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DRAFT-One

2009

PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL [PRA] CONDUCTED FOR AR-CDM PROJECT ACTIVITY OF DS GREEN AGROTECH. PVT. LTD.

Participatory Rural Appraisal is a family of approaches and methods to enable local people to share, enhance, and analyse their knowledge of life and conditions, to plan, and to act. -Robert Chambers

CONTENTS

Executive Summary Introduction Approach Tools used Selected site Brief Profile of the area Understanding on CDM & its benefits Resource inventory Land & water Vegetation cover Agriculture Livestock & grazing Stakeholders expectation Land eligibility Suitability of tress species to be grown Additionality & leakage Inferences Appendix Plates

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A project developer or participant(s) of an A/R-Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project has to fulfill several conditions for making a project successful. These conditions include identification of project lands and its discrete parcels, eligibility of the lands, leakages, and additionality.

Considering these points, CTG Advisory Services India Pvt. Ltd. [CTG-India] carried out a Participatory Rural Appraisal [PRA] exercise in five [5] villages of the district of Katni, Panna, Seoni and Betul, state of Madhya Pradesh, India. The exercise was carried out under the proposed A/R-CDM Project of DS Green Agrotech. Pvt. Ltd. [Reforestation CDM Project Activity of DS Green Agrotech. Pvt. Ltd., in the Degraded Lands of Madhya Pradesh] by using several PRA tools like semi-structured interviews, preference ranking, village mapping, seasonal analysis, transect walks etc.

The basic objectives of the PRA exercise were to know the aspirations of the participants/villagers on AR-CDM project activities to evaluate the eligibility of the lands under the project area to analyze the potentiality of leakage and additionality in the project area to identify the discrete parcels of lands to be included under the project area to explore the crop productivity, grazing pattern, climate & other relevant points

The following inferences were drawn from the PRA exercise

1. The selected lands for the proposed AR-CDM project are highly water deficit. The land is degraded in nature. The fertility of the lands is poor and not suitable for profitable and subsistent agricultural practices. In the project area, rain fed agriculture is possible only once on an average in an interval of two to three years. The agriculture practices of the

project area are always associated with the risk of failures, as it has to depend on rainfall during the entire cropping period. There is no canal irrigation system to support crops in these lands. The climate of the project area is semi-arid. The maximum temperature during MayJune ranges from 42 0C - 470 C. 2. Participants of the stakeholder meetings and PRA understood the basic concept of Clean Development Mechanism [CDM] and its potential benefits. These lands are not suitable for agricultural practices. The return from these lands is low. Therefore, the local farmers considered the proposition of plantation as a better option which will give them better employment opportunities as wage laborers and other associated co-benefits. Till date, no plantation activity in these lands has been undertaken, as individual farmers or local communities do not have adequate financial resource. Also there are no existing or future schemes of any such plantation activities in this area by any government agency.

3. The project area is degraded cropland, which is generally left fallow and marginal agriculture is carried out on an average interval of three years. In these lands only one crop can be cultivated during July-September (Kharif) depending on the rainfall. Whereas the general trend in the nearby fertile agricultural fields is to grow crops in two seasons (Rabi and Kharif). 4. No grazing takes place in the project area. As the area is degraded in nature and most of the times it is fallow therefore not suitable for grazing or fodder extraction. 5. It was evident from the resource analysis, conducted during PRA that the DS Green owns land, which are degraded/degrading due to extreme anthropogenic pressure and over exploitation, which was carried out in the last 30 years. On these lands limited

agriculture is practiced depending on availability of rainfall. These lands were never been attempted for plantation either by the forest department or by the local organizations. It is mainly because of the risk of crop failure due to scanty rainfall and other barriers like huge initial investment.

It was informed that no grazing takes place in the project area, which is fallow and thus not suitable for grazing. All the cattle in the village are stall fed and their feed is obtained from the adjoining agricultural fields. Besides, the farmers commented in the seasonality

analysis that these lands are not utilized for grazing of livestock, so there is no question of any live stock being displaced. Moreover, the lands have less than 5% crown cover [Approximately per 100 square meter 3-4 shrubs]. The height of these shrubs is 0.5-1.00 meter. In the historical analysis, villagers stated that the project lands, have been kept fallow, since 1980, and only a few agricultural operations were practiced depending on the scanty rainfall, therefore, there was not a forest. So, these lands satisfy the land eligibility conditions laid down in the AR CDM Project activity.

6. One of the main objectives of the PRA exercise conducted was to analyze the potentiality of additionality and leakage in the project area. This analysis is important to ensure that the proposed project activity would lead to positive and additional benefits for the participants and host country. Therefore, a few important issues concerning the proposed projects additionality and leakage were discussed during the PRA exercise. The discussions helped the PRA team to understand the present circumstances of the participants and more importantly their requirements, needs and concerns for livelihood development through this project. The emergent issues of the discussions and comments from the stakeholders have been summarized below The land under the project area is degraded/degrading in nature. This has been caused due to the population explosion and developmental needs have exerted a steadily increasing demand on the ever-diminishing extent of forests. Over-exploitation resulted in reduction of area under forests. The area receives erratic and scanty rainfall which leads to water scarcity There is no network of irrigation canals and seasonal rivers do not pass through the project area.

During summer season temperatures in the project area rises up to 47C causing desiccation of the plants Due to high summer temperatures and low rainfall the area is susceptible to droughts

No plantation activity was attempted by the forest department in the project lands due to these harsh ecological conditions and due to the lack of financial assistance for initiating forestry project

The above information gathered from the villagers helped to prove that the proposed project activity is additional as it overcomes the barriers due to local ecological conditions (like drought and degraded/degrading area), investment barrier (no fund available for this type of project activity) and in a sense institutional barrier, as society has been formed only because of this project.

7. The project area is degraded/degrading cropland and grassland which is generally left fallow. In the project area, mono cropping was practiced before procuring those lands by DS green, that also once in three years, whereas, the nearby agriculture areas get two crops per year. Thus the possibility of agriculture activity shifting to nearby area is insignificant and far below 50%. 8. The cattle in the area are stall fed, and their feed comprises of agriculture wastes as well as fodder crops, which are grown in the fertile agriculture fields. Therefore, the number of displaced grazing animals due to the project activity is less than 50% of the average grazing capacity of the project area.

The above information collected through the PRA exercise indicates that the leakages arising due the project activity would be far below 50%.

INTRODUCTION 1.1: Overview: Participatory Rural Appraisal [PRA] is an approach aimed to incorporate the knowledge and opinions of rural people in the planning and management of developmental projects and programmes. PRA is considered as one of the popular and effective approaches to gather information in rural areas based on village experiences where communities depend on natural resources. Participatory Rural Appraisal [PRA] tools facilitate collection and analysis of information by and for community members. PRA emphasizes local knowledge and involves communities in the inventorying, monitoring, and planning of local forest management. Because it is a collaborative process, PRA actively empowers communities, de-emphasizes hierarchies, and helps to identify resource needs and sustainable use systems. The basic concept of PRA is to learn from rural people through direct interaction.

PRA methods serve multiple purposes. They provide information to outsiders who wish to understand how the community uses and manages its resources and they provide information for the collective community to evaluate its resource management practices. The process of collecting PRA information is as important as the data itself, as it triggers dialogues with the communities to examine existing resource use practices, problems, conflicts, and opportunities, providing a basis for developing more sustainable and productive management systems. There are a wide range of participatory tools and techniques available. People can use these tools and techniques according to their situation or needs.

