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FOLIO BIOLOGY PRACT

FORM 5
Name :Afiq Danial B. Mohd Fitri Matrix No : 29118

Number Title Aim Problem

Activity 4.3 (Experiment) Studying the effects of temperature on salivary amylase activity To study the effects of temperature on salivary amylase activity What are the effects of temperature on salivary amylase activity?

Statement Hypothesis The rate of reaction catalysed by salivary amylase is highest at 37C / The optimum temperature for salivary amylase is 37C Manipulated variable: Temperature of medium of reaction Variables Responding variable: The rate of reaction catalysed by salivary amylase Fixed variable: Volume of saliva, volume and concentration of starch suspension and pH of medium Material

1% starch suspension Saliva suspension Iodine solution Ice cubes Distilled water Beakers Test tubes Test tube rack Syringes Droppers Glass rods White tile with grooves Thermometer Bunsen burner Tripod stand Wire gauze Stopwatch Test the presence of starch using iodine test Record the time taken for the hydrolysis of starch to be completed. 1. The mouth is rinsed with distilled water. 2. The saliva suspension is prepared by spitting into a small beaker and diluting the saliva with an amount of distilled water equal to the amount of saliva. 3. Five water baths are prepared at the following temperatures : 00C, 200C, 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
37oC, 50oC and 60oC. Two test tubes are labelled P and Q. 4 ml of starch suspension are placed in the test tube P and 1 ml of saliva suspension in test tube Q. Both test tubes are placed into the first water bath (at 00C) for 5 minutes. A drop of iodine solution is placed into each groove of a clean spotting tile. The starch suspension from test tube P is poured into the saliva suspension in test tube Q. The stopwatch is started immediately.

Apparatus

Technique used Procedure

9. A drop of suspension is taken from test tube Q every minute and tested with iodine solution on the spotting tile. 10. Test tube Q is kept in the water bath throughout the experiment. 11. The time taken for the complete hydrolysis of starch is recorded in the table, that is, when the iodine solution does not turn blue anymore.

12. Steps 4 to 9 are repeated for temperatures 200C, 37oC, 50oC and 60oC. Presentation of data Temperature of water bath (oC) 0 20 37 50 60 Time taken for complete hydrolysis of starch, t (minutes) >30 8 0.33 6 >30 Rate of reactions, 1/t(minutes) <0.03 0.13 3 0.17 <0.03

Conclusion The rate of reaction is highest at the temperature 37oC. The hypothesis is accepted.

Number Title Aim Problem Statement Hypothesis

Activity 4.4 (Experiment) Studying the effects of pH on the activity of pepsin To study the effects of pH on the activity of pepsin What are the effects of pH on the activity of pepsin? An acidic medium at pH 3 is optimum for the activity of pepsin

Variables

Manipulated variable: pH of medium Responding variable: Rate of reaction catalysed by pepsin Fixed variable: Volume and concentration of albumen suspension, volume and concentration of pepsin solution and temperature of medium Egg albumen suspension 1% pepsin solution 0.1 M hydrochloric acid 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution Distilled water Beakers Test tubes Test tube rack Droppers Glass rod Thermometer 5 ml syringes pH paper Bunsen burner Tripod stand Wire gauze Stopwatch

Material

Apparatus

Technique used Procedure

Observe and record the conditions of mixtures before and after 20 minutes 1. The egg albumen suspension is prepared by adding 1 g of dried egg albumen to 100 cm3 of water the mixture is then heated to 90oC. 2. Three test tubes are labelled P, Q and R. 3. 5 ml of egg albumen suspension and 1 ml of pepsin solution are placed in each test tube. 4. 5 drops of distilled water are added to test tube P. 5. 5 drops of dilute hydrochloric acid are added to test tube Q. 6. 5 drops of dilute sodium hydroxide solution are added to test tube R. 7. All the three test tubes are placed into a water bath at 37oC for 20 minutes. 8. The appearance of the contents in each test tube is recorded at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. 9. The contents in each test tube are tested with pH paper. 10. The results are recorded in table.

Presentation of data Test pH tube P 7 Q R 2 9 Contents Albumen + pepsin + distilled water Albumen + pepsin + dilute hydrochloric acid Albumen + pepsin + dilute sodium hydroxide solution Appearance of contents At the beginning At the end of the of the experiment experiment White suspension White suspension White suspension White suspension Clear solution White suspension

Conclusion Pepsin catalyses the hydrolysis o protein only in acidic conditions. The hypothesis is accepted.

Number Title Aim Problem Statement Hypothesis Variables

Activity 4.6 (Experiment) Studying the effect of enzyme concentration on the activity of salivary amylase To study the effect of enzyme concentration on the activity of salivary amylase What are the effects of enzyme concentration on the activity of salivary amylase? The rate of enzymatic reaction increases with the increase in enzyme concentration as long as there are no other factors limiting the rate of reaction. Manipulated variable: Enzyme concentration Responding variable: Rate of reaction Fixed: Substrate concentration and temperature

Material

1% starch suspension 0.5% amylase solution / saliva suspension Iodine solution Distilled water 5 ml of syringe 1 ml of syringe White tiles with grooves Test tubes Glass rod Dropper Measuring cylinder Stopwatch Beaker Thermometer Water bath (Bunsen burner, tripod stand and wire gauze) Test for the presence of starch using iodine test Record the time taken for the hydrolysis of starch to be completed with a stopwatch

Apparatus

Technique used

Procedure 1. The mouth is rinsed with distilled water. 2. The saliva suspension is prepared by spitting into a small beaker and diluting the saliva with an amount of distilled water equal to the amount of saliva. 3. Six test tubes are labelled P, Q, R, S, T and U are filled with the following starch suspensions using different syringes. Test tube P Q R S T U Type of starch suspension 4 ml 0.1% starch suspension 4 ml 0.2% starch suspension 4 ml 0.3% starch suspension 4 ml 0.4% starch suspension 4 ml 0.5% starch suspension 4 ml 0.6% starch suspension

4. 1 ml of saliva suspension is placed in a test tube.

