a n i~ocloL
d/R=12. 0 0.5 L.
0
0.0
0.2
0.6
0.6
0.8
1.0
1,2
1.4
1.6
1.8
e/R
Fig. 3. Variations of force coefficients with relative wave amplitudes (continued on p. 194).
194
0.9
0.8 0.7
(c)
V
Exp. nMm~o I fx
Exper l u n ~ m t fy+
, Otffreoon ~ o k fx
0.6
d/R= 12. 0
O. 5
fY
L. 0
0,4
Kc ~ 5. 42
a  20"
0.3
0.2 0.1 ~
O. 0 ............... :::;:,;:;:..::;;;;:..;;:;;...::..._; l,n fy ................ :.,, ..... :: .:1:::::;;:.,
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
elR
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
Fig. 3 (continued).
(1)
with ko = k sina and kx = k cosa. Re refers to the real part and tr is 27tiT, T being the wave period~ i = V/ 1. ch(x,y) should satisfy the modified Helmholtz equation:
02(J~ 02(D 2
ax 2 ~ a  7  k z 4 = O
(2)
The statement of the linear diffraction problem along with boundary conditions are well known (see Mei, 1978, Liu and Abbaspour, 1982 and Narayaman, 1986). The wave field is divided into an inner region close to the cylinder and an exterior region where the diffracted potential q~ is expressed in terms of a series expansion. I'3 and/"5 are the boundaries of demarcation of the two regions respectively situated at +xR and  x R respectively (Fig. 5). Now for x >~xR
N. Chioukh, R. Narayanan
0,9
195
(a)
ExFNml~t= L rx
Exper I ment mI, fy+
0.8
0.7 0.6
 
Experl~tel
fy
Dlfff'~zCTon model
d/R=8, 0 0.5
0
x
G/D=1. 000
~
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.5 0,6 0.7 0.8
kR=O. 3 7 1 0 J j ~ / LIn fy
fY
Kc ~ O. 57 (:1~ O=
0.9
1.0
1,1
1.2
1.3
1.4
elR
o. 9
fy0.8 O. 7 0.6 fx
(b)
? 
d/R=8. 0 0.5 (_ o 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 O. 0 " fY+ G/D=O. 015 kR=O. O785 Kc ,, 3. 35
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.4 e/R
Fig. 4. Variations o f force coefficients with relative w a v e amplitudes (experimental results o f E f t h y m i o u a n d N a r a y a n a n , 1981 ).
196
L cos a
@
"//////////////////////77~,
77~
,
(a)
I
EXTERIOR DOMAIN
n
I"4
INTERIOR DOMAIN
EXTERIOR
DOMAIN
n
I; 1n
(b)
Fig. 5. Oblique cylinder in a wave ficld.
~b~ = 7~ coshk(y + d) exp(ikxx) + ~_,7~ exp(  nix)cos{mi(y + d) } sinh(kd) O and for x ~<xR coshk(y + d) sinh(kd) exp(  ik.x) + ~ 7 7 exp(nix)cos{mi(y + d) }
0
~c
(3)
(4)
In the above expressions mis are the roots of the equations mitan( mid) =  o'2 / g and n~ =m~ +k~ (6)
(5)
The unknown coefficients 7o+ , 7~+ . . . . and 7o, 7~ . . . . are determined through the boundary element method. The fundamental solution of the modified Helmholtz equation in the x  y space is
197
u(r) =~Ko(kzr)
(7)
Ko is the modified Bessel function of the second kind of 0th order, r is the distance between the source point and observation point denoted hereafter as (xi,yi), and (xj,yj) respectively. Using Green's second identity with the fundamental solution for u (Eq. 7), the boundary integral equation for ~ for the ith nodal point (xi,yi) is after incorporating the boundary conditions:
~i +
1"1+['2 l:s
F.s
u
On ) d r +
/'4
f D ~ n  g U
dF= 
FZ
On i u 04~dF
(8)
In formulating the numerical scheme to compute ~ i , the velocity potential is assumed to be constant over the linear elements. For i =j, it has been recognised that the modified Bessel function has a logarithmic singularity such that, for r ~ 0,
Ko(kzr) =
k /31n2+
1 In r
(9)
in which 13= 0.57721. Along the truncation boundaries/'3 and Fs the diffracted potentials and their normal derivatives are obtained from Eqs. 3 and 4. The number of elements on the truncation boundaries are equal to the number of unknown coefficients Y of Eqs. 3 and 4. For the linear theory, the well known expression for pressurep is
o4, e=  p ~
from which the force exerted on the cylinder is computed.