To collect the relevant information for the proposed Reforestation CDM Project Activity of DS Green Agrotech. Pvt. Ltd., in the Degraded Lands of Madhya Pradesh a series of PRA exercise was conducted. The main objectives of this PRA exercise were:

to know the aspirations of the villagers from the reforestation project activity to evaluate the eligibility of the lands under the project area to analyze the potentiality of additionality and leakage in the project area to identify the discrete parcels of land to be included under the project area to explore the crop productivity, grazing pattern, climate & other relevant points 1.2: Approach: It was decided to carry out an inventory analysis of the resources of the villages, determine the socio-economic status of the people, land suitability, cropping pattern and expected outcome of the CDM activities and find out the basic requirements and aspirations of the people.

CTG Advisory Services India Pvt. Ltd. [CTG-India], which carried out the PRA, adopted the following approach and methodology for the exercise [exhibit: 1]

Exhibit: 1: Approach of the PRA

1.3: Decision Tree: A series of open meetings were conducted by using the following tools:

Semi-structured Interviews Focused Group Discussions Seasonal Analysis Village Mapping Transect Walk etc.

The specific use of this decision tree was made with the aforesaid tools, for determining the eligibility of lands, covered under the proposed project activity as well as to understand the aspiration of villagers and their socio-economic conditions. A pictorial description of the decision tree is lined below. [Exhibit: 2].

Land eligibility determination, historical analysis of land, income, crop pattern, socio-economic analysis, etc.

Land eligibility determination, historical analysis of land, aspiration of villagers, gazing pattern, leakage, etc.
Eligibility of ARCDM Project

Investigating historical timeline, land use, physical locations of project lands and villages infrastructure Validating the claims of interviews, group discussion and village mapping

Investigating land use and land use change, aspiration of villagers, gazing pattern, leakage, etc.
Exhibit: 2: PRA Decision Tree

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It would be worth mentioning that before 15 days of the PRA exercises, villagers were informed well in advance about the visit of the PRA team by the official of DS Green. The PRA team met the farmers in their respective villages at a common place. At each village, activities like preparation of village and resource map, timeline analysis, crop cycle / seasonal maps were performed. The villagers were clearly informed about eligibilities for the CDM project. They were particularly asked following questions, which were captured in video and camera as evidence/proof: for records to be sent along with PDD during project submission. i. Land eligibility: Villagers were asked about land status of project site, whether it was a forest area, and if so since when? For ascertaining land eligibility criteria of the CDM project ii. Grazing for leakage criteria: Villagers were specifically asked about grazing of their cattle? iii. iv. Agriculture: Villagers were asked about the agriculture of crop Time line and history tracing: Villagers were asked to elaborate about their areas and record any developmental activities in their areas since 1980 v. vi. Income: Villagers were asked to spell out total annual income from their lands Alternative to land: Villagers were asked to tell whether they consider any other alternative available for the project land, had this project not suggested. vii. Seasonality of crops: Villagers were requested to prepare a crop cycle map showing seasonality of various crops in their area.

1.4: Selected Site: Prior to the CTG-India team's arrival, the DS Green Agrotech. Pvt. Ltd., had already selected a number of candidate sites which have potential for A/R CDM project. The team reviewed the site options and finalized the selection of locations, falling under four districts of Madhya Pradesh [Exhibit: 3].

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Village Bijay Kheda Kodia Agri Pakhara Debona

District Panna Katni Seoni Seoni Betul

State Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh

Date 17.12.2009 17.12.2009 18.12.2009 18.12.2009 19.12.2009

Exhibit: 3: Sites covered under the PRA exercise 1.5: The Research Team: To facilitate interviews, a speaker from the DS Green Agrotech. Pvt. Ltd., (who can understand and speak local language) and three persons from CTG-India were assigned the job of conducting PRA exercise. The officials of DS Green and local Village Head was incorporated in the group for eliciting indigenous information, especially for understanding local references and units of measurement, as well as capturing people's feelings in their own words.

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APPRAISAL

2.1: Brief Profile of the Area: The proposed AR-CDM project of DS Green covers selected waste/degraded lands of four districts of the state of Madhya Pradesh, Viz., Panna, Katni, Seoni and Betul. These four districts are situated in different geographical locations with unique socio-economic structure, out of which, the district of Katni and Panna is situated at the north east part of the State of Madhya Pradesh [MP], followed by Betul and Seoni, which is situated at the southern part of MP, bordering Maharashtra. A location specific briefing for each district is elucidated below.

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2.1.1: Brief Profile: Bijay Kheda [Panna District]: Panna district is located in the north-eastern part of Madhya Pradesh. The district extends from 23045" N to 25010" N and from 79045' E to 80040' E. As per the 1991 census, the population of Panna district was 687945 out of which the rural population was 598378 and urban was 89567. The district is divided in to five revenue blocks in which there are 1048 villages and 6 towns. From Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh, Panna is about 500 Kms by Rail route, around 400 Kms by Road. The annual average rainfall in the region is 500 to 700 mm and out of total agriculture lands, 35% lands are irrigated.

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The plantation activities of DS-Green AR-CDM Project are carried out in the Bija Kheda village of Panna district. As per the information, gathered during PRA, it was found that Bijay Kheda village has 1500 rural population. The rural population of this village is dependent on subsistence agriculture and the source income is mainly based on the wage laour and mono cropping.

The village is located along the northern most part of the Panna district touching Katni District of MP. Moving from north of these villages the fertile agricultural areas give way to contiguous tracts of degraded lands affected by severe drought, caused by scanty rainfall. During the PRA, it was revealed that there is no perennial river adjacent to the village and the nearest river Ken, flows through the Panna Reserve Forest. However, there is no provision for diverting water for irrigation to the crop fields of this village.

2.1.1.2: Climate: The climate of Panna district is characterized by its dryness and extremes of temperature and scanty rainfall. The villagers stated that because of this reason, rain fed agriculture is practiced in the project area and the farmers get very marginal crop yield on an average of once in three years. The winter season from November to March is followed by the summer season which lasts up to the end of June. The mean daily maximum temperature during May and June which is the hottest period varies from 42 C to 47 C and winter temperature ranges between 20 - 7C. As the temperature reaches intolerable levels during the summer months, the villagers brought out the vulnerability of the crops due to heat desiccation. 2.1.1.3: Demography: The inhabitants of the village are a mosaic of ethnicity, comprising mostly of, tibals (Indigenous people) and Harijan (Schedule Caste) etc. Agriculture is the main source income for the local communities in the project area. The major religions of the people are Islamic, Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity. The scheduled castes and scheduled tribes constitute a significant portion of the population of the district. As per the result of focused group discussion, the

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scheduled castes are 13.14% while scheduled tribes were 20.63%. The predominant language of the region is Hindi. In addition to standard Hindi, several regional variants are spoken, which are considered by some to be dialects of Hindi, and by others to be distinct but related languages.