5. A drop of iodine solution is placed into each groove of a clean spotting tile. 6. Test tube P and the test tube containing the saliva suspension are placed into a water bath at 37oC. 7. After 5 minutes, the saliva suspension is poured into the starch suspension in the test tube P. The stopwatch is started immediately. 8. A drop of suspension is taken from test tube P every minute and tested with iodine solution on the spotting tile. 9. Test tube P is kept in the water bath throughout the experiment. 10. The time taken for the complete hydrolysis of starch is recorded in the table, that is, when the iodine solution does not turn blue anymore. 11. Steps 4 to 10 are repeated for test tubes Q, R, S, T and U. Presentation of data

Concentration of starch suspension, C(%) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Time taken for the complete hydrolysis of starch, f (Seconds) (minutes) 300 5.00 300 5.00 300 5.00 300 5.00 375 6.25 450 7.50

Rate of reaction = C/t 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.08 0.08

Conclusion The rate of enzymatic reaction increases with the increase in substrate concentration until it reaches a maximum rate. The hypothesis is accepted.

Number Title Aim Material

Activity 5.4 (Observation) Preparing a slide of onion root tip to identify the various stages of mitosis To prepare and observe a slide of onion root tip to identify the various stages of mitosis Aceto-orcein stain / acetic orcein stain 1 M hydrochloric acid Onion bulb Distilled water

Apparatus

Petri dish Watch glass Blade / Scalpel Mounting needles Toothpicks Beaker Bunsen burner Microscope Glass slides Cover slips Filter papers Prepare a slide of onion root tip by using the aceto-orcein stain / acetic orcein stains the chromosomes Observe the slide of onion root tip to identify the various stages of mitosis by using light microscope.

Technique used

Procedure

1. About 5mm of the tip of an anion root is cut. 2. The root tip is placed in a watch glass containing a mixture of acetic orcein stain and HCl. 3. The watch glass is warmed up for five minutes. 4. The stained root tip is then placed on a clean slide. 5. The root tip is cut into two. The half which is further from the tip is discarded. 6. Two drops of acetic orcein are then added to the root tip on the slide. 7. By using a needle, the tissue in the root tip are spread out as thinly as possible. 8. The slide is covered with a cover slip. Any excess stain is removed by gently pressing on the cover slip with a piece of filter paper. 9. The slide is warmed again for a few seconds to intensify the stain. 10. The slide is examined under a light microscope.

Conclusion Different stages of mitosis can be observed in the onion root tip.

Number Title Aim Problem Statement Hypothesis Variables

6.1 (Observation) Determining the energy value in food samples To determine the energy value in food samples Which food sample has a higher energy value? Cashew nut/ Walnut has a higher energy value that goundnut Manipulated variable: Type of food sample Responding variable: Energy value of food samples Fixed variable: Mass of water and mass of food sample

Material

Fresh peanut (whole) Fresh cashew nut / Fresh walnut (whole) Plasticine Cotton wool Distilled water Matches Boiling tube Thermometer (0 100C) Pin (5 8 cm) Bunsen burner Retort stand and clamp Wind shield Electronic balance Measure and determine the energy value in different food samples Compare the energy value in different food samples (groundnut and cashew nut / walnut) Measure the mass of the different food samples by using electronic balance A whole peanut is selected and its weight recorded. A clean and dry boiling tube is filled with 20 cm3 of distilled water. A boiling tube is clamped to a retort stand. The initial temperature of the water in the boiling tube is recorded. The peanut is spiked firmly at the end of the pin and mounted on some plasticine. A test tube was moved over the burning peanut and it was positioned so that the top of the flame first touches the bottom of the boiling tube. The water is stirred gently with the thermometer. The final temperature (the highest temperature reached) is recorded as soon as the peanut has stopped burning. The energy value of the peanut is calculated based on the following formula:

Apparatus

Technique used

Procedure

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Energy value = Mass of water (g) x increases in temperature (oC) x 4.2 (J g-1 o C) Mass of peanut (g) 10. The procedure was repeated using a cashew nut.

Presentation of data Food sample Initial temperature of water (oC) Final temperature of water (oC) Difference in temperature (oC) Mass of water (g) Mass of nut (g) Energy value (J g-1) Groundnut 27 45 18 20 0.5 20 4.2 18 / 0.5 = 3024 Conclusion Cashew nut 27 90 63 20 1.2 20 4.2 63 / 12 = 4410

Hypothesis is accepted. Cashew nut has a higher energy value than groundnut. It burns with a higher increase in temperature per gram.

Number Title Aim Problem Statement Hypothesis Variables

Activity 6.3 (Experiment) Determining the vitamin C content in various fruit juices To determine the vitamin C content in various fruit juices Do different types of fruit juices contain similar amounts of vitamin C? Lime juice contains a higher concentration of vitamin C compared to pineapple juice and orange juice. Manipulated variable: Types of fruit juices Responding variable: Volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution Fixed variable: Volume of DCPIP solution and standard concentration of ascorbic acid solution

Material

1.0% dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) solution 0.1% ascorbic acid solution Freshly prepared lime juice Freshly prepared pineapple juice Freshly prepared orange juice Specimen tubes 1 ml syringe 5 ml syringes with needles 50 ml beakers Gauze cloth Knife / Scalpel Measure and determine the volume of standard vitamin C solution needed to decolourise of a fixed volume of DCPIP. Measure and determine the volume of juice needed to decolourise the same volume of DCPIP. Calculate the vitamin C content of juice by comparing it with the standard vitamin C solution.
Four specimen tubes are labelled as A, B, C and D. 1 ml of DCPIP is placed in each specimen tube. A syringe is filled with 5 ml of ascorbic acid solution. The needle of the syringe is immersed in the DCPIP solution as shown in the figure above. The ascorbic acid solution is added drop by drop to the DCPIP solution and the tube is shaken gently.

Apparatus

Technique used

Procedure

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

CAUTION : The test tube should not be shaken vigorously.

