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Grupo de Trabalho-Pedagogia para a Autonomia, Cadernos 2, 2001, pp- 61-64, Braga: Universidade do Minho (org. F.

Vieira)

Uma ficha de aprendizagem auto-dirigida


Antonieta Mamede

DEFINING and NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES


*Ficha de Trabalho do Centro de Aprendizagem da Escola Secundria de Monserrate*

Objectivos: Compreender a diferena entre defining e non-defining relative clauses. Saber distinguir e usar os dois tipos de oraes relativas.
Para aprenderes esta matria, fundamental que saibas muito bem o que estudaste at agora sobre os pronomes relativos. , pois, aconselhvel que faas uma reviso do que j foi ensinado, antes de comeares a estudar a matria nova. Para isso, poders usar uma gramtica com exerccios, ou ento pe prova os teus conhecimentos respondendo s questes que se seguem. Quando terminares, verifica se as tuas respostas estavam correctas, consultando as solues.

I A . Underline the correct answer and justify your choice (in Portuguese). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The woman who/ who she /whom lives next door is a university professor. Thats the kind of dog who/which/whom makes a good pet. This is the house that/who/whose we live in. The man whose/that his/who his house was burnt down is desperate. Hes the man with who/with whom/with that I share an office. Shes the woman whose/that/which reads the news on TV.

(Adapted from L. Prodromou, Grammar and Vocabulary. London: Longman)

B. Correct the wrong statements. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Who always refers to people and which always refers to things. That always refers to things. Whose has a meaning of possession. Whose must come in front of a noun. You cannot use which with a preposition. Whom refers to people but who is more often used. With prepositions you cannot use who. With prepositions whom is almost always used when it comes immediatly after the preposition. 9. When the relative pronoun is the object of the verb you can leave it out.
(Adapted from Meanings 10, Lisboa Editora)

Se, depois de verificares as respostas, ainda tens dvidas sobre este assunto, procura esclarec-las atravs das explicaes de uma gramtica, ou ento consulta um tutor. Se j no tens qualquer dvida, prossegue.

Antonieta Mamede - Uma ficha de aprendizagem auto-dirigida

Grupo de Trabalho-Pedagogia para a Autonomia, Cadernos 2, 2001, pp- 61-64, Braga: Universidade do Minho (org. F. Vieira)

Em Ingls h duas espcies de oraes relativas. Repara na seguinte frase: The woman who lives next door is a doctor. Neste caso, se tirssemos a orao relativa (who lives next door), ficaramos sem saber que mulher se refere. A orao relativa d-nos informao importante para compreendermos a que mulher se refere a orao principal. A este tipo de orao relativa, que essencial para definir o que referido, chama-se DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE. Aqui tens mais exemplos: The man (who/whom) we met at the bank is my English teacher. This is the house (which/that) we live in. Neste tipo de oraes relativas pode-se, como sabes, omitir o pronome relativo quando ele no o sujeito (excepto quando precedido por uma preposio), e no se usam vrgulas. Repara agora na frase seguinte: My brother Jim, who lives in London, is a doctor. Neste exemplo, a orao relativa (who lives in London) no necessria para se perceber a quem se refere a orao principal, pois se se diz my brother Jim j se sabe de quem se trata. A orao relativa serve apenas para nos dar informao extra, que no essencial para a compreenso da orao principal. A este tipo de orao relativa, que d informao adicional sobre a pessoa ou coisa a que se refere a orao principal, chama-se NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE. As NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES tm algumas particularidades: NUNCA se pode omitir o pronome relativo. No se pode usar o pronome THAT. Usam-se sempre com VRGULAS. Aqui tens mais exemplos de NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES:

We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which Ann recommended to us. His wife, who/whom I met in Paris, is French. Sir Christopher Wren, who built 52 London churches, is best known for St Pauls Cathedral.

Agora, se compreendeste bem a informao nova, faz os exerccios que se seguem, para verificares e praticares os teus conhecimentos. Quando te surgirem dvidas, volta atrs e rel a explicao gramatical anterior, ou ento procura a explicao numa gramtica. No final, ou no fim de cada grupo, se preferires, verifica se as tuas respostas esto correctas, confrontando-as com as solues.

Antonieta Mamede - Uma ficha de aprendizagem auto-dirigida

Grupo de Trabalho-Pedagogia para a Autonomia, Cadernos 2, 2001, pp- 61-64, Braga: Universidade do Minho (org. F. Vieira)

II A. The punctuation in some of these sentences is not right. Decide whether each sentence contains a defining or a non-defining relative clause, and add the commas whenever necessary.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Everyone who got to the sales early found excellent bargains. Leave the questions which you cant answer until the end. Sue who was extremely hungry decided to cook some spaghetti. The person I spoke to before said the repair would be free of charge. My bedroom which was rather small looked out on a noisy street. Figo who had earlier missed a penalty scored after twenty minutes. The person who finishes first will be the winner, of course.

B. Underline any relative pronouns that can be left out in these sentences and explain why.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

I think that my boss is the person who I admire most. Harry, who was tired, went to bed very early. Were taking the train that leaves at 6.00. Have you seen the book that I left here on the desk? The film which we liked most was the French one. My radio, which you saw in my bedroom, has suddenly stopped working.

C. Replace the relative pronoun underlined with that, where possibleand explain the reason why it is or it is not possible.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

This is the magazine which I told you about. Johns flat, which is in the same block as mine, is much larger. The girl whose bag I offered to carry turned out to be an old friend. The policeman who arrested her had recognized her car. I work with someone who knows you. Brighton, which is on the south coast, is a popular holiday resort. His wife, whom he met in Paris, is French.

D. Choose the most suitable word in each sentence.

1. My friend, that/who/whose parents live in Glasgow, invited me to spend Christmas in Scotland. 2. Heres the computer program that/whom/whose I told you about. 3. Peter comes from Witney, that/who/which is near Oxford. 4. This is the gun with that/whom/which the murder was committed. 5. Have you received the parcel whom/whose/which we sent you? 6. The meal, that/which/whose wasnt very tasty, was quite expensive.
E. Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space, or leave the space blank wherever possible.

1. The person __________ fingerprints are on the gun was the person __________ killed Dr Martin. 2. My bike, __________ I had left at the gate, had disappeared. 3. The shoes __________ I finally bought were the ones __________ I tried on first. 4. The bag in __________ the robbers put the money was found outside the bank. 5. The medicine _________ the doctor gave me was the one __________ I gave you last year.
(Adapted from michael Vince, First Certificate Practice, Heinemann)

Antonieta Mamede - Uma ficha de aprendizagem auto-dirigida

Grupo de Trabalho-Pedagogia para a Autonomia, Cadernos 2, 2001, pp- 61-64, Braga: Universidade do Minho (org. F. Vieira)

Ento, como te saste nestes exerccios? Acertaste todos? Se acertaste, parabns! Se no acertaste, compreendeste bem por que razo a resposta certa era diferente da tua? Onde poders encontrar mais exerccios quando quiseres rever esta matria ou praticar um pouco mais?

SOLUES DEFINING and NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES


I A. 1. The woman who lives next door is a university professor. O pronome relativo o sujeito e refere-se a pessoas. 2. Thats the kind of dog which makes a good pet. O pronome relativo refere-se no a pessoas mas a animais. 3. This is the house that we live in. O pronome relativo refere-se a coisas e no tem qualquer ideia de posse. 4. The man whose house was burnt down is desperate. O pronome adequado significa cujo/a, que d uma ideia de posse. 5.Hes the man with whom I share an office. Quando precedido por uma preposio (neste caso with) e se refere a pessoas, o pronome a usar whom. 6.Shes the woman that reads the news on TV. Whose est associado ideia de posse, o que no o caso, e which refere-se a coisas ou animais, o que tambm no o caso, de forma que s pode ser that, que se pode referir a coisas ou animais mas tambm a pessoas. B.The wrong statements are the following: 2. That may refer to things, animals or people. 5. You can use which with a preposition. 9. This is only wrong when the relative pronoun comes after a preposition. In this case you cannot omit the pronoun. II A. 1. Everyone who got to the sales early found excellent bargains. (Defining) 2. Leave the questions which you cant answer until the end. (Defining) 3. Sue, who was extremely hungry, decided to cook some spaghetti. (Non-defining) 4. The person I spoke to before said the repair would be free of charge. (Defining) 5. My bedroom, which was rather small, looked out on a noisy street. (Non-defining) 6. Figo, who had earlier missed a penalty, scored after twenty minutes.(Non- defining) 7. The person who finishes first will be the winner, of course. (Defining) B. 1. who: because it is the object, not the subject, of the relative clause. 2. none: in a non-defining relative clause the pronoun can NEVER be left out. 3. none: the relative pronoun is the SUBJECT, so it cant be left out. 4. that: the pronoun is NOT the subject of this defining relative clause. 5. which: the pronoun is NOT the subject of this defining relative clause. 6. none: in a non-defining relative clause the pronoun can NEVER be left out, even when it is not the subject. C. 1. that I told you about in a defining relative clause that may be used instead of which. 2. not possible that cannot be used in a non-defining relative clause. 3. not possible that can never replace whose because it has a different meaning. 4. that arrested her that can replace who in a defining relative clause when it doesnt come after a preposition. 5. that knows you that can replace who in a defining relative clause when it doesnt come after a preposition. 6..not possible that cannot be used in a non-defining relative clause. 7..not possible that cannot be used in a non-defining relative clause. D. 1. whose 2. that 3. which 4. which 5. which 6. which E. 1. whose 2. which 3. blank ... blank 4. which 5. blank ... blank

Se quiseres fazer mais exerccios sobre esta matria, utiliza outra ficha de trabalho deste dossier (consulta o ndice), procura exerccios de uma gramtica, ou pede a um tuto que te ajude a encontrar os exerccios adequados ao teu tipo de dificuldades ou ao que pretendes rever.

Antonieta Mamede - Uma ficha de aprendizagem auto-dirigida