Exhibit: Men and Women folk of the Village

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2.1.1.4: Resource Inventory: For assessing the economic and social resources of the villages, PRA tools like Village mapping and time line analysis were used. Farmers identified the following resources during the inventory analysis: 2.1.1.4.1: Land and Water: Village resource mapping exhibited that the Bijay Kheda is located along the northern most part of the Panna district. The fertile lands of these villages are under agricultural practices. The lands are fertile in the areas which are irrigated. There is no perennial river in the area. The source of water supply to the croplands is available only during the rains. Time line analysis reveals that the areas of the proposed project were deforested in 1980-1990, due to gradual raise in population. They were highly dependent on the forest products for their livelihood and this lead to deforestation. The villagers identified the lands under the project as unproductive for agricultural crops, rocky and heavily affected by water stressed. The villagers confirmed that the current land use of the project area is degraded croplands. There are only a few trees and shrubs in the area. The same was cross checked during the transect walk.

Exhibit: Land Conditions of the Project Area

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2.1.1.4.2: Road Infrastructure: There is black-topped road

communication to the village and project site of DS Green from the nearest important town Katni [Distance: 55 Kms]. However, this scenario was not existed prior to 2004. The connectivity to village was poor during that period owing to bad roads

infrastructure and lack of public transport system. The commonly used rural communication is

bullock cart. 2.1.1.4.3: Social Infrastructure: There is only one primary school in the village and the nearest high and senior school is located at the headquarter of the district of Panna. It was found during the transact walk that the village does not have any primary health centre and nor even any health awareness among the inhabitants. During the focused group discussion it was reported that out of 1500 total rural population in the village, there is not a single sanitary toilet in rural households. During the transact walk it was found that open defecation is a common practice in the village, resulting poor sanitation and community health. The justification of villagers for avoiding sanitary toilet system was due to the limited source of income in the village. It was further argued that more than 70% rural households of the village are marginal and landless farmers. Therefore, the rural communities of the area have a strong aspiration of income generation from the proposed project activity of DS Greens plantation project activities.

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2.1.1.4.4: Agriculture: It was evident from the discussion with the villagers that there are large tracts of lands on which a very limited agriculture practices is possible. Droughts prevail during October and November and in summer months. As this region receives erratic and scanty rainfall [annual rainfall 500 to 700 mm] the farmers get some yield from these lands on an average of once in three years [the farmers discussed with the PRA team that in their area a good rainfall occurs once in two to three years]. These statements were recorded as evidence. The main cropping pattern is two crop systems. Paddy crop is grown in Kharif whereas Wheat and Gram in Rabi season. Villagers stated during the focused group discussion and further confirmed during the timeline analysis that the lands in which DS Green is doing plantation activities were waste and degrading lands. For the last 25 years, since 1980-82, no crop

cultivation was practiced in those lands. The farmers were also asked whether they had or were considering any options related to the use of these lands had the DS Greens project not been suggested. It was learnt the farmers do not have any

alternative use of these lands and would have continued to be as it is. Table: Crops grown in different agricultural seasons

Crop Season Kharif Rabi

Crops Rice Chana, Wheat

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2.1.1.4.5: Forest and other vegetation: During the transect walk, it was found that the natural trees species available in and around the project area are Mahua [Bassia latifolia] Beri [Zizyphus mauritiana], Pipal [Ficus religiosa] etc. The old natural forests in these areas have vanished due to the increasing population over the years. Only few trees and shrubs exist in this region and the tree crown cover is not more than 5%. [Ocular estimation].

2.1.1.4.6: Livestock and Grazing: An attempt was made to assess the livestock and grazing pattern in the project area. The villagers were asked about the number of livestock they have and how these animals are fed. It was reported during the PRA exercise that milch cattle are stall fed on agricultural waste and unproductive cattle are generally allowed for open grazing. The goats are grazed in the lands near railway tracts or on agricultural wastes after harvest. It was univocally said that no grazing occurs on the lands of the project area. This was further verified with the project proponent and found that the project area of DS Green is appropriately fenced and there is least possibility of gazing. The statements of the farmers were recorded and it was also confirmed during transect walk, and photographic evidences were taken. Table: The livestock profile of the village

Livestock Feed Buffalo Cow [Milch] Cow [Non-Productive] Goat and sheep Rice husk, wheat husk Rice husk, wheat husk NIL Mode of feeding Stall feeding Stall feeding Open Grazing

Rice husk, wheat husk Agricultural waste

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2.1.1.4.7: People: It was evident during the group interview and focused group discussion that there are only limited rural employment generation opportunities in the village. More than 60% rural population visit nearby towns for wage labour. This section of population mainly covers the landless farmers. Majority of villagers are marginal farmers with landholding less than 1 ha [Average]. It was reported during the discussion that the annual average income of a rural household is less than 2000 INR/month. The village is dominated by the Tribal population. The differences in the tribal community, spread over in village, are clearly seen not only on the basis of their lifestyle and cultural traditions, but also from their social, economic structure and their language and speech. Due to the different linguistic, cultural and geographical environment, and its peculiar complications, the diverse tribal of this village has been largely cut-off from the mainstream of development.

2.1.1.4.8: Stakeholders Comments: Understanding of the Project: Before starting the PRA exercise, a thorough discussion was made with the villagers on Clean Development Mechanism [CDM]. It was stated that Afforestation / Reforestation CDM project activities could be carried out if a certain amount of the land is degraded in nature or not suitable for growing profitable agricultural crops. The PRA team stated that there could be several benefits from this AR-CDM small scale project activity-

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Growing timber or fruit crops in the degraded lands, which were otherwise, kept fallow and not utilized for agricultural practices, Providing timbers after 10-20 years interval Developing the micro climate of soil and environment Developing green belt in the village and promoting environmental balance Earning carbon credit (CER); besides, conservation of land and environment, and development of local area.

During the PRA exercise the farmers were informed that the lands to be forested under the project activity should preferably be degraded or marginal agricultural lands. Most of the questions regarding the suitability of lands were cornered around as to why such lands are to be selected for the project. Villagers expressed their satisfaction on the ongoing plantation project activity of DS Green and univocally stated that the lands of the said project activity are unfertile, degraded and not suitable for profitable agriculture. Subsequent to this, the detail PRA exercises were carried out with the participation of local villagers. Outcomes of the PRA: A. Focus Group Discussion and Semi-structured Interview Focused group discussion and semi-structured interviews are those in which there is a specific agenda to be discussed, but there remains a degree of flexibility. This ensures that the individuals discussing the issue are able to modify the direction of the interview according to the information that is revealed. In the current project, villagers were addressed with the following questions/agenda:

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1. For how many years, villagers have been staying in this area? 2. What was the agricultural pattern during 1970-80? 3. What are the crops, which were grown during that period? Do they [farmers] grow similar crops now? 4. What was the condition of land during 1980? Does the fertility of land change over period? 5. What was the land condition and fertility, in which DS is doing plantation?

6. Was the plantation area of DS Group under forest in 1980-1989? If not, what was the vegetation cover? 7. Does grazing common in the project area? What is the common practice, which has been adopted for livestock rearing [Stall feeding or open grazing]. 8. What is the source of irrigation for the crop lands? Is the agriculture rain fed? 9. What is the source of livelihood for villagers/farmers? 10. Do they feel that the plantation activities of DS Group are going to enhance the livelihood options? 11. What are the commonly found trees in the region? 12. Do they face any natural calamities or environmentally induced problem in agriculture activities [like flood, frost, dry spell etc.]?

The outcome of the discussion could be summarized below: Forest in this village was cleared during the time of emergency period in India [1980s]. Present land use of the project land is degraded croplands. Agricultural output from the project land was very marginal and

dependent on rainfall, which is erratic. This trend is also applicable

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and true for the current crop lands of farmers. A single crop of Rice or Channa is obtained from these lands on an average of once in two to three years. The other lands of the village which has access to irrigation water supports two crops in a year These areas have witnessed a decline in rainfall since last ten years Average annual income in this village ranges from 1500- 3200 INR. The milch cattle in this village are stall fed and the non-productive cattle are allowed for open grazing. The project lands would have continued to be under present land use status had the project not been suggested.