6. The amount of ascorbic acid solution used to decolourise DCPIP solution is recorded. 7. Steps 1 to 6 are repeated using lime juice, pineapple juice and orange juice. 8. The percentage and concentration of vitamin C in the three types of fruit juices are calculated using the formulae below:

Percentage of vitamin C in fruit juice = volume of 0.1% ascorbic acid solution 0.1 % Volume of fruit juice used Concentration of vitamin C in fruit juice = volume of 0.1% ascorbic acid solution 1.0 mg cm3

Volume of fruit juice used

Presentation of data

Solution/fruit juice

0.1% ascorbic acid Lime juice

Volume of solution or fruit juice needed to decolourise 1 ml of DCPIP solution 1 2 3 Average 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.5 2.6 2.4 2.5

Percentage of vitamin C in fruit (%)

Vitamin C concentration in fruit juice (mg cm-3)

Pineapple juice

3.6

3.6

3.5

3.6

Orange juice

5.0

5.1

5.2

5.2

1.0 1.0 2.5 = 0.04% 1.0 1.0 3.6 = 0.03% 1.0 1.0 5.2 = 0.01%

1.0 1.0 2.5 = 0.40 mg cm-3 1.0 1.0 4.9 = 0.30 mg cm-3 1.0 1.0 5.2 = 0.19 mg cm-3

Conclusion

Lime juice has a higher vitamin C content ( 0.40 mg cm-3) compared to pineapple juice (0.30 mg cm-3) and orange (0.19 mg cm-3).

Number Title Aim Problem Statement Hypothesis Variables

Activity 6.4 (Experiment) Planning and conducting an experiment to study enzyme action on starch To study enzyme action on starch How does the enzyme in saliva act on starch? The enzyme is saliva digest starch into a reducing sugar / The enzyme in saliva hydrolyses starch into a reducing sugar Manipulated variable: Absence or presence of salivary amylase and starch Responding variable: Presence of reducing sugar Fixed variable: Temperature at 37C, starch concentration and volume of mixture

Material

1% starch suspension Benedicts solution Iodine solution Saliva suspension Distilled water 10 ml pipette 500 ml beaker Test tubes Test tube holder Test tube rack Thermometer Droppers Glass rod White tile Bunsen burner Tripod stand Wire gauze Confirmation test for the presence of starch using iodine solution Confirmation test for the presence of reducing sugar using Benedicts solution

Apparatus

Technique used

Procedure

1. The mouth of the student is rinsed with water and 2 ml of saliva is collected in a beaker and diluted with 2 ml of distilled water. 2. 1 ml of diluted saliva is poured into a test tube. The presence of starch is tested. 3. 1 ml of diluted saliva is poured into another test tube. The presence of reducing sugar was tested. 4. Step 2 and 3 are repeated using starch suspension. 5. A water bath is prepared by using a Bunsen burner to heat some water in a beaker on a tripod and gauze till its boils, then the flame is turn down to keep the water just boiling. While waiting for the water to boil, three test tube are labelled A, B and C. 6. 1 ml of saliva is put into test tubes A and C, 1ml of distilled water is put into test tubes B and C and 5ml of starch suspension is added to test tubes A and B. 7. Test tube C is heated in a beaker of boiling water for 5 minutes. 8. All the test tubes are immersed in the water bath of 37oC for 30 minutes. 9. After 30 minutes, an iodine test and a Benedicts test are carried out on the contents in test tubes A, B and C.

Test tube A B C

Contents 1 ml starch + 1 ml saliva 1 ml starch + 1 ml distilled water 1 ml saliva + 1 ml distilled water

Presentation of data

Test Iodine test Benedicts test

Content Starch suspension Saliva Starch suspension Saliva

Observation Dark blue Yellowish brown Blue solution Blue solution

Test Iodine test Benedicts test

Test tube A (1 ml starch + 1 ml saliva) B (1 ml starch + 1 ml distilled water) C (1 ml saliva + 1 ml distilled water) A (1 ml starch + 1 ml saliva) B (1 ml starch + 1 ml distilled water) C (1 ml saliva + 1 ml distilled water)

Observation Yellowish brown Dark blue Dark blue Brick-red precipitate Blue solution Blue solution

Conclusion

The enzyme in saliva that is salivary amylase digest starch into a reducing sugar. Hypothesis is accepted.

Number Title Aim Problem Statement Hypothesis

Activity 6.5 (Experiment) Planning and conducting an experiment to study the enzyme action on a protein food sample To study the enzyme action on a protein food sample How does the enzyme acts on protein?

The test tube contains albumen and pepsin solution becomes clear at the end of the experiment An acidic medium is needed for protein digestion by pepsin Manipulated variable: Absence or presence of pepsin in albumen Responding variable: Cloudy or clear (clarity of contents) albumen suspension after 20 minutes Fixed variable: Concentration and volume of albumen, concentration and volume of pepsin (enzyme), concentration of hydrochloric acid, surrounding temperature at 37C Albumen (egg-white) suspension Dilute hydrochloric acid Pepsin suspension Distilled water 10 ml pipette 500 ml beaker Test tubes Test tube rack Droppers Thermometer Stopwatch Water bath (Bunsen burner, tripod stand and wire gauze)

Variables

Material

Apparatus

Technique used Procedure

Observe albumen digestion under the presence or the absence of pepsin and hydrochloric acid.
1. 2. 3. 4. Four test tubes are labelled A-D. About 5 cm3 of albumen suspension are placed into each test tube. Three drops of dilute hydrochloric acid are added to test tube B, C and D. 1 cm3 of 1% pepsin solution is placed into a clean test tube by using a graduated pipette and it is heated over a small Bunsen flame until the liquid boils. The boiled pepsin is added to the egg-white suspension in test tube D. A water bath of temperature 4ooC is prepared by using a 250 cm3 beaker and the beaker is filled with water until it is half full. 1 cm3 of 1% pepsin is added to test tubes 1 and 3 only by using a graduated pipette. All the four test tubes are placed in the water bath. The four test tubes are removed from the water bath after five or six minutes and they are placed in a test tube rack. The appearances of the contents are noted and compared.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Presentation of data

Test tube
A B C D

Contents

Results Start of experiment End of experiment


Clear Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy

Albumen + pepsin Albumen + HCl Albumen + pepsin + HCl Albumen +boiled pepsin + HCl

Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy

Conclusion Digestion of protein by pepsin takes place in an acidic medium. The hypothesis is accepted.