(lO)
198
be negligible, the velocities around the cylinder can be significant for small gaps. Following Efthymiou and Narayanan (1980) we shall now introduce the kinetic energy terms in the equation for pressures (Eq. 10) of the linear theory as a first order correction. Thus 04' ux P =  P~t  p (11)
where Ux, Uy and u z are components of fluid velocity respectively along x, y and z directions. These velocity terms are computed from the knowledge of the potentials of the linear theory forsaking rigour in the context of the linear theory. The correction procedure adopted in Eq. 1 l, is solely to demonstrate the significance of the velocity field in the proximity of the cylinder for small gaps. The numerical results are compared with the experimentally observed lift forces in Figs. 2a to 2f and 3a to 3c. For the two angles of incidence of the waves and for Kc < 1.5, the correction procedure is successful in predicting the lift forces,, away and towards the bed. At Kc ~ 3, especially for G / D = 0.014, the force towards the bed is overpredicted. Possibly the effects of viscosity on the flow through the gap with associated separation and vortex shedding will make the flow rotational. Even if the flow is essentially irrotational, the "linear" correction will progressively be less accurate as the velocity terms begin to assume greater importance with the increase of Kc. In Figs. 4a and 4b are shown some typical experimental results of Eftbymiou and Narayanan(1980) for d / R = 8.0, pertaining to the cylinder placed normally to the wave direction and at two different gap ratios. The normal and lift forcesfx andfy as functions of a / R as shown in the figures for normal incidence behave in a manner similar to that observed at oblique incidence. The linear diffraction theory that is presented, cannot be applied directly for normal wave incidence by simply assuming a = 0 . It is because the fundamental solution given by Eq. 7, does not reduce to the logarithmic form appropriate for normal incidence. So the forcesfx andf~, relevant for c~= 0 , have been computed assuming a very small value as ct = 0.05 . As can be seen from the figures the diffraction theory predicts the normal forces well for a = 0 . Also the lift forces are predicted reasonably well when the correction for the velocity terms are introduced when computing the pressures along the cylinder.
7. Conclusions
The hydrodynamic forces acting on an oblique horizontal cylinder subjected to wave action in the inertiadominated regime have been measured and compared with the numerical results of diffraction theory. The cylinder is placed in the vicinity of the bed of the wave flume. The diffraction theory predicts the normal forces on the cylinder very well but fails with respect to the lift forces because it does not account for the fluid velocities especially when the cylinder is in very close proximity of the plane bed. The computed results of lift forces agree with the empirical results when a correction to the first order pressures is incorporated to take account of velocity field.
199
References
Bai, K.J., 1975. Diffraction of oblique waves by an infinite cylinder. J. Fluid Mech., 68(3): 513535. Bolton, W.E. and Ursell, F., 1973. The wave force on an infinitely long circular cylinder in an oblique sea. J. Fluid Mech., 57(2): 241256. Cheong, H.F., Jothi Shankar, N. and Subbaiah, K., 1987. Wave forces on submarine pipelines near a plane boundary. J. Ocean Eng., 14(3): 181200. Cheong, H.F., Jothi Shankar, N. and Subbaiah, K.J., 1989. Inertia dominated forces on submarine pipelines near seabed. J. Hydraul. Res., 27( 1): 522. Efthymiou, M. and Narayanan, R., 1980. Wave forces on unburied pipelines. J. Hydraul. Res., 18(3): 197211. Efthymiou, M. and Narayanan, R., 1981. Wave forces on submarine pipelines. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng., 71 (2): 773787. Jothi Shankar, N., Cheong, H.F. and Subbaiah, K., 1987. Forces on smooth submarine pipeline in random waves a comparative study. J. Coastal Eng., 111 (3): 189218. Jothi Shankar, N., Cheong, H.F. and Subbaiah, K.J., 1988. Wave force coefficients for submarine pipelines. J. Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Eng., ASCE, 114 (WW4) : 472486. Liu, P.L.F. and Abbaspour, M., 1982. An integral equation for the diffraction of oblique waves by an infinite cylinder. Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 18: 14971504. Maull, D.J. and Norman, S.G., 1979. A horizontal circular cylinder under waves. In: T.L. Shaw (Editor), Mechanics of Wave Induced Forces on Cylinders. Pitman, London, pp. 359378. Mei, C.C., 1978. Numerical methods in water wave diffraction and radiation. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 10: 393416. Narayanan, R., 1986. Wave forces on large structures. In: Third Indian Conference on Ocean Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, pp. AI61AI70. Schiller, F.C., 1971. Wave forces on a submerged horizontal cylinder. M.Sc. thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Wright, J.C. and Yamamoto, T., 1979. Wave forces on cylinders near plane boundary. J. Waterw. Port Coastal Ocean Div. ASCE, 105(WWl): 113. Yamamoto, T., Nath, J.H. and Slotta, L.S., 1974. Wave forces on cylinders near plane boundary. J. Waterw. Harbors Coastal Eng. ASCE, 100(WW4): 345359.