Timeline Analysis:

The timeline analysis reveals that During 1970-the village was endowed with natural vegetation, comprising of Muhua, Teak etc. The total household was around 10-20. During 1980-the natural vegetation was gradually cleared off due to rising

population pressure. Fertile lands were transformed to degraded lands During 1985-the first village Panchayat was constituted; forest cover was totally cleared off. During 1990-99- Rain fall in the area is decreased. 2000-2005-The total number of household became 200-250. The source of water was not easily accessible, as the water sources were farway from the village. 2007-the project area is still under the effect of water scarcity, highly degraded, as it has been since 1980.

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Plate: 1: Timeline Analysis- Bija Kheda village

Plate: 2: Village Map- Bija Kheda village

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Crop Cycle: The seasonal analysis reveals that the villagers follow only one crop in a season. However, if the agriculture lands receive sufficient rain fall, farmers adopt for double cropping, mainly Gram and Wheat cultivation. Farmers do not practice any cultivation of vegetable and garden crops.

January to March April-June July -September October-December

Harvesting of Gram Harvesting Wheat Rice Harvesting of Rice

Plate: 3: Seasonal Analysis- Bija Kheda village

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2.1.2: Brief Profile: Kodia Village [Katni District]: Katni district is located in Northeastern part of Madhya Pradesh State. The District extends from 23 37N to 240 80N and from 79057 E to 80 58 E. As per the Census report of 1991 the population of Katni district was around 18,1699 and out of which, 16,5887 people were the rural population. The current project activity of DS Green is located in the Kodia village of the district of Katni. The Kodia village is situated at an eight [8] Kms distance from Sleemanabad, the nearest town of the district. The annual average rainfall in the area is 500-700 mm and out of total agriculture lands 40% lands are irrigated.

Exhibit: Map of Katni District

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As per the findings of PRA, conducted in the project area of Kodia village, it was found that the approximate rural population of the village is 2000 and the agrarian economy of the region is based on seasonal agriculture practices. There is no perennial river and source of water in and around the village. The agriculture is rainfed. However, the project area is well connected with rail routes and road transportation is satisfactory in comparison to the Panna district. 2.1.2.1: Climate: The climate of the district of Katni is sub-tropical and the area expreices extreme hot during summer, ranging from 40-460C. The rainfall pattern is erratic and therefore the soil micro climate of the region is highly water stress. 2.1.2.2: Demography: As per the findings of the focused group discussion, conducted during the PRA, it was found that the Kodia village has an admixture of people of different religions and castes. The area is dominated by local tribal population, amounting approximately 60% of the total population. The population mix is also represented by schedule caste and other backward classes. The rural mass is also contained with "Special Primitive Tribal Groups" which are highly marginalized and poor. 2.1.2.3: Resource Inventory: For assessing the economic and social resources of the villages, PRA tools like Village mapping and time line analysis were used. Farmers identified the following resources during the inventory analysis:

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2.1.2.3.1: Land and Water: Villagers stated during the Village resource mapping that the village is located along the northern part of the Katni district. The fertile lands of the villages are under agricultural practices but the percentage of that type of lands is significantly low. Although, the village was experiencing good cultivation practice and yield from their crop fields however since 1982, the fertility of lands had diminished. The justification for reduction of crop production and fertility of lands was made by citing example of extensive land exploitation and forest destruction by the communities. During the focused group discussion it was further advocated that villagers are now cannot afford for cultivating in these lands owing to periodic drought and less crop yield potentiality of the lands.

The villagers had confirmed that the project area of DS Green was also under same conditions and farmers could not cultivate any crop nor they could use the lands for other economic activities due to the lack of irrigation facilities and necessities of exponential investment requirement for agriculture operations. There is no perennial river in the area. Time line analysis reveals that the areas of the proposed project were deforested in 1982-1985, due to gradual raise in population. They were highly dependent on the forest products for their livelihood and this lead to deforestation. The villagers confirmed that the current land use of the project area is degraded croplands. There are only a few trees and shrubs in the area.

Exhibit: Condition of Lands without project activity

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Exhibit: Condition of Lands with project activity

2.1.2.3.2: Road Infrastructure: There is all weather roads in the village and recently majority of the rural roads have been developed under Government of Indias Prime Minister Gram Sadak Yajona. However, this scenario was not existed prior to 2006. The connectivity to village was poor during that period owing to bad roads infrastructure and lack of public transport system. 2.1.1.4.3: Social Infrastructure: There are two primary schools in the village and the nearest high school is located at an 8 Kms distance. It was found during the transact walk that the village does not have any primary health centre.

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2.1.2.3.3: Agriculture: Main crops of Katni are paddy, wheat and gram. In cash crop mainly vegetables are grown and sent to market of Satna District. Total area of katni district is 4949.59 km2 and cultivating land 34593 hectares in 2001 and total forest area 71155 hectares. Farmers of the Kodia Villages revealed during the PRA that farmers practiced only mono cropping. There is no practice of crop rotation and inter cropping. The agriculture is rain fed and the average productivity of crops is less. The main cropping pattern is two crop systems. Paddy crop is grown in Kharif whereas Wheat and Gram in Rabi season. Villagers stated during the focused group discussion and further confirmed during the timeline analysis that the lands in which DS Green is doing plantation activities were waste and degrading lands. For the last 25 years, since 1980-82, no crop cultivation was practiced in those lands. Table: Crops grown in different agricultural seasons Crop Season Kharif Rabi Crops Rice Chana, Wheat

2.1.2.3.4: Forest and other vegetation: Over the years, the lands in the project area were converted to the crop lands from forest land. It was mainly because of the reason of increasing population. The area was predominantly covered with shrub forests 30 years back. But due to an increased pressure on the land resources due to a constant increase in the population for more settlements and agriculture. The forest was cleared and completely lost by the early seventies.

2.1.2.3.5: Livestock and Grazing: The livestock of the region mainly comprises of cows and goats. There is very less number of buffalos. It was observed during the transact walk that the number of milch cattle is very less and on an average 2 for three households. The mlich cattle are being stalled fed by the villagers and

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not allowed for open grazing. However, just like Panna district, in the Kodia village also, villagers allow the unproductive cattle for open grazing. The cattle graze in the roadside and the nearby forest area. Grazing is not possible inside the project area of the current AR-CDM project, mainly due the provision of fencing in the boundaries of the project sites.

2.1.2.3.6: People: It was reported during the focused group discussion that the avenues of rural income are highly limited in the Kodia village. The literacy rate is only 34% of the total rural population and there are only 6 government employees from the village. The source of income of the village has been divided in two categories by the villagers, viz., income from the agriculture/cultivation and secondly wage laborer. The income from the cultivation is highly uncertain and depends on the rainfall pattern and pest infestation. The income from wages is also highly variable owing to the uncertainties in getting regular works. Therefore, the villagers have stated the plantation activities of DS Green could provide a sustainable income source to the villagers. 2.1.2.3.7: Stakeholders Comments: Understanding of the Project: The PRA exercise was conducted in the community hall and was attended by a total of thirty four villagers comprising four women. Before the start of the actual PRA exercise the villagers were made aware about the global warming, potential of forestry sector to mitigate Climate change and need for their contribution to combat global warming. It was followed by an interaction between the villagers and PRA team on the details of Afforestation CDM project activity. The PRA exercise began with a semi-structured interview.