Number Title Aim Problem Statement Hypothesis Variables

Activity 6.7 (Observation) Studying the movement of substances through the Visking tubing What substances can move across the Visking tubing? Small molecules can move across the Visking tubing Manipulated variable: Contents of the Visking tubing Responding variable: Change in colour of water sample in iodine test and Benedicts test Fixed variable: Temperature of water bath (37C), volume of solution

Material

1% starch suspension 1% glucose solution Iodine solution Benedicts solution Visking tubing Thread Distilled water Boiling tube Test tubes 10 ml syringe Pipette A pair of scissors Water bath (Bunsen burner, tripod stand and wire gauze) Confirmation test for the presence of starch using iodine solution Confirmation test for the presence of reducing sugar using Benedicts solution

Apparatus

Technique used Procedure

1. A beaker full of water is warmed to 35oC. 2. A knot is tied in one end of the visking tubing, by wetting it, spinning it and then tying it. 3. 2 ml of saliva and 8 ml of starch suspension are one Visking tubing and put into a boiling tube of warm water labelled as A. As for the boiling tube labelled as B, 2 ml of distilled water and 8 ml of starch suspension are added to the Visking tubing. 4. The other end of the Visking tubing are then tied carefully. 5. The outside of the Visking tubing are rinsed with tap water to remove all traces of starch and saliva. 6. Immediately, a dropper is used to withdraw two samples of water from boiling tube A. 7. The Iodine test and Benedicts test are carried out on the two samples of water. 8. The observation are recorded. 9. Steps 6 to 7 are repeated for boiling tube B. 10. After 30 minutes, two water samples are taken from each set. The iodine test and Benedicts test are carried out on the water samples. 11. The observation are recorded.

Presentation of data

Boiling tube A B

Beginning of the experiment Iodine test Benedicts test Yellowish Blue solution brown Yellowish Blue solution brown

After 30 minutes Iodine test Benedicts test Yellowish Brick-red brown precipitate Yellowish Blue solution brown

Conclusion

Starch needs to be broken down into smaller molecules of reducing sugars to enable them to move across the Visking tubing. The hypothesis is accepted.

Number Title Aim Problem Statement Hypothesis

Activity 6.8 (Experiment) Studying the effects of macronutrient deficiency in plants To study the effects of macronutrient deficiency in plants What are the effects of macronutrient deficiency in plants? / Do macronutrient deficiency have any effects on plant growth and development? Plant grows healthily in a complete Knops solution Macronutrient deficiencies affect plant growth and development.

Variables

Manipulated variable: Components of minerals in culture solution Responding variable: Growth of the seedling / Condition of the plants Fixed variable: Volume and concentration of solution, size and type of maize seedlings, amount of air that is pumped into the jar, amount of sunlight, surrounding temperature Maize seedlings Potassium nitrate (KNO3) Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) Calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) Ferum(III) phosphate (FePO4) Cotton wool Black paper Distilled water Glass jars Rubber bungs with holes Straight glass tubes to fit into the holes of the rubber bungs L-shaped delivery tubes to the connected to a vacuum pump Knife Observe the effects of different deficiencies on young maize seedling. Maize seedling are under identical conditions of light, temperature and moisture.

Material

Apparatus

Technique used

Procedure

1. Eight glass jars labelled and filled and filled with culture solution of the following composition. 2. Eight seedlings of the same size are selected. One maize seedling is placed in each rubber bung of a gas jar, with its roots in the culture solution. 3. A right-angled glass tube is placed in another hole in the rubber bung. Air must be blown through the right-angled tubes daily to provide oxygen to the roots for respiration. 4. All the glass are wrapped with black papaer and they are placed in a condition where all the seedlings received an equal amount of sunlight. 5. Distilled water is used to top up the solution from time to time. 6. Air is pumped into the solution using in air pump. 7. The culture solution is changed once a week. 8. The growth of each seedling is observed at the end of one month. 9. The colour, number, size and shapes of leaves, height of seedling, length of roots, the

growth of branches and the strength of the stems are observed and recorded in a table.

Glass far Calcium nitrate (0.8 g) A (distilled water) B (complete Knops solution) D (Deficient in phosphate) E (Deficient in sulphur) No Yes

Components of each jar Potassium Potassium Magnesium Ferum(II) Distilled nitrate dehydration sulphate phosphate water (0.2 g) phosphate (0.2 g) (0.2 g) (1000 (o.2 g) cm3) No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Replaced with calcium chloride Yes

Replaced with potassium chloride Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

F (Deficient in potassium) G (Deficient in calcium) H (Deficient in magnesium)

Yes

Replaced with sodium nitrate Replaced Yes with sodium nitrate Yes Yes

Replaced Yes with potassium chloride Replaced Yes with calcium phosphate Yes Yes

Replaced with ferum (II) oxide Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Replaced with potassium phosphate

Yes

Yes

Presentation of data

Jar Deficient in A All elements (distilled water) B C D None macronutrients (knops solution) Nitrogen Phosphorus

Observation No growth Death of seedling Normal and healthy growth Stunted growth Yellowing of leaving Stunted growth Roots not well-developed Leaves dark green in colour with red spots Premature leaf fall-off Roots not well-developed

Sulphur

Potassium

Calcium

magnesium

Leaves pale in colour Yellowing of leaving Soft and tender stem Withering of leaf edges and tips Stunted growth Leaves with irregular shapes Death of apical buds Yellowish leaf edges Stunted growth Leaves pale and yellow Yellow spots

Conclusion

Plants need various macronutrients for a healthy growth. The hypothesis is accepted.

