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Air engines Gravity power generation mechanism Electrical power generation system using railway tracks Solar power

sir conditioner Air engines: An air engine does mechanical work by expanding air that is compressed. Compressed air engines are driven by compressed air, which is stored in a tank at high pressure such as 30 MPa (4500 psi or 300 bar). Rather than driving engine pistons with an ignited fuel-air mixture, they use the expansion of compressed air, in a similar manner to the expansion of steam in a steam engine.Some types rely on pistons and cylinders, others use turbines. Many compressed air engines improve their performance by heating the incoming air, or the engine itself. Some took this a stage further and burned fuel in the cylinder or turbine, forming a type of internal combustion engine. Applications: Compressed air engines to build light weight vehicles. Air driven engine cars being developed to reduce pollution due to fossil fuel usage. Compressed air mopeds, pollution free buses and locomotives.

Advantages: Compressed air technology reduces the cost of vehicle production because there is no need to build a cooling system, fuel tank, Ignition Systems or silencers. Refuelling can be done at home using an air compressor[4] or at service stations. The energy required for compressing air is produced at large centralized plants, making it less costly and more effective to manage carbon emissions than from individual vehicles. Air, on its own, is non-flammable. High torque for minimum volume. The mechanical design of the engine is simple and robust. Low manufacture and maintenance costs as well as easy maintenance. Compressed-air tanks can be disposed of or recycled with less pollution than batteries. Compressed-air vehicles are unconstrained by the degradation problems associated with current battery systems. The tank may be able to be refilled more often and in less time than batteries can be recharged, with re-fuelling rates comparable to liquid fuels

Disadvantages: Indirect use of energy: Energy is used to compress air, which - in turn -provides the energy to run the motor. Any conversion of energy between forms results in loss.

When air expands, as it would in the engine, it cools dramatically (Charles's law) and must be heated to ambient temperature using a heat exchanger similar to the Intercooler used for internal combustion engines. The heating is necessary in order to obtain a significant fraction of the theoretical energy output. The heat exchanger can be problematic. While it performs a similar task to theIntercooler, the temperature difference between the incoming air and the working gas is smaller. In heating the stored air, the device gets very cold and may ice up in cool, moist climates.

Refueling the compressed-air container using a home or low-end conventional air compressor may take as long as 4 hours though the specialized equipment at service stations may fill the tanks sooner. Tanks get very hot when filled rapidly. SCUBA tanks are sometimes immersed in water to cool them down when they are being filled. That would not be possible with tanks in a car and thus it would either take a long time to fill the tanks, or they would have to take less than a full charge, since heat drives up the pressure. Early tests have demonstrated the limited storage capacity of the tanks; the only published test of a vehicle running on compressed air alone was limited to a range of 7.22 km (4 mi).[9]

Gravity power generation mechanism: The basic concept of a gravity power generating mechanism is simple. When a body goes down from a higher altitude to a lower one its potential energy is converted into kinetic energy via linear motion. The kinetic energy is then converted into electrical energy by a power unit. Finally a power supply system is used to transmit the electrical energy out. Applications: Proposed gravity planes that are environment friendly, free from polluting and heavy fossil fuels. Gravity trains that could travel through tunnels bored in earth at different angles and could travel between any two places in earth in a quarter hour regardless of the distance.

Advantages: More simplified in structure Environment friendly Higher conversion ratio Only little starting energy required to perform a long time energy conversion

Difficulties: One challenge in this mechanism is about getting continuous supply of energy. A body cannot go downward infinitely, but for continuous power generation this practically impossible scenario is necessary. Very hypothetical conditions those are difficult to visualize and model. Hence very costly.

Electrical power generation system using railway tracks: The electrical power generation system is configured to generate electric power via movements of the rail. The force with which the vehicle moves is converted into electrical energy. Basically a generator that extracts the energy from the passing vehicle is used to prime a variable capacitor. It than effectively multiplies the priming energy of the generator. By alternately priming the variable capacitor using charge from the generator and discharging it at a later time in a cyclic manner to change the capacitance, a significantly large amount of electrical energy is produced due to change in capacitance. Applications: Power generation using railway track system can be used in most of the places such as

All highways road speed breaker All Railway tracks Without wastage of resources or fuels. Advantages: Power is simply generated by running the vehicle on this arrangement Power also generated by running or exercising on the brake. No need for fuel input This is a Non-conventional system Batteries can be used to store the generated power

Disadvantages: Slight inclination is required in the railway track Generation depends on the speed of the vehicle. Mechanical moving parts required are high Initial cost of this arrangement is high. Care should be taken for batteries.

Solar air conditioning refers to any air conditioning (cooling) system that uses solar power. It can be by 1. Passive solar cooling that reduces heat transfer into the building and removes unwanted heat from the building. 2. Solar thermal conversion where the thermal energy from the sun is used to drive thermally driven absorption chillers to provide cooling or 3. Photovoltaic solar cooling where the solar energy is converted to electrical energy to drive conventional compressors used in A.C or adsorption/absorption based compressors to provide cooling. Applications: Hybrid solar assisted air conditioners, solar air conditioners and refrigerators. Advantages: Reduces electrical power consumption. Inexhaustible energy source Environment friendly and reduces carbon di oxide emissions. Low maintenance cost, low operating cost, simple design. Can be installed in wherever there is enough solar energy available. Solar energy could be stored and used during night times.

Disadvantages: Cost of installation is higher than conventional air conditioners. Much more costly to modify already existing air conditioners. Photovoltaic solar cooling is efficient only in dry temperatures. Panels should be angled properly to harvest sunlight Less reliable and consistent when using stored solar energy. Toxic materials used in the construction of solar panels.