In a similar fashion like in the Panna district, before starting the PRA exercise, a thorough discussion was made with the villagers on Clean Development Mechanism [CDM]. It was stated that Afforestation / Reforestation CDM project activities could be carried out if a certain amount of the land is degraded in nature or not suitable for growing profitable agricultural crops. The

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PRA team stated that there could be several benefits from this AR-CDM small scale project activity

Growing timber or fruit crops in the degraded lands, which were otherwise, kept fallow and not utilized for agricultural practices, Providing timbers after 10-20 years interval Developing the micro climate of soil and environment Developing green belt in the village and promoting environmental balance Earning carbon credit [CER]; besides, conservation of land and environment, and development of local area.

During the PRA exercise the farmers were informed that the lands to be forested under the project activity should preferably be degraded or marginal agricultural lands. Most of the questions regarding the suitability of lands were cornered around as to why such lands are to be selected for the project.Villagers expressed their satisfaction on the ongoing plantation project activity of DS Green and univocally stated that the lands of the said project activity are unfertile, degraded and not suitable for profitable agriculture. Subsequent to this, the detail PRA exercises were carried out with the participation of local villagers. Outcomes of the PRA: B. Focus Group Discussion and Semi-structured Interview Villagers were addressed with the following questions/agenda: For how many years, villagers have been staying in this area? What was the agricultural pattern during 1970-80? What are the crops, which were grown during that

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period? Do they [farmers] grow similar crops now? What was the condition of land during 1980? Does the fertility of land change over period? What was the land condition and fertility, in which DS is doing plantation? Was the plantation area of DS Group under forest in 1980-1989? If not, what was the vegetation cover? Does grazing common in the project area? What is the common practice, which has been adopted for livestock rearing [Stall feeding or open grazing]. What is the source of irrigation for the crop lands? Is the agriculture rain fed? What is the source of livelihood for villagers/farmers? Do they feel that the plantation activities of DS Group are going to enhance the livelihood options? What are the commonly found trees in the region? Do they face any natural calamities or environmentally induced problem in agriculture activities [like flood, frost, dry spell etc.]?

The outcome of the discussion could be summarized below: Forest in this village was cleared since 1970 and the forest cover was significantly reduced in 1986, when Former Prime Minister Late Shri Rajiv Gandhi was visiting Katni. Present land use of the project land is degraded croplands and grasslands. The productivity of those lands is very poor and villagers consider it as unsuitable for cultivation. The region receives less rainfall. The rainfall in the region has been reduced in comparison to early seventies. This is a phenomenon, which has been continuing for the last 20-25 years. Farmers of the village cultivate only one crop in a year. However, in the lands, which are comparatively more fertile, farmers go for double cropping. The major crops in the region are rice, wheat and pulses. Average annual income in this village ranges from 2000- 3200 INR.

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The milch cattle in this village are stall fed and the non-productive cattle are allowed for open grazing. The project lands would have continued to be under present land use status had the project not been suggested.

Timeline Analysis:

The timeline analysis reveals that During 1960-the village was gifted with natural vegetation ad the region was covered with dense forest. There were trees like Muhua, Neem, Teak wood, Sagon etc. The rural population in the village during that period was approximately 200. During 1970-the natural vegetation was gradually cleared off due to rising population pressure. Fertile lands were transformed to waste lands During 1985-Forest cover was totally cleared off. During 1995-90- Rain fall in the area is decreased. 2000-2005-The total number of household became 2000. The source of water was not easily accessible. The agricultural lands became unfertile and water stressed.

Plate: Timeline Analysis- Kodia Village

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Plate: 2: Village Map- Kodia Village

Crop Cycle: The farmers were asked to identify the main crops grown in the area with the visual aids. Firstly they were asked to divide parts of the year according to the seasons, with the help of seasonality calendars .The farmers were then asked to identify what crops are grown in each season with the help of activity profiles. The crops grown in the area were also recoded through direct observation and during transect walks.

Table: Crops grown in different agricultural seasons

Crop Season Kharif Rabi

Crops Rice Chana, Wheat, Mustard

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Crops grown in the project area: The respondents mainly identified the project area of very low productivity [Refer village resource map]. Crops such as Wheat are sown once in two years as the farmers depend on rains for their cultivation [one season].

Land Productivity The respondents were asked about the productivity of the land under the project area. Seasonal calendars and pie charts were drawn to identify the productivity of the land [high, medium, low].The productivity of the area was further crosschecked through direct observation and transect walks. As the area is of very low productivity the farmers do not have any alternative land use of the area.

Plate: Crop Cylce/Seasonal Calender-Kodia Village Livestock

The respondents were asked about the kind and number of livestock they own. Through the semi-structured interviews the mode of feeding [grazing /stall feeding] was ascertained and

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questions were asked about the source and kinds of feed. The availability of the feed was derived with the help of the seasonality calendars. The livestock in the village comprises Buffaloes, Cows and Goats. The details are given below. Livestock ownership

The villagers of Koida own cows and buffaloes. The numbers of buffaloes are decreasing by every year as the people are less dependent on them.

Livestock Feed

The crops for the cattle feed are sown in the monsoons which mainly consists of Rice and Wheat. In some parts castor is also cultivated. The herds of goats and sheep consume the agriculture waste and other bushels from the fields and the road side.

The livestock profile of the village Livestock Buffalo Cow-Milch Unproductive Cow Goat and sheep Feed Wheat husk, Rice husk Wheat husk, Rice husk Open grazing Wheat Husk, leaves of trees Mode of feeding Stall feeding Stall feeding -----Agricultural waste

The seasonal analysis reveals that the villagers follow only one crop in a season. However, if the agriculture lands receive sufficient rain fall, farmers adopt for double cropping, mainly Gram and Wheat cultivation. Farmers do not practice any cultivation of vegetable and garden crops.

January to March April-June July -September October-December

Harvesting of Gram Harvesting Wheat Rice Harvesting of Rice

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2.1.3: Brief Profile Agri-Pakhri-Aloniya [Seoni District] Seoni district is located in the southern part of Madhya Pradesh [22.08N 79.53E]. Geographically it is located between latitudes 21035' and 22058' N and longitudes 79012' and 80018' E and extends over an area of 8758 km2. This district of Madhya Pradesh is strategically located between two important cities, Viz., Nagpur, Maharashtra and Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. As per the official data of government of Madhya Pradesh, the total population of the district was 101,953 in 2004. It is bordered by Jabalpur, Narsinghpur and Mandla districts in North, Balaghat in East and Chhindwara in West and the Southern boundary of the district lies in juxtaposition to Nagpur (Maharashtra). National Highway No.7 connecting Kanyakumari-Banaras passes through district from north to south. Fair weather roads connect the major towns in the district. The project site of DS Green is located at the three adjoining villages of Seoni district. The name of the villages are Agri, Pakhri and Aloniya. These three villages are located at the north and west direction of the district, dominated with indigenous tribal population.