Number Title Aim Problem Statement Hypothesis Variables

Activity 6.11 (Experiment) Investigating the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis To investigate the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis How does light intensity affect the rate of photosynthesis? The higher the light intensity, the higher the rate of photosynthesis Manipulated variable: Distance between light source and plant Responding variable: Number of bubbles released in five minutes (rate of photosynthesis) Fixed variable: Type and size of plant, percentage of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and voltage of bulb

Material

A few sprigs of Hydrilla sp. 1% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution Plasticine Distilled water Light source (60 W bulb) 500 ml beaker Test tube Glass filter funnel Stopwatch Thermometer Meter rule Razor

Apparatus

Technique used Procedure

Count the number of gas bubbles released in five minute with a stopwatch
1. A piece of well-illuminated Hydrilla sp. about 10 cm long which already has bubbles emerging from it is choosen. A clean oblique cut with a sharp razor blade is made near the lower end of the stem, under water. One may have to cut the end of the stem several times until bubbles emerge rapidly. 2. The plant is placed, bubbling end upwards, in a test tube containing the same water that the pondweed has been kept in. 3. Sodium hydrogen carbonate solution is used for supply carbon diooxode to the plant. 4. The test tube is put to stand in a beaker of water to reduce temperature fluctuation during the experiment and the temperature is checked from time to time to make sure that it is room temperature (28oC). 5. A light source is placed 50 cm away facing the test tube. 6. The light source is powered on and observations were made. A one minute bubble count is made when the rate of bubbles given is constant. 7. The sodium hydrogen carbonate solution in the beaker is replaced with fresh solution. 8. Steps 5 to 6 are repeated by putting the bench lamp at different distances of 40 cm, 30 cm, 20 cm and 10 cm from the test tube. The results are recorded.

Presentation of data

Distance from the light source, d (cm) 10 20 30 40 50

Light intensity (1/d) 0.1 0.05 0.33 0.025 0.02

Number of gas bubbles released per minute 20 15 11 7 3

Conclusion The rate of photosynthesis increases with the increases in light intensity but is limited by the concentration of carbon dioxide. The hypothesis is accepted.

Number Title Aim Problem Statement Hypothesis Variables

Activity 7.2 (Experiment) Investigate the process of anaerobic respiration in yeast To investigate the process of anaerobic respiration in yeast What are the products of fermentation? In the absence of oxygen, yeast undergoes anaerobic respiration to produce carbon dioxide, ethanol and energy Manipulated variable: Presence of yeast Responding variable: Changes on lime water and temperature Fixed variable: Anaerobic condition

Material

5% yeast suspension 5% glucose solution Paraffin oil Lime water Boiling tubes Test tubes Thermometers Stoppers with delivery tubes Measuring cylinders Beaker Record and measure the changes in temperature with thermometers. Observe the change in lime water.

Apparatus

Technique used Procedure

1. Water is boiled for 15 minutes to removed all the dissolved oxygen. 2. Two boiling tubes are filled with the boiled water, and then they were allowed to cool to 25oC in sealed flasks (they are sealed to prevent oxygenation). 3. 5 ml of yeast suspension is poured into a boiling tube A and 15 ml of boiled glucose solution is added. 4. Boiling tube B is filled with 15 ml of boiled glucose solution only. 5. A thin layer of paraffin oil is added on the surface of the water in each of the boiling tubes (the water remains deoxygenated by preventing contact with air). 6. Each boiling tube is connected via a delivery tube to a test tube containing lime water. 7. The initial temperatures of the contents of the boiling tubes A and B are recorded. 8. The set-up is left for one hour. 9. After one hour, the final temperatures are recorded and the change in the appearance of the lime water is recorded. 10. The stoppers are removed and the gas that comes out of the boiling tubes is smelled. 11. The results are recorded in a table.

Presentation of data

Boiling tube Initial observation 27 Clear No smell

A Final observation 30 Milky Smell of ethanol Initial observation 27 Clear No smell

B Final observation 27 Clear No smell

Temperature (oC) Lime water Smell

Conclusion

Yeast produces carbon dioxide in the absence of oxygen and, therefore, yeast respires anaerobically. The hypothesis is accepted.

Title Aim Material

Constructing a model of the rib cage to demonstrate the actions of the intercostals muscles and ribs To construct a model of the rib cage to demonstrate the actions of the intercostals muscles and ribs Plywood Nails Rubber bands

Apparatus Technique used Procedure

Construct a model of the rib cage Study and demonstrate the actions of the intercostals muscles and ribs

1. The model is constructed.

Rib cage model Rubber band X Rubber band Y Plywood P Plywood Q Plywood R Plywood S

Human respiratory structures External intercostal muscles Internal intercostal muscles Breast bone/sternum Rib Rib Backbone

2. When each of the rubber band is contracted, the movement of the polywood pieces is observed and recorded.

Presentation of data

Procedure Rubber band X Rubber band Y

Observation Plywood P is pushed upwards Plywood P is pulled downwards

Conclusion

The activity of the intercostals muscles complements that of the diaphragm in the breathing mechanism.

Number Title Aim Problem Statement Hypothesis Variables

Activity 7.8 (Experiment) Studying the effects of vigorous exercise on the breathing and heartbeat rates To study the effects of vigorous exercise on the breathing and heartbeat rates What is the effect of vigorous exercise on the breathing and heartbeat rates? Vigorous exercise increases the breathing and heartbeat rates Manipulated variable: Resting or vigorous exercise Responding variable: Breathing rate and heartbeat rate Fixed variable: The type and duration of exercise, gender and age of the students

Material Apparatus Technique used Procedure

Stopwatch

Count and record the number of breaths per minute and the number of heartbeats per minute
1. The experiment is carried out in pairs with your partner sitting on a chair for 5 minutes. 2. The rate of breathing is measured by putting your palm on your partners rib cage for 1 minute. The value is recorded in a table. 3. The rate of heartbeat is measured by putting your fingers on your partners wrist. The value is recorded in the table. 4. Steps 2 to 3 are repeated twice. 5. Your partner is allowed to run around for 5 minutes. 6. Steps 2 to 4 are repeated.

