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Procedure Qualification Record (PQR)

PQR's are not required if Standard Welding Procedures are used, see below for details. This document contains details of the welding test, it must include details of all the parameters listed as variables in tables QW250 to QW265 for each process involved and all the destructive test results. The relevant variables for each type of welding process are clearly defined in tables QW250 to QW265. The left hand column of each table defines the section and paragraph where each variable and its application to the table is explained in the code. Welding Variables Variables used in a welding procedure test are divided into 3 categories :y

Essential Variables Are variables that have a significant affect on the mechanical properties of a joint. They must not be changed except within the limits specified by this code. e.g. Material thickness range, Material Group etc. Non-Essential Variables Are variables that have no significant affect on mechanical properties. They can be changed without re qualification of the PQR. Supplementary Variables Are variables that have an affect on the impact properties of a joint. They are classed as Non-Essential if impact testing is not required

All variables listed as essential, non-essential or supplementary should be addressed on both the WPS and the PQR. If any of the variables do not apply to the particular application then they should be specified as not applicable. Joint Configuration Either plate or pipe can be used for the test piece (plate approves pipe and vice versa ref. QW211), any welding position approves all positions providing no impact tests are required ref. tables QW250 to QW265 and any joint geometry approves all geometry's, e.g. single V, double V, U prep, backed or unbacked.

A butt or groove weld approves branch and fillet welds but not the converse, ref. QW202. Non pressure retaining fillet welds in pipe or plate can be tested but they must be double sided if plate and at least the dimensions illustrated in QW462.4a, ref. QW202.2c. Pressure retaining branch welds must be qualified by groove (butt) welds. Material Grouping Materials are assigned P numbers in QW420; a test in one P number approves all materials listed under that P number, except where impact tests are required then approval is restricted to materials listed in the group number within the P number. Other P number groupings are permissible ref. QW424.1 for details. Ref QW 424.1 for further details. It is normally permissible if the material is not listed in QW422 to assign it to a P number which lists materials with the same metallurgical and mechanical properties although this is not in strict conformance with the code. Typically BS1501 151 430A low carbon steel could be regarded as P1 and stainless steels such as 316, 304 as P8. Note P5, 9 & 10 are divided into sub groups eg 5A,5B etc., Treat each sub group like a separate P Number Dissimilar materials are acceptable providing they are compatible. For example P1 to P8, but this does not cover P1 to P1 or P8 to P8. Note S numbers are for pipework to B31, a P number covers an S number but not the converse Consumables The ASME code uses its own specifications for consumables SFA. which is almost identical to the AWS specification. NOTE A change in consumable is only permissible providing it has the same F number and A number (if applicable) as the P.Q.R.. Thickness Limits Thickness limits Groove welds. See QW451 for precise details.
y y

When Impact tests are required the minimum thickness approved is restricted. See QW403.6 More than one PQR may be required to qualify dissimilar thickness

The thickness little 't' of deposited weld metal for each process involved is approved from 0 to 2xt except:y

MIG/MAG (GMAW/FCAW) dip transfer weld of deposited thickness less than " approves maximum thickness of 1.1 x t only Ref: QW255 (QW403.10) If any Pass in a single or multipass weld > " then the thickness approval equals 1.1xT

Dissimilar Thickness QW202.4:- The thicker and thinner part must be qualified, Except P8 and P4X the thinner part can be qualified if no Impacts and test coupon > 6mm thick. Thickness limits for fillet welds as per QW462.4a or QW462.4d qualify all fillet weld sizes on all base material thicknesses and all diameters in one test. Testing Requirements (Ref QW 463 for location of specimens) Unlike EN288 there is no requirement for any non-destructive testing such as radiography or MPI/DPI, although I would recommend radiography for butt welds. The testing requirement for groove welds are as follows:y y

Two Transverse tensile tests (QW150). Two Root bends and Two face bends unless the plate thickness exceeds 3/8" then 4 side bends are required. All bend tests should be done to QW160 using the correct former ref. QW466 to an angle of 180 degrees. Longitudinal (all weld) bend tests are not recommended unless the base/weld materials differ markedly in bending properties. See QW 466 for exceptions and precise details.

The testing requirement for fillet welds on plate is 5 macro sections only, for Pipe fillet welds 4 macro sections. No fracture test required.

Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) This document details the practical application of the Procedure Qualification Record (PQR). It should contain enough information to give direction to the welder and

should address all variables associated with the welding process defined in QW250 including non essential and supplementary. A WPS can combine welding processes from other PQR's but all the relevant variables must be addressed including parent metal thickness. There is an exception to this rule for root runs from PQR's that are greater than 1.5 inches thick (38.1mm), see code for details.

Standard Welding Procedures Specifications (SWP's) Standard welding procedures listed in annex E of ASME IX can be purchased from the 'American Welding Society' and used without qualifying a PQR. Section V of ASME IX gives details of essential variables and restrictions. A successful welder performance qualification must be carried out to demonstrate the SWP's before a manufacturer can use it.