Exhibit: District Map of Seoni

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2.1.3.1: Climate: The climate of the district is subtropical and average annual rain fall is 1000-1200 mm. The area receives adequate rainfall in the summer and irregular rainfall in the autumn and winter season. The soil micro climate of the region is satisfactory and land is fertile for agriculture operations. However, this scenario is not true for all the villages of the district. It was found during the PRA exercise that villages like Agri, Pakhri and Aloniya receives sufficient rainfall, but due to the poor soil-climate and excessive pressure on the lands in the past few decades, many forest and crop lands of the region have been transformed in to degraded and waste lands. This trend of land degradation is still continuing in some part of the district. 2.1.3.2: Demography: As of 2001 India census Seoni had a population of 89,799. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Seoni has an average literacy rate of 77%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 82%, and female literacy is 71%. In Seoni, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. It was observed during the PRA and stakeholder meeting those villagers can read and write. Villagers have also a good level of understanding of environmental and socio-economic problems. During the introductory presentation on the climate change and the importance of Clean Development Mechanism [CDM], it was noted that villagers were interacting with relevant questions and expressing their concerns on environmental sustainability.

2.1.3.3: Resource Inventory: For assessing the economic and social resources of the villages, PRA tools like Village mapping and time line analysis were used. Farmers identified the following resources during the inventory analysis:

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2.1.3.3.1: Agriculture: While developing the seasonal calendar and village resource mapping, it was reported by the villagers that the economy of the villages are controlled by the agriculture production.

Farmers practice both Kharif and Rabi cultivation. crops wheat, etc. The are The rice, gram, annual

principle soybean, sugarcane

average crop productivity of crops from fertile lands is satisfactory. Farmers follow double cropping. However, in the degraded and waste lands, sometimes, farmers make attempt for cultivation, which results very poor production. 2.1.3.3.2: Forest and other vegetation: Seoni is one of the forest rich districts in Madhya Pradesh. The total forest area in this district is 30881.01 sq km. There are two territorial divisions, two production division, one social forestry division and one forest development corporation division in Seoni district. In addition to these, there is also one National park called "Pench National Park". There are 1612 vilages in Seoni district out which 1375 villages are either in forest areas or within a distance of 5 km from forest boundary. The villages, near to the project area are also endowed with natural forest. The forest was covered with Sandal trees in 1975. But, due to indiscriminate cutting of those valuable trees, along with teak wood etc., now the area is comparatively barren. The project areas were covered with similar vegetation till 1980. But, now there are only a few shrubs and trees like Mahua.

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2.1.3.3.3: Livestock and Grazing: The livestock of the region mainly comprises of cows and buffalos. The mlich cattle are being stalled fed by the villagers and not allowed for open grazing. However, just like Panna and Katni district, villagers allow the unproductive cattle for open grazing. The cattle graze in the roadside and the nearby forest area. Grazing is not possible inside the project area of the current AR-CDM project, mainly due the provision of fencing in the boundaries of the project sites.

2.1.3.3.4: People: It was reported during PRA that the avenues of rural income in the villages are limited and villagers earn their livelihoods either

through cultivation and wage labouer products. or from The forest income

generation from the forest products is mainly confined in the activities of Tendu leaves producing processing local and

cigarette

[Bidri]. The income from the cultivation is highly uncertain and depends on the rainfall pattern and pest infestation. The income from wages is also highly variable owing to the uncertainties in getting regular works. Therefore, the villagers have stated the plantation activities of DS Green could provide a sustainable income source to the villagers.

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2.1.3.3.5: Stakeholders Comments: Understanding of the Project: During the PRA exercise, farmers were informed about the problem of climate change and global warming as well as briefed about the climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. It was stated that Afforestation / Reforestation CDM project activities is also a climate change mitigation measure, which could act as a natural means to cope with climate change problem as well as save the humanity.

Farmers were informed that to execute a AR-CDM project, they need waste and degraded lands, which are not suitable for

growing profitable agricultural crops. Villagers were asked about the history of the lands, covered under project. In response

farmers responded that the lands under the project were forest lands in 1975, but after heavy forest destruction since 1975, the lands were barren. Those lands were not suitable for crop cultivation mainly due to the rocky soil topography and difficulty in tilling the soil. The PRA team stated that there could be several benefits from this AR-CDM small scale project activity

Growing timber or fruit crops in the degraded lands, which were otherwise, kept fallow and not utilized for agricultural practices, Providing timbers after 10-20 years interval Developing the micro climate of soil and environment Developing green belt in the village and promoting environmental balance Earning carbon credit (CER); besides, conservation of land and environment, and development of local area.

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Villagers expressed their satisfaction on the ongoing plantation project activity of DS Green and univocally stated that the lands of the said project activity are unfertile, degraded and not suitable for profitable agriculture. Subsequent to this, the detail PRA exercises were carried out with the participation of local villagers. Outcomes of the PRA: C. Focused Group Discussion and Semi-structured Interview In a similar fashion of the previous sites [in the district of Panna and Katni] villagers were addressed with the following questions/agenda: For how many years, villagers have been staying in this area? What was the agricultural pattern during 1970-80? What are the crops, which were grown during that period? Do they [farmers] grow similar crops now? What was the condition of land during 1980? Does the fertility of land change over period? What was the land condition and fertility, in which DS is doing plantation? Was the plantation area of DS Group under forest in 1980-1989? If not, what was the vegetation cover? Does grazing common in the project area? What is the common practice, which has been adopted for livestock rearing [Stall feeding or open grazing]. What is the source of irrigation for the crop lands? Is the agriculture rain fed? What is the source of livelihood for villagers/farmers? Do they feel that the plantation activities of DS Group are going to enhance the livelihood options? What are the commonly found trees in the region? Do they face any natural calamities or environmentally induced problem in agriculture activities [like flood, frost, dry spell etc.]?

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The outcome of the discussion could be summarized below: Forest in these villages was 1975. cleared This during forest

destruction was done mainly by the private forest contractors Since 1980, the forest cover in the region has further declined due to the pressure of the increasing population and exploitation of

forest while collecting forest products for livelihoods of the villagers. Present land use of the project land is degraded croplands. Agricultural output from the project land was very marginal and dependent on rainfall. Double cropping is practice in the fertile lands in the regions. Average annual income in this village ranges from 2500- 3500 INR. The milch cattle in this village are stall fed and the non-productive cattle are allowed for open grazing. The project lands would have continued to be under present land use status had the project not been suggested.

Timeline Analysis:

The timeline analysis reveals that During 1975-the village was endowed with natural vegetation, comprising of Muhua, Sandal etc. The total household was around 50-60.

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During 1980-the natural vegetation was gradually cleared off due to rising population pressure. Fertile lands were transformed to degraded lands. Forest was destroyed by Sandal wood traders.

During 1985- forest cover was totally cleared off. During 1990-99- Rain fall in the area is decreased. 2000-2005-The total number of household became 400-600. 2007-the project area is still degraded, as it has been since 1980.

Plate: Timeline Analysis-Pakhri Village

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Plate: Timeline Analysis-Agri and Aloniya Village

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Plate: Village Map- Pakhri village

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Plate: Village Map- Aloniya village

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Plate: Village Map- Agri village

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Crop Cycle: The seasonal analysis reveals that the villagers follow two crops in a season. The principle crops are: Rice, Sugarcane, Gram and Wheat etc. Farmers cultivate vegetable and garden crops.

January to March April-June July -September October-December

Harvesting of Gram Harvesting Wheat Rice Harvesting of Rice

Plate: 3: Seasonal Analysis- Pakhri village

The sesonal analysis depicts that the main source of income for the is wage labour, followed by farming. Unlike the developed villages of the seoni district, these three vilagges are highly marginzed and poor.