Presentation of data

Rate Situation At rest After vigorous exercise

Breathing rate (breath per minute) 1 2 3 Average 14 13 15 14 32 31 30 31

Heartbeat rate (beat per minute) 1 2 3 Average 70 68 69 69 110 108 109 109

Conclusion Vigorous exercise will increase the rate of breathing and the rate of heartbeat. The hypothesis is accepted.

Number Title Aim Problem Statement Hypothesis Variables Material

Activity 7.9 (Experiment) Demonstrating the effects of cigarette smoke on lungs To show the effects of cigarette smoke on lungs What are the effects of cigarette smoke on lungs? Cigarette smoke corrodes the cotton wool to change colour and contains acidic gas. Cotton wool Universal indicator Cigarettes

Apparatus

U-tube Thermometer Boiling tube Retort stand and clamp Filter pump Rubber tubing

Technique used Procedure

Observe the effect of cigarette smoke on lungs and increases the temperature of the respiratory tract. Tobacco tar makes the lungs appear brownish.
1. The apparatus is set up. 2. The colour and smell of the cotton wool and the colour of universal indicator are observed and recorded. 3. The initial temperature of the air in the U-tube is measured using a thermometer and recorded. 4. The cigarette is lighted and the filter pump is switched on to draw smoke to the wet cotton wool and through the universal indicator. 5. The change in colour and smell of the cotton wool and the colour change of the universal indicator are observed as the cigarette burns until the end.

Presentation of data

Effects Colour and smell of cotton wool Colour of universal indicator Temperature of the air in the U-tube (oC)

Before Clear, white and no smell Green 28 (room temperature)

After Brown, very strong nicotine smell Yellow 33

Conclusion Cigarette smoke contains tar which change the colour of the lungs to brown and it also contains nitrogen dioxide which is acidic. The hypothesis is accepted.

Number Title Aim Problem Statement Hypothesis

Variables

Material

Apparatus

Technique used Procedure

Activity 8.3 (Experiment) Studying the intraspecific and interspecific competitions in plants To study the intraspecific and interspecific competitions in plants How do intraspecific and interspecific competitions affect the growth of maize and rice plants? Intraspecific competition occurs between plants of the same species. Interspecific competition occurs between plants of different species. / The greater the competition among the seedlings, the greater the effect on the height of the seedlings. Manipulated variable: Types of seedlings Responding variable: Dry mass of seedlings / Height of seedling Fixed variable: Quantity and types of garden soil, amount of water, intensity of sunlight, distance between each seedling and number of seedlings Three seedling trays (2 m x 1 m each) with garden soil A packet of maize seeds A packet of paddy seeds Distilled water Ruler Oven Compression balance Spade Waterproof paint Paintbrush Weight the dry mass of seedling with an electronic balance / Measure the height of seedling with a ruler 1. 2. 3. 4. Three seedling plots are prepared with each measuring 2m by 1m. The seeds are sowed with the distance of 5 cm between each seed. The seeds in each plot are watered daily and left to germinate and grow. After 30 days, 10 paddy plants are picked at random and removed from plot A. The plants are washed to remove the the soil from the roots. The plants are then dried in an oven at 100-104 degree Celcius to obtain the average dry mass. 5. Step 4 is repeated for plots B and C (10 paddy plants and 10 maize plants). Plot A B C Average dry mass of plants (g) Paddy Maize 23.5 29.7 22.8 32.6

Observation

Conclusion 1. The hypothesis is accepted. Paddy plants that grow together in plot A shows intraspecific competition where the stronger ones are growing well while the weaker plants are dying. 2. In plot B, the stronger maize plants survive and grow, showing intraspecific competition. 3. In plot C, the maize plants and the paddy plants show interspecific competition. The maize plants survive and win in the competition.

Number Title Aim Material Apparatus

Technique used Procedure

Activity 8.5 (Field study) Investigating the distribution of plants (Mimosa pudica) using the quadrat sampling technique To investigate the distribution of plants using the quadrat sampling technique String Nails A quadrat measuring 1 m x 1 m Pen Notebook Quadrat sampling technique 1. An area of study in the school field is selected. 2. Ten quadrats of 1 m 1 m are placed randomly in the school field with each quadrat subdivided into 100 small squares of 0.1 m 0.1 m each. 3. The number of Mimosa pudica in each quadrat is counted and recorded. 4. An area covered is counted as 1 square grid if the area covered is more than half the size of the square grid. The number of squares ia then multiplied by 0.01 m to get the total coverage in each quadrat. 5. The results are tabulated. The density, percentage frequency and percentage coverage of Mimosa pudica are calculated. Quadrat Area covered (m) Number of individual 1 2 0.3 0.4 5 7 3 1 0 4 5 6 7 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 2 3 2 1 8 0 0 9 10 0.4 0.3 6 4

Results

Density = 5+7+2+3+2+1+6+4 101 = 30 10 = 3 individuals per m Percentage frequency = 8 100 10 = 80% Percentage coverage = 0.3+ 0.4 + 0.1 + 0.2 + 0.2 + 0.1 + 0.4 0.3 100 101 = 2 100 10 = 20% Conclusion 1. The density of Mimosa pudica is 3 individuals per m. 2. The percentage frequency of Mimosa pudica is 80%. 3. The percentage coverage of Mimosa pudica is 20%.

Title Aim / Objective of the Study Material Apparatus

Estimating the population size of garden snails using capture, mark, release and recapture technique To estimate the population size of garden snails using capture, mark, release and recapture technique

A bottle of Indian ink / A non-poisonous and waterproof ink

Technique used Procedure

Hammer Paintbrush Pen Notebook Capture, mark, release and recapture technique 1. An area in the field was chosen as the place for the field study. 2. A large number of garden snails were caught in the first sample and the number was recorded as x. 3. Each garden snail that was caught and marked on its shell using India ink. 4. All the garden that were caught and marked were then set free. 5. After 3 days, the garden snails were caught again at random in the same place for field study. The number of garden snails caught in the second sample was recorded as y. 6. From the second sample caught, the number of garden snails that were marked were counted and recorded as z. 7. The population size of garden snails was estimated by using the following formula: X = number caught in the first sample Y = number caught in the second sample Z = number marked in the second sample Population size = xy z

Result Number of garden snails Number caught in first sample x Number caught in the second sample Number caught y Number marked z xy z Estimated population

Steps to increase the accuracy of the experiment 1. Each sample must be caught at random. 2. Number in each sample must be large. 3. The marking on each garden snail should Not be dangerous/poisonous Be waterproof Not hinder the movement of the animal Not course the snail easily detected by the predator Conclusion The population size of garden snails is estimated by using the capture-mark-release and recapture method.