Welder Performance Qualification (WPQ)

Materials The purpose of this test is to determine the welders ability to deposit a sound weld therefore the base material is not considered as critical as it is in the PQR. Hence a performance test on any material in P groups 1 to 11 approves all those groups and sub groups, also P34 and P4X (P40-P49). Providing a compatible consumable exists with the same F number used in the qualification test. (QW423.1) Note a single sided weld is classed as a weld without backing and a double sided weld or weld with sealing run is classed as a weld with backing Consumables The F number cannot be changed without re qualification of the welder except that for performance qualification only using SMAW (MMA) F numbers up to and including 4 approve all lesser F numbers for double sided or welds with backing only. One Consumable from F41 To F45 approves any of these consumables, except SAW. Ref.QW404.11. Note 'A' numbers do not apply to welder approval tests. Variables For each welding process there is a list of essential variables in QW352 to QW357 and QW360 for welding operators, these are not necessarily the same as the ones for the PQR. Essential variables cannot be changed. Explanations of all these variables is given in section IV of the code. Diameter and Thickness Ranges Diameter limits for all circular welds including groove welds, branch welds and fillet welds is given in QW452.3. there are no upper limits on diameters approved and pipe covers plate Note for branch welds the diameter considered for the above limits is the one containing the weld preparation. Thickness limits, groove welds. The thickness limit only applies to the deposited weld metal thickness not the plate thickness and any groove weld approves all fillet weld sizes. For t greater than 12.5mm there is no restriction on the size that can be welded (Providing the test weld deposit contains at least 3 layers of weld).

Thickness limits, fillet welds. A test on plate greater than 3/16" approves all base metal thicknesses and fillet weld sizes ref. QW452.5. (Note the above diameter limits apply unless the fillet weld is qualified by a groove weld) Joint Configuration Joint geometry, a double V (or U) is considered the same as a joint with backing and does not qualify a single V (or U) without backing, but a single full penetration joint without backing qualifies all joint configurations. Approval Range Extent of approval is very well explained in QW461.9. Take particular note of welding positions which are also explained in QW461, for example to qualify a fillet weld in the normal horizontal-vertical position with a groove weld, the groove weld must be qualified in at least the 2G position. The welding positions defined in QW461.1.& QW461.2 should be referred to in the WPS. The position designations: 1G ,2G ,3G ,4G ,5G ,6G (Groove Welds) and 1F ,2F ,3F ,4F (Fillet Welds) are test positions Period of Validity/Renewal of Qualifications (QW 322.2) Providing the welder uses the process for which he is qualified and there is no reason to question his ability then his qualification lasts indefinitely. If the welder does not use the welding process for which he is qualified for a period of 6 months or more then he must perform a new test in pipe or plate, any parent material, thickness and position, if successful all the welder approvals for that welding process are renewed in one test. Testing Requirements Test requirements for groove welds QW452 consists of either:y

One face bend and one root bend except for welding positions 5G & 6G which require 4 bends (Ref QW452.1 Note 4). If the plate exceeds 3/8" side bends may be used. See QW 466 for precise details and exceptions. Note:- Bend Tests can in most cases be replaced by Radiography {See Below}.

Radiography is optional and must be supplemented by bend tests when using GMAW (MIG/MAG) with dip transfer (Short Circuiting Arc) or when welding some special materials. Ref. QW304.

Note:- Ultrasonic Examination in lieu of Radiography is not permitted Test requirements for fillet welds in plate ref. QW452.5:y

One macro section (QW 184) and One fracture test (QW182).

The location where each specimen has to be taken is defined in QW463 Radiography Ref QW 191
y y

A length of at least 6" must be examined for plate or the entire circumference for pipe. If the pipe circumference is less than 6" then more samples must be welded up to a maximum of 4. Ref QW 302.2.

Visual Examination Ref QW 302.2 & QW 190 Performance test coupons must show complete joint penetration with full fusion of the weld metal and base metal. The welder performance test must follow a properly qualified W.P.S. Once qualified the welder must always work within the extent of approval of any properly qualified W.P.S. and his W.P.Q. The welder who qualifies the P.Q.R. is automatically approved within the limits specified in QW304, QW305 and QW303. Ref QW301.2. Specialist Processes Such as corrosion resistant overlay or hard facing are covered in QW 453. Procedure variables are defined with all procedure variables in QW252 and in QW380 for welder approval. Min base thickness approved = size welded or 1", QW 453 Min Deposit Size Approved:- Point Where Chemical analysis taken No upper limit QW402.16 (462.5a) Welding Positions QW405.4 Performance Qualification approves all deposit thickness No min.QW381

ASME P Material Numbers

This is a general guide ASME P numbers and their equivalent EN288 groupings. Groups referred to in the Base Metal column are ASME sub groups. EN288 material groups are included for comparison only.
P No. EN288 Base Metal Carbon Manganese Steels, 4 Sub Groups
y y y y

Group 1 up to approx 65 ksi Group 2 Approx 70ksi Group 3 Approx 80ksi Group 4 ?