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2.1.4: Brief Profile of Debona Village [Betul District] As per the official records of Government of Madhya Pradesh, Betul is one of the marginally located southern districts of state, lying almost wholly on the Satpura plateau. It occupies nearly the whole width of the satpura range between the valley of the narmada on the north and the bearer plains on the south. It forms the southernmost part of the Bhopal Division. The District extends between 21-22 and 22-24 degrees North Latitude and between 77-10 and 78-33 degrees East Longitude and forms a compact shape, almost a square with slight projection on the East and the West. The project area of DS Green is located in the Debona village, which is approximately 50 Kms from the Amravati town of Maharashtra. 2.1.4.1: Climate and Lands: As per the available data of state statistical department, the climate of Betul is fairly healthy.; During the monsoon the climate is very damp and at times even cold and raw, thick clouds and mist enveloping the sky for many days together. The average annual rainfall is 700-800 mm. During the PRA exercises, it was stated by the villagers that the rainfall in the region is decreased significantly. This is phenomenon since 1980. Recently, the area is experiencing hot wind in summer with vey less rain fall. During the cold season the thermometer at night falls below the freezing point. Because of this extreme heat and cold, farmers have been facing crop losses. Villagers reported that in 1990 onwards, the crop production, like [cotton, mustard etc.] is reducing due to this adverse climatic conditions as well as poor irrigation facilities region. It was found during the transact walk that there is no perennial source of water in the village, from

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which irrigation water could be arranged. The area is extremely dry and lands are under distressful conditions due to water scarcity. 2.1.4.2: Demography: The village has a mixed population of different language and religion. Villagers speak Marathi and Hindi Language. The population is also a mixture of tribal. Agriculture is the main source of income for the local communities in the project area.

2.1.4.3: Resource Inventory: For assessing the economic and social resources of the villages, PRA tools like Village mapping and time line analysis were used. Farmers identified the following resources during the inventory analysis: 2.1.4.3.1: Agriculture: Debona village is a one of the tribal population village of M.P. This village comes under satpuda plateau and cotton & Wheat crop belt from the point of view of agro-climate zone. Farmers stated that till 1980s they were cultivating three crops in a year. But, afterwards, due to the irregular rainfall, they are now doing only one crop in a year. The Crop density is has also been reduced. The major crops of the village are cotton, pulses and oil seed crops. Farmers have also reported that there are no irrigation facilities in the village. 2.1.4.3.2: Forest and other vegetation: It was found during the PRA that the main species of trees in the village was Teak. Other trees were Haldu, Saja, Dhaoda etc. But thoseforest has been destroyed in the last 30 years, which was indeed initiated during the British era. Besides, it was found during the transat walk that large amounts of commercially-important minor forest produce such as Tendu leaves, etc., are also collected from the forests. The respondents accounted that the major reasons for the felling of the valuable tress were commercial/trading of wood as well as the increasing population and pressure on the lands. The trees were felled for timber as well as to clear out areas for

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settlements. The project area was forested before 30 years but the land use has changed from forests to cropland over the years. The area was predominantly covered with shrubs 30 years back. Owing to an increase pressure on the land resources, majority of land was converted to agricultural land and settlements.

The respondents were asked about the productivity of the land under the project area. Seasonal calendars and pie charts were drawn to identify the productivity of the land (high, medium, low).The productivity of the area was further crosschecked through direct observation and transect walks. As the area is of very low productivity the farmers do not have any alternative land use of the area.

2.1.4.3.3: Livestock and Grazing: The respondents were asked about the kind and number of livestock they own. Through the semi-structured the mode of interviews feeding

[grazing /stall feeding] was ascertained and questions were asked about the source and kinds of feed. The availability of the feed was derived with the help of the seasonality calendars. The livestock in the village

comprises Buffaloes, Cows, Goats and Sheep. The

details are given below. However, grazing in the project area is not possible as all the project sites of DS Green are properly fenced.

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Livestock Feed

The crops for the cattle feed are sown in the monsoons which mainly consists of wheat rice husk. The herds of goats and sheep consume the agriculture waste and other bushels from the fields and the road side. Table: The livestock profile of the village Livestock Feed Buffalo Cow Goat and sheep Wheat Husk, other bushes and shrubs Wheat Husk, other bushes and shrubs Wheat Husk, leaves of trees Mode of feeding Stall fed/Open Grazing Stall fed/Open Grazing Stall fed/Open Grazing

2.1.1.4.8: Stakeholders Comments and Aspiration: Understanding of the Project: As an introduction, villagers were informed about the global warming problem and its possible impact in the society. They were also briefed about the appropriate measures to fight against this environmental menace. The PRA team has informed that planting tree is a best way to fight against climate change. This type of plantation project could give several direct and indirect benefits to the communities, just to name a few, it could be;

Growing timber or fruit crops in the degraded lands, which were otherwise, kept fallow and not utilized for agricultural practices, Providing timbers after 10-20 years interval Developing the micro climate of soil and environment Developing green belt in the village and promoting environmental balance

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Earning carbon credit [CER]; besides, conservation of land and environment, and development of local area.

Villagers expressed their satisfaction on the ongoing plantation project activity of DS Green and univocally stated that the lands of the said project activity are unfertile, degraded and not suitable for profitable agriculture. Subsequent to this, the detail PRA exercises were carried out with the participation of local villagers. Outcomes of the PRA: D. Focus Group Discussion and Semi-structured Interview The outcome of the discussion could be summarized below: Forest village cleared the in this was during of

time

emergency period in India [1970s]. Present land use of the project land is degraded croplands. Agricultural output from the project land was low and dependent on rainfall The cropping pattern of the village is only mono cropping Average annual income in this village ranges from 1500- 2000 INR.

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The milch cattle in this village are stall fed and the non-productive cattle are allowed for open grazing. The project lands would have continued to be under present land use status had the project not been suggested.

Timeline Analysis:

The timeline analysis reveals that During 1970-the village was endowed with natural vegetation, comprising of Teak etc. The total household was around 5-10. During 1980-the natural vegetation was gradually cleared off due to rising population pressure. Fertile lands were transformed to degraded lands During 1990-99- Rain fall in the area is decreased. 2000-2005-The total number of household became 50-60. 2007-the project area is still under of the water highly

effect scarcity,

degraded, as it has been since 1980.

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Plate: Timeline Analysis- Debona village

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Plate: Village Map- Debona village

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Crop Cycle: The crop cycle of the Debona village is presented below:

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2.2: Stakeholders Expectation: Based on the aforesaid discussion with respect to each project site of the DS Greens AR-CDM project activity, it could be summarized that stakeholders have positive feedback and expectation from the project. To sum up the PRA and the stakeholder consultation, the team has adopted the following steps based on which the comments of the stakeholders have been invited and compiled:

Project proponents have consulted the local stakeholders for their suggestions & comments regarding the project activity on December 17, 18 and 19, 2009. The exercise was conducted under following stages:

Stage 1. Initial consultation with the stakeholders: Initial discussions were held with the stakeholders at village level before implementation of the project activity. Villagers were informed by the project proponents about the concept and details of proposed activities sought under the project

Stage 2. Consultation with local stakeholders in CDM Framework: The local stakeholders were informed about the date, time and place of the meetings well in advance by the project developers and complete information about the CDM framework and the importance / benefits of the project was given.

Stage 3. Participatory Rural Appraisal [PRA] study conducted with local stakeholders: Project developers / proponents along with local consultants [CTG-India] conducted exercise of local stakeholder discussion and invitation of suggestions and comments through Participatory Rural Appraisal [PRA] exercise.

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Summary of comments received:

Summarized comments of local stakeholders from project sites are given below as (all these statements are supported by evidences / proof recorded on video and in activity charts):

Land condition (Land eligibility) In general almost all the stakeholders from all the villages informed that there were moderate to dense forest during 1970s, which rapidly got degraded and finally lost by the years 1980 to 1990 The rapid loss of forests during this period is attributed due to migration of people from other parts of the state. The forests were basically cleared manually by local migrants and the local people for practicing agriculture and for wood required for construction of their houses

Grazing All the stakeholders agreed that almost no grazing is practiced in the parcels of land covered for the project This is further confirmed by stakeholders that they stall feed their cattle by providing them fodder from nearby forest area and allow open grazing for the non-productive livestock

Income In general it was observed from stakeholders consultation that they are low income group people with average income ranging from 1500 rupees to 3000 INR per year

Agriculture potential of project land All the stakeholders were unanimous in expressing that the degraded land covered under the proposed project was yielding a poor crop that also only after good rains which occurs once in 2 to 3 years

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The stakeholders also agreed that there is no potential of this degraded land as it is a matter of loss whenever they have invested money to get crops from these

Any Alternatives Stakeholders from the village categorically said that they dont have any other alternative for the degraded land purchased by DS Green, where plantation is undertaken.

Quotable comments of the stakeholders

The area is having these degraded lands since we were born and they are still the same ---- a 50 years old stakeholder Once good forest, these areas were cleared by villagers in 1970s----- a 70 years old stakeholder The area was having sparse forest, which also got totally cleared by growing local population for need of wood and fuel for their houses---- a 40 years old stakeholder We could hardly get any crop from the degraded land as we have to wait for rains, which occurs only once in 2-3 years Certainly we have no other option but to wait for rain to get meager crop from degraded lands We have most of the time incurred losses by investing in degraded lands for crop, as return has been very poor The question of cattle grazing in project area does not arise at all, as there exists not a blade of grass to eat for the animals

The various stakeholders and communities of the village showed their enthusiasm regarding the AR-CDM project activities. The AR- CDM project activity of DS Green was in congruence with many of the aspirations that were expressed to us by the stakeholders. These helped to zero upon specific criteria, which are conducive for the CDM project.

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Following are the key expectations of the farmers: Problems / Situation Expectation

The people of the area are mostly dependent upon Assured irrigation system cultivation. Although the cultivators are

dependent mostly on rainfall, it is also very scantly, unevenly distributed. Majority of the land areas are degraded and Utilization of the lands for fruit /tree unproductive for agricultural practices. Therefore, cultivation they keep the lands fallow or harvest poor crops depending on rainfall. Income of the marginal farmers is very low. The Utilization of the lands for fruit/tree productivity of the un-irrigated lands is low. cultivation and willingness to receive additional benefits from CERs The income from the farm labour is limited. It is Farmers are interested to earn additional only for 3-5 months for the marginal farmers. income from the forest management practices of the proposed AR-CDM Project

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ESTIMATION

3.1: Land Eligibility of the project area: It was evident from various exercises of PRA that the lands, which have been planted by DS Green are degraded due to excessive pressure on the lands during the last 20-25 years and acute water scarcity. On these lands rain fed agriculture is the normal practice. These lands were never been attempted for plantation either by the forest department or by the communities since last 20-30 years. It is mainly because of the barrier like harsh ecological conditions of the area. The productivity of the rain fed agriculture is also not profitable considering the amount of resource inputs and returns received. In the seasonality analysis, the villagers commented that these lands are not utilized for grazing of livestock, so there is no question of any live stock being displaced. Moreover, the lands have less than 5% crown cover [Approximately per 100 square meter 3-4 shrubs as per ocular estimate]. The height of these shrubs is 0.5-1.00 meter. In the historical analysis, stakeholders stated that the private lands, covered under the AR CDM project, have been kept fallow, since 1980, and only a few agricultural operations were practiced depending on the scanty rainfall, which also takes place once in 2 to 3 years interval. Therefore, this area was not a forest from almost last 20-25 years. So, these lands satisfy the land eligibility conditions laid down in the methodology for Small scale AR CDM Project activity. 3.2: Additionality & Leakage: One of the main objectives of the PRA exercise conducted was to analyze the potentiality of additionality and leakage in the project area. This analysis is important to ensure that the proposed project activity would lead to positive and additional benefits for the participants and the local communities. Therefore, a few important issues concerning the proposed projects additionality and leakage were discussed during the PRA exercise. The discussions helped the PRA team to understand the present circumstances of the participants and more importantly their

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requirements, needs and concerns for livelihood development. The emergent issues of the discussions and comments from the stakeholders have been summarized below.

The land under the project area is degraded due to excessive pressure on the lands during the last 20-25 years and acute water scarcity. The area receives erratic and scanty rainfall (500-700mm) which leads to water scarcity. There is no network of irrigation canals and no perennial river in the region pass through the project area. During summer season temperatures in the project area rises up to 47C causing desiccation of the plants. Due to high summer temperatures and low rainfall the area is susceptible to droughts. No plantation activity was attempted by the forest department in the project lands due to these harsh ecological conditions.

The above information gathered from the villagers helped to prove that the proposed project activity will be additional in the area.

The project area is degraded cropland and grassland which is generally left fallow and profitable agriculture is carried out on an average interval of three years and only one crop is taken instead of two which is the general trend in the nearby agricultural fields. Thus the agriculture activity shifting to near by area is insignificant and far below 50%.

The milch cattle in the area are stall fed, the cattle feed comprises of agriculture waste as well as fodder crops grown in the adjoining fertile agriculture fields. The unproductive cattle are allowed for open grazing but grazing cannot be possible in the project areas as DS Green has made provision of fencing. Therefore the number of displaced grazing animals due to the project activity is less than 50% of the average grazing capacity of the project area. The above information collected through the PRA exercise indicates that the leakages arising due the project activity would be far below 50%.

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ILLATIONS From the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) exercise the following inferences have been drawn:

The selected areas for the proposed AR-CDM project are severely affected by due to excessive pressure on the lands during the last 20-25 years and acute water scarcity. The land is degraded in nature. The fertility of the lands is poor and not suitable for profitable agricultural ventures. In few areas, rain fed agriculture is possible once on an average interval of 2 to 3 years.

The climate of the project area is characterized by dryness, and can be classified as semiarid climate. The daily maximum temperature during MayJune ranges from 42 degree C to 47 degree C.

During the semi-structured interviews, farmers understood the basic concept of Clean Development Mechanism [CDM] and its potential benefits. The villagers agreed that the proposed project could enable them to get socio-economic from the project activity and degraded lands, which would have otherwise, kept fallow as no other alternative for these lands, exist.

The displacement of activities due to the project activity is insignificant. Grazing of livestock is not done in the project lands. Livestocks are mostly stall fed in the village. The unproductive cattle are allowed for open grazing but grazing cannot be possible in the project areas as DS Green has made provision of fencing.

The stake holders expect that the project activity would earn them additional means of income through employment generation and credits earned through sequestration of carbon in their trees.

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Enclosure-I: Attendance sheets

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Enclosure-II: Abbreviations/Units

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