Activity 8.7 (Experiment) Studying the relationship of population distribution of an organism with the changes of an abiotic factor To study the relationship of population distribution of an organism with the Aim changes of an abiotic factor Introduction Pleurococcus sp. is a unicellular green alga found on the bark of trees. The population distribution of Pleurococcus sp.is affected by abiotic factors such as humidity, temperature, light intensity and aspect. Objective of To investigate the effect of light intensity on the population distribution of Pleurococcus sp. in its habitat. the Study What is the effect of light intensity on the population distribution of Problem Pleurococcus sp.? Statement The population distribution of Pleurococcus sp. is highest when there is Hypothesis optimum light intensity Manipulated variable: Light intensity Variables Responding variable: Total surface are covered by Pleurococcus sp. Fixed variable: Temperature, pH and humidity Number Title Material

Paper Pen Notebook Quadrat measuring 10 cm x 10 cm A compass

Apparatus

Technique used Procedure

Quadrat sampling (estimate the total surface area covered by Pleurococcus sp.) 1. A tree with pleurococcus sp. On its bark is identified. 2. Five quadrat of size 10 cm 10 cm are used and each quadrat is labelled as P,Q,R,S and T. 3. The quadrats are placed at the different aspects of the tree trunk: a) Quadrat P on the tree trunk facing North (N) b) Quadrat Q on the tree trunk facing North East (NE) c) Quadrat R on the tree trunk facing South (S) d) Quadrat S on the tree trunk facing West (W) e) Quadrat T on the tree trunk facing East (E) 4. The total surface area covered by Pleurococcus sp. at different aspects is counted and recorded. Only squares which are covered by half or more than half are counted. 5. A bar chart of the population of Pleurococcus sp. and the quadrats is drawn.

Results Aspect North North East South West East Total surface covered by Pleurococcus sp. (cm) 31 48 16 22 25

Total surface covered by Pleurococcus sp. (cm) against position of quadrat on the tree
100 50 0 North North South West East East Total surface covered by Pleurococcus sp. (cm) against position of quadrat on the tree trunk

Conclusion

The population distribution of Pleurococcus sp. is higher when light intensity is optimum for the growth of Pleurococcus sp. the hypothesis is accepted.

Activity 8.11 (Experiment) Studying the effects of temperature, pH, light intensity and nutrients on the activity of yeast To study the effects of temperature, pH, light intensity and nutrients on Aim the activity of yeast. Objective of the A) To study the effect of temperature on the activity of yeast. Study What is the effect of temperature on the activity of yeast? Problem Statement The activity of yeast is optimal at 37C Hypothesis Manipulated variable: Temperature of the water bath Variables Responding variable: Height of the coloured liquid in the manometer Fixed variable: Volume of yeast suspension, pH, light intensity and time taken for the activity of yeast 3 Yeast suspension (4 g of yeast in 100 cm of glucose solution) Material Coloured liquid Ice cubes Boiling tubes Apparatus Beakers Measuring cylinders Glass tubes Thermometers Clips Rubber stoppers Rubber tubing Manometer tubes Strings Ruler Stopwatch Water bath (Bunsen burner, tripod stand and wire gauze) Technique used Measure and record the different heights of coloured liquid in the manometer with a ruler. 1. Three boiling tubes are labelled as A,B and C. Procedure 2. 10 ml of yeast suspension and 10 ml of glucose solution are poured into each boiling tube. 3. The apparatus is set up. 4. The condition of the lime water is observed after 10 minutes. Number Title Observations Boiling tube A B C Temperature 10 35 70 Condition of lime water Clear Cloudy Clear

Conclusion

The activity of yeast is at optimum level at 35C. The hypothesis is accepted.

Objective of the Study Problem Statement Hypothesis Variables

B) To study the effect of pH on the activity of yeast. How does pH affect the activity of yeast? / What is the effect of different pH values in the activity of yeast? The activity of yeast is optimum in an acidic medium. Manipulated variable: pH Responding variable: Height of the coloured liquid in the manometer Fixed variable: Volume of yeast suspension, light intensity, temperature and time taken 3 Yeast suspension (4 g of yeast in 100 cm of glucose solution) -3 0.1 mol dm hydrochloric acid -3 0.01 mol dm hydrochloric acid -3 0.1 mol dm sodium hydroxide solutions -3 0.01 mol dm sodium hydroxide solutions Coloured liquid pH paper distilled water Boiling tubes Beakers Measuring cylinders Glass tubes Clips Rubber stoppers Rubber tubing Manometer tubes Strings Ruler Stopwatch Retort stand Measure and record the different heights of coloured liquid in the manometer with a ruler.

Material

Apparatus

Technique used

Procedure

1. The boiling tubes are labelled A, B and C. 2. The following contents are added to boiling tubes A, B and C respectively. Contents 10 ml of yeast suspension, 10 ml of glucose solution, 2 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid. B 10 ml of yeast suspension, 10 ml of glucose solution, 2 ml of sodium hydroxide solution. C 10 ml of yeast suspension, 10 ml of glucose solution, 2 ml of distilled water. 3. The contents of each boiling tube are shaken and the pH value is determined using pH paper. 4. The apparatus is set up. 5. The condition of the lime water is observed after 10 minutes. The activity of yeast is at optimum level in an acidic medium. The hypothesis is accepted. Boiling tube A

Conclusion

Objective of the Study Problem Statement Hypothesis Variables

C) To study the effect of light intensity on the activity of yeast. How does the intensity of light affect the activity of yeast? / What is the effect of light intensity on the activity of yeast? The activity of yeast is higher at a lower intensity of light. / The lower the light intensity, the higher the activity of yeast. Manipulated variable: Intensity of light Responding variable: Height of coloured liquid in the manometer Fixed variable: Volume of yeast suspension, pH, temperature and time taken 3 Yeast suspension (4 g of yeast in 100 cm of glucose solution) Coloured liquid Light bulb (60W) Boiling tubes Beakers Measuring cylinders Glass tubes Clips Rubber stoppers Rubber tubing Manometer tubes Strings Ruler Stopwatch Retort stand Measure and record the different heights of coloured liquid in the manometer with a ruler. 1. Five boling tubes are labelled as A, B, C, D, and E. 2. 10 ml of yeast suspension and 10 ml of glucose solution are put into each boiling tube. 3. Five sets of apparatus are set up. 4. A light source is set up at a distance of 10 cm from set A, 20 cm from set B, 30 cm from set C, 40 cm from set D and 50 cm from set E. 5. The time taken for the lime water to turn cloudy is recorded. Boiling tube A B C D E Distance from light source (cm) 10 20 30 40 50 Light intensity ( 1distance) 0.100 0.050 0.033 0.025 0.20 Time taken for lime water to turn cloudy (minutes) 12 9 5 3 2

Material Apparatus

Technique used Procedure

Results

Conclusion

The activity of yeast increases when light intensity decreases. The hypothesis is accepted.

Objective of the Study Problem Statement Hypothesis Variables

D) To study the effect of nutrients on the activity of yeast. How do nutrients affect the activity of yeast? / What is the effect of nutrients on the activity of yeast? The concentration of nutrients affects the activity of yeast. / The higher the concentration of nutrients, the higher the activity of yeast. Manipulated variable: Concentration of nutrients Responding variable: Height of coloured liquid in the manometer Fixed variable: Volume of yeast suspension, pH, light intensity and temperature Dry yeast 5% glucose solution 10% glucose solution 15% glucose solution Distilled water Boiling tubes Beakers Measuring cylinders Glass tubes Clips Rubber stoppers Rubber tubing Manometer tubes Strings Stopwatch Retort stand Measure and record the different heights of coloured liquid in the manometer with a ruler. 1. Five boiling tubes are labelled as A, B, C, D and E. 2. Each boiling tube is filled as given below. Boiling tube A B Contents

Material

Apparatus

Technique used Procedure

10 ml of yeast suspension + 10 ml of distilled water 10 ml of yeast suspension + 10 ml of 5% glucose solution 10 ml of yeast suspension + 10 ml of 10% glucose C solution 10 ml of yeast suspension + 10 ml of 15% glucose D solution 10 ml of yeast suspension + 10 ml of 20% glucose E solution 3. The apparatus is set up. 4. Each boiling tube is placed in a water bath at temperature 35C. 5. The time taken for the lime water to turn cloudy is recorded.

Results Boiling tube A B C D E Conclusion Concentration of glucose 0 5 10 15 20 Time taken for lime water to turn cloudy (minutes) Remains clear 7 5 3 2

When the concentration of nutrients increases, the activity of yeast increases. The hypothesis is accepted.

Number Title Aim / Objective of the Study Problem Statement Hypothesis

Activity 9.1 (Experiment) Comparing solid pollutants in the air of different environments To compare solid pollutants in the air of different environments

Does the air of different environments contain the same amount of solid pollutants? The air of different environments does not contain the same amount of solid pollutants. / The air from the most polluted environment has the highest amount of solid pollutants. Manipulated variable: Air from different environments Responding variable: Amount of solid pollutants present Fixed variable: Time and size of cellophane tape

Variables

Material Apparatus

Cellophane tape Slides Petri dish Microscope

Technique used Procedure

Observe the amounts of solid pollutants with a microscope 1. 2. 3. 4.

Five glass slides are cleaned, dried and labelled as P, Q, R, S and T. A piece of cellophane tape is sticked on each slide as shown in figure 9.6. Slide P is kept in a covered Petri dish. The other slides are put in the following places. Q : in a classroom R : in the canteen S : in an air-conditioner room T : Tied to the school gate 5. All the slides are left aside and collected after three days. They are observed under a microscope. The area in an air-conditioned room is the least polluted. The area around the school Conclusion gate is the most pollute as it shows the most pollutants. The hypothesis is accepted.

Number Pg. Title Aim / Objective of the Study

Problem Statement Hypothesis The water sample from the housing area drainage is the most polluted. Manipulated variable: water samples from different sources. Variables Responding variable: Time taken for methylene blue solution to decolourise Fixed variable: Volume of water sample, size of reagent bottles, concentration and volume of methylene blue solution Methylene blue solution Material Water samples Distilled water Apparatus Reagent bottles (250 ml) with stoppers Beakers Syringes Stopwatch Technique Measure and record the time taken for the methylene blue solution to decolourise by using a stopwatch used

Activity 9.2 (Experiment) 128 Investigating the level of pollution in several different sources of water To investigate the level of pollution in several different sources of water. Industrial area Housing area From the hill / river Distilled water (control) What is the level of pollution in several different sources of water?

Procedure

1. Four samples of water are collected from four different sources. Four reagent bottles are labelled as P, Q, R and S. 2. Each reagent bottle is filled with one water sample. Bottle Water sample P Distilled water Q From the hill R Industrial area S Housing area 1 ml of 0.1% methylene blue solution is added to each of the water samples using a syringe. Each reagent bottle is closed immediately. CAUTION: DO NOT SHAKE THE BOTTLE. All the bottles are placed in a dark area. The changed in the colour is checked every one hour. The time taken for the methylene blue solution to decolourise is recorded for all the water samples. The results are recorded in a table.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Results

Water Time taken for methylene blue solution to sample decolourise (hour) Distilled (blue colour remains) water From the hill 8 Industrial 4 area Housing area 3 Conclusion The metyhlene blue solution took the shortest time to decolourise in the watyer sample from the river near the housing area. The water from this river is the most polluted. Hypothesis is accepted.