2 3 4 5A 5B 5C 6 7

4 5 5 5 6 8 8

Not Used 3 Sub Groups:- Typically half moly and half chrome half moly 2 Sub Groups:- Typically one and a quarter chrome half moly Typically two and a quarter chrome one moly 2 Sub Groups:- Typically five chrome half moly and nine chrome one moly 5 Sub Groups:- Chrome moly vanadium 6 Sub Groups:- Martensitic Stainless Steels Typically Grade 410 Ferritic Stainless Steels Typically Grade 409 Austenitic Stainless Steels, 4 Sub groups
y y y y

Group1 Typically Grades 304, 316, 347 Group 2 Typically Grades 309, 310 Group 3 High manganese grades Group 4 Typically 254 SMO type steels

9A, B, C 10A,B,C,F,G 10 H 10J 11A Group 1 11 A Groups 2 to 5

7 ? 10 ? 7 ?

Typically two to four percent Nickel Steels Mixed bag of low alloy steels, 10G 36 Nickel Steel Duplex and Super Duplex Grades 31803, 32750 Typically 26 Chrome one moly 9 Nickel Steels Mixed bag of high strength low alloy steels.

11B 12 to 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 to 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 to 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 47 to 50 51, 52, 53 61, 62

? 21 22a 23 22b

10 Sub Groups:- Mixed bag of high strength low alloy steels. Not Used Pure Aluminium Aluminium Magnesium Grade 5000 Aluminium Magnesium Silicone Grade 6000 Not Used Aluminium Magnesium Manganese Typically 5083, 5086 Not used Pure Copper Brass Copper Silicone Copper Nickel Copper Aluminium Not Used Pure Nickel Nickel Copper:- Monel 500 Nickel Chrome Ferrite:- Inconel Nickel Moly:- Hastelloy C22, C276 Nickel Chrome :- Incoloy 800, 825 Nickel Chrome Silicone Nickel Chrome Tungstone Not Used Titanium Alloys Zirconium Alloys

ASME Definitions, Consumables, Welding Positions.

ASME has adopted their own designation for welding processes, which are very different from the ISO definitions adopted by EN24063.

Designation Description OFW Oxyfuel Gas Welding SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding (MMA) SAW Submerged Arc Welding GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding (MIG/MAG) FCAW Flux Cored Wire


Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (TIG) Plasma Arc Welding

Straight polarity = Electrode -ve Reverse polarity = Electrode +ve ASME F Numbers F General Description Number 1 Heavy rutile coated iron powder electrodes :- A5.1 : E7024 2 Most Rutile consumables such as :- A5.1 : E6013 3 Cellulosic electrodes such as :- A5.1 : E6011 4 Basic coated electrodes such as : A5.1 : E7016 and E7018 5 High alloy austenitic stainless steel and duplex :- A5.4 : E316L-16 6 Any steel solid or cored wire (with flux or metal) 2X Aluminium and its alloys 3X Copper and its alloys 4X Nickel alloys 5X Titanium 6X Zirconium 7X Hard Facing Overlay
Note:- X represents any number 0 to 9

ASME A Numbers These refer to the chemical analysis of the deposited weld and not the parent material. They only apply to welding procedures in steel materials. A1 Plain unalloyed carbon manganese steels. A2 to A4 Low alloy steels containing Moly and Chrome Moly A8 Austenitic stainless steels such as type 316. ASME Welding Positions Graphic Representation

Note the welding progression, (vertically upwards or downwards), must always be stated and it is an essential variable for both procedures and performance qualifications. Welding Positions For Groove welds:Welding Position Flat Horizontal Vertical Upwards Progression Vertical Downwards Progression Overhead Pipe Fixed Horizontal Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Upwards Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Downwards Welding Positions For Fillet welds:Welding Position Flat (Weld flat joint at 45 degrees) Horizontal Horizontal Rotated Vertical Upwards Progression Vertical Downwards Progression Overhead Pipe Fixed Horizontal Test Position 1F 2F 2FR 3F 3F 4F 5F ISO and EN PA PB PB PF PG PD PF Test Position 1G 2G 3G 3G 4G 5G 6G 6G ISO and EN PA PC PF PG PE PF HL045 JL045

Welding Positions QW431.1 and QW461.2 Basically there are three inclinations involved.
y y y

Flat, which includes from 0 to 15 degrees inclination 15 - 80 degrees inclination Vertical, 80 - 90 degrees

For each of these inclinations the weld can be rotated from the flat position to Horizontal to overhead.