Você está na página 1de 43

COMPRESSOR EMISSIONS TECHNOLOGY REVIEW

GMRC Engine Analyzer & Reliability Workshop Nashville, TN July 27-29, 2011
Craig Martin

Applications Engineering Supervisor

Aleksey Dubrovensky
Project Engineer

Potential Leak Points


Valve Unloader Packing Packing Case Vent Distance Piece Vent/Drain Packing Case Nose Gasket Outer Head Gasket Valve Cover Gasket

Oil Wiper Packing Between Packing Case Cups

+
LEAKAGE AT FRAME BREATHER LEAKAGE AT SECONDARY DISTANCE PIECE VENT

+
LEAKAGE AT DISTANCE PIECE DRAIN

+
LEAKAGE AT DISTANCE PIECE VENT

+
LEAKAGE AT PACKING CASE

+
LEAKAGE AT VALVE UNLOADER PACKING

TOTAL LEAKAGE

Packing Leakage Factors

SECONDARY DISTANCE PIECE DRAIN

Failure to account for emissions escaping into the distance piece may result in underestimation of packing related emissions by up to 40%.
- U.S. EPA Natural Gas STAR Reducing Methane Emissions From Compressor Rod
Packing Systems, July 2003

New Emissions Regulations


EPA: Best Available Measurement Methods must be used to measure all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
Required by July 31st or September 30th, 2011
Petroleum & Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse Reporting Rule: Subpart W (40 CFR Parts 98)

EPA defines GHG as any gas that absorbs infrared 1 radiation


Water vapor CH4 N2O CFCs SF6 CO2 HCