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Sri Chandrahari has written three books on Ayanamsa.

1) A small book in English True Ayanamsa was published around 1994. 2) The book Rasichakram in

Malayalam was published in 1996. 3) A detailed book Hindu Zodiac and Ancient Astronomy in English was published in 2003. While in his Rasichakram, he advocated the Zero Ayanamsa year as 238 A.D., with Ayanamsa of 46 minutes more than that of Lahiri, he refined it in his Hindu Zodiac and Ancient

Astronomy, to the 231 A.D., as zero Ayanamsa year with the value 44 minutes, more than that of the Ayanamsa of Lahiri. The aim of this article is to compile the ideas of Sri Chandrahari as given in his Malayalam book Rasichakram in a systematic manner, keeping the continuity of his mathematical concepts and thoughts. While describing the mathematical models of Sri Chandrahari on the Ayanamsa, ingrained in Surya Sidhantha, an attempt has been made in this article to comprehend his insights into the Rasichakra division. In Rasichakram, he proposes a Zero Ayanamsa Year 238 A.D., and this places his Ayanamsa value at a level exceeding that of Lahiri by 46 minutes. Basic Rationale 1: The zodiac was conceptualized considering the revolution of the nodal points Rahu and Sikhi. Thus, the Rasichakra is in fact Ra-Si chakra or Rahu-Sikhi Chakra. He holds that rotation of these nodes is in rhythm with the movement of equinox, if only we care to consider the duration required for precession of 360 degrees. [25758 years means 1385 Nirayana revolutions of Rahu-Sikhi. i.e. Nirayana revolution period of Rahu = 6792.977 days] Theoretically or by intuition, the author gives the following mathematical concept. Rate of precession of equinox per year = 360 degrees/25758 = 120 degrees/8586 = 50.31446541 seconds of arc. He says that, the importance of these numbers can also be proved, considering the modern values of Nirayana and Sayana years. For example: Nirayana Year = 365.2563625 (Modern value) Sayana Year = 365.24219 (Modern value) The difference between 8586 Sayana and Nirayana years will be -121.684 days. i.e. precession of equinox in 8586 years will be 11956

120

[This also indicates that the year length used in the old Suryasidhantha is slightly different. The year length considered in old Suryasidhantha is 365.25875 days. For the why of it refer Rationale 4] Using the above method we can prove that, 25758 Nirayana years are equal to 25759 Sayana years.

Basic Rationale 2: The importance of Yuga numbers is that they can also be taken as precessional seconds to form a pattern. Kaliyuga = 432,000 = 120 x 3600 = 120 We have already found that the time to traverse the arc of 120 would be 8586 Years This holds good if and only if, this period contains the complete revolutions of the 7 planets and the nodes Rahu-Sikhi. To prove it, he gives the following table and emphasizes the importance of the number 8586. Complete-revolution & Nirayana-revolution Period -------------------------------------------------------------------Planet In Quarter Yuga In Mahayuga Kalpa Nirayana Rev Period (8586 years) 85860 years) (86546880 yrs) (Modern Value) -------------------------------------------------------------------Sun 8586 85860 86546880 365.2563624 365.2563624 365.2563624 365.2563624 -------------------------------------------------------------------Moon 114784 1147840 1157023263 27.32167486 27.32167486 27.32166204 27.3216615 (27d07h43m11.6s) (27d07h43m11.55s) -------------------------------------------------------------------Mars 4565 45650 46015614 686.9860082 686.9860082 686.9798274 686.97982 -------------------------------------------------------------------Mercury 35649 356498 359350528 87.97136 87.969389 87.9692559 87.969256 -------------------------------------------------------------------Jupiter 724 7238 7296284 4331.6175 4332.8144 4332.5888 4332.589 -------------------------------------------------------------------Saturn 291 2915 2938110 10776.94546 10758.46013 10759.22908 10759.23 -------------------------------------------------------------------Venus 13957 13567 140683961 224.6966488 224.7914787 224.7007998 224.70080 -------------------------------------------------------------------Rahu 461.5 4616 4653263 6795.430 6793.9582 6793.46934 6793.469 -------------------------------------------------------------------Vernal 120 deg 1200 deg Equinox (0.333..) (3.333..) (3360) 432,000 432,000,0 432,000,0x1008 Revolutions Revolutions Revolutions -------------------------------------------------------------------We see that Yuga numbers could actually mean precession seconds. Therefore, we can say, Kaliyuga = 432,000 = 120 x 3600 = 120 = 8586 Years Dwaparayuga = 864,000 = 240 precessions = 17172 years Tretayuga = 1,296,000 = 360 precessions = 25758 years Kritayuga = 1,728,000 = 480 precessions = 34344 years Mahayuga = 4,320,000 =1200precessions = 85860 Nirayana years Manvantara = 86400 precessions Kalpa = 3360 precessions

Theoretically, this means that, each Yuga-pada (8586 years) starts and ends on a new moon day and that at the start and end of each Yuga-Pada, a solar eclipse occurs. (However, it does not happen. The why of this is in rationale 4) Basic Rationale 3: Kaliyugadi Ayanamsa is 4640 [The author depends on the story that the birth of Brahma was in Rohini Nakshatra. Rohini was also praised as Prajapathi, i.e., Brahma, in Vedas] Vernal equinox at the beginning of Kaliyugadi = 4640 Therefore, Zero Ayanamsa years (elapsed) = 4640x (8586/120) = 3339 years Here a striking similarity attracts our attention. to which the author draws our attention. 3339 is a Rigvedic number. Rigveda (3.9.9) says of 3339 Devas who worship Agni. If Agni really means vernal equinox, then this could mean, The vernal equinox is 3339 years away from zero point. After 3339 Kali years the Sayana and Nirayana zodiacs conjoin. Whether we depend on the above calculation or on the Rigvedic statement, we arrive at the same conclusion. Kaliyuga beginning + 3339 = Zero Ayanamsa Year 3102 BC = -3101 AD i.e., - 3101 AD + 3339 = AD 238 i.e., Zero Ayanamsa Year = AD 238. Thus, the definite formula for determining the Ayanamsa of any year would be Ayanamsa for the year (Y) = (Y-238) x (120 deg/8586) Degrees. = (Y-238)/71.55 degrees. Here another striking similarity attracts our attention. The Number of human

heartbeat per minute is 71 or 72. It might be possible that 71.55 is the actual value of the heartbeat for a human being. If so, we could also prove that the rhythm related. of the universe and the biological clock in humans come are into

mutually

The

biological

clock,

circadian

rhythm

etc.,

consideration. Thus the author points out. Example for calculating Ayanamsa for any year: Hari Ayanamsa for 1995 = (1995 - 238)/71.55 = 24.55625437 = 24 deg 33 min 22. 52 sec Chaitrapaksha Lahiri Ayanamsa for 1995 = 23 deg 47 min 30 sec Difference = Hari Ayanamsa minus Lahiri Ayanamsa = 46 minutes.

i.e., Hari Ayanamsa is 46 minutes more than that of Lahiri. If we subtract 46 minutes from the sputa arrived at by using Lahiri ephemeris, we can get the sputa based on Hari Ayanamsa. Sri Chandrahari does not stop here. He proves how the zodiac was divided into Rasis or Signs and Nakshatras or Stars, based on the fiducial star Moola (240), 108 divisions of Nakshatras (320each) and the above-said actual position of vernal equinox at Kaliyugadi (4640). For this, two new ideas are introduced and the author dives deep into old Suryasidhantha to prove them.

Basic Rationale 4: (i) Zodiac is considered and presented as a mathematical model in old

Suryasidhantha, trying to comprehend the perfect rhythm of the universe. (ii) Even though the creator of Suryasidhantha (Mayan) knew about the actual vernal equinox at Kaliyugadi (4640), Kaliyugadi Ayanamsa was considered as 60 (in old Suryasidhantha), for the perfection of this mathematical model. According to the precession considered in old Suryasidhantha: Precessional Cycle = 21600 years (instead of 25758 years) If we relate this to Yuga years 432000 (Kaliyuga) = 21600 x 20 4,320,000 (Mahayuga) = 21600 x 200 Mahayuga = 200 x 360 deg = 72000 years 120 precession=432000/600=7200 years (instead of 8586 Years) If we divide the number of revolution of planets in a Mahayuga by 600, we can get the number of revolutions of planets per 7200 years. Thus we get Sun = 4,320,000/ 600 = 7200.00 Mars = 296824/600 = 3828.04 Jupiter = 364200/600 = 607.033 Venus = 7022388/600 = 11703.98 Mercury = 17937000/600 = 29895.00 Rahu = 232226/600 = 387.0433 The results are very near to whole numbers. That means in 7200 years the mean values for planets complete, whole number of revolutions. If we consider little bigger period, for example take, 7200 x 25 = 4320000/24 = 180000 years, we can prove that it contains whole number of revolutions. The author says, As the old Surya Sidhantha takes all the revolution numbers of planets in whole numbers and multiples of 24, in 180000 years, the mean

positions of planets conjunct at zero-point. This is the basic concept of Vedic astronomy. Suryasidhantha relates the imaginary mean positions of

planets at the start of Yuga to the actual planetary positions occurring after 3600 years As Suryasidhantha takes 4320000 as a Mahayuga, the precessional Cycle (for 360) becomes 21600 years. Thus, it necessitates vernal equinox to be at 60 deg in the beginning of Kali-Yuga (Instead of at 46 deg 40 min). In other words KaliYugadi Ayanamsa should be 60 deg (mathematically), instead of (the real) 46 deg 40 min. If we compare with the actual data, one may feel that it is an error. But in reality, the Precessional Cycle is a mathematical model put forward by the creator of Suryasidhantha. What was the need for such a model? All these mathematical with the new exercises moon day. were For done this, to relate Mesha the Yugadi Meshaat the

Sankranti

the

Sankranti

beginning of Yuga was considered to happen, 9 days and 37 Ghatis ahead. (937) For that only Nirayana year with length 365.25875 was chosen. It was not because that the author did not know the actual Nirayana year length. The actual precession according to Suryasidhantha was 50. How can we know that the year length used in Suryasidhantha was 365.25875 days? According to Old Suryasidhantha the average number of days in a Mahayuga was 1577917800 days. One Mahayuga is 4,320,000 years. Therefore Year Length = 1577917800/4320000 = 365.25875 days [Really I am not able to figure out how he got that the actual precession

considered by Suryasidhantha as 50 sec. There might be a sufficient reason.] This goes to clinch the first stellar division (first star) to Jyeshta that falls between the line joining the hypothetical Equinox line of old Suryasidhantha (the line joining 60 deg Vernal equinox and 240 deg fiducial star Moola) and the line joining the actual Equinox line at Yugadi (line joining 46 deg 40 min and 226 deg 40 min). The first rasi division (sign - Cancer) falls between the line joining the hypothetical Sayana Rahu-Sikhi (line joining 300 SayanaSikhi / planetary conjunction point and 120 Sayana Rahu) and the hypothetical Ecliptic (line joining 330 and 150) of Old Suryasidhantha. Thus, comes the Zodiac with stars 1320 each and Signs with 30 degrees each. It appears as if these facts led Sri Chandrahari to formulate the concepts such as Mooladhara Rahu-Sikhi-chakram and rhythm of the universe. (music of the stars or biological clock - whatever be the name) Some other striking similarities also have been found by him. Some of them are:

(i) Moola is the base of zodiac division - Mooladhara is the base point from where yoga starts.

(ii) Horoscope is also called Kundalini - In yoga Kundalini (serpent power) is important. (iii) Rahu-Sikhi (Serpents-Kalasarpa) is the underlying factor of Rasichakra -

Kundalini in yoga is also symbolized as serpent. (iv) Kalapurusha is a concept in astrology - Sankhya and Yoga also speak about Purusha. (v) The universe is Rhythmic - The human body also functions in rhythm with the universe. [This needs further clarification. Prana means 4 seconds. According to Yoga and Upanishads, one day of a human means 21600 prana. 360 x 60 = 21600 We have to consider the importance of the number 71.55] All these similarities must have prompted him to delve deep into the concepts such as Tantra/Yoga and Circadian-rhythm/Biological-clock etc. We have to

appreciate the efforts of Sri Chandrahari even though his concepts may be proved correct or not. Conclusion: In the view of Chandrahari (i) The Yuga concept is nothing but an innate theory of Ayanamsa. That is why it was given this much of importance by Old The Suryasidhantha concept is (Includes included in in the

Panchasidhanthika

Varahamihira).

yuga

Panchasiddhantika of Varaahamihira, New Suryasidhantha of Aryabhatta I, the Epics and Puranas, and Dharma sasthras like Manusmrithi. (ii) Rasichakram (Zodiac) is a mathematical model, put forward by Rishis, which postulates the existence of a Sidereal (Nirayana) Zero-point (Meshadi or

Aswinyadi), as well as the conjunction of 8 planets at this zero-point in the beginning of every Yuga. (iii) The Sayana-Nirayana division is deep seated in Hindu mythology and the Vedas have ample proof of this. Both the Sayana and Nirayana systems existed in Vedic period. (Mayan the creator of Suryasidhantha was only a genius compiler of the then prevailing knowledge) At the end, let me mention one more point taken form the book Rasichakram. In the first hymn of purushasuktha, sahasra seersha purusha sahasraksha sahasra

path....., a purusha with 1000 heads, 1000 eyes and 1000 legs gets a mention. As everybody knows, 1000 heads may need 2000 eyes and 2000 legs for a

superhuman form. It is evident that the meaning of the word Sahasra as 1000, does not fit well. (One may escape the confusion by saying that Sahasra means many) Based on sathapatha Brahmana, some scholars say that Sahasra means circle. This is noteworthy. Many astronomical terms are used in this hymn. The following elaboration can clarify the point.

Seersha Circle (Sahasra seersha purusha) = Prime meridian Aksha Circle (Sahasraksha) = Celestial Equator Patha Circle (Sahasrapath) = Nodal Circle Bhoomi Circle (Sa-Bhoomim) = Horizon Viswa Circle (Viswatho vrithva) = Ecliptic Now, if the interpretation of Sri Chandrahari is right, we may get ample proof for the fact that Vedic Knowledge is really amazing. Note: Sri Chandrahari, with true dedication towards astrological research, argues vigorously about the concepts he believes in. His ideas are stunning and are capable of capturing the attention of those who are sincerely searching the truth of astrology. The aim of this dissertation is not to advocate the views of Chandra-Hari. It is an appreciation of his mathematical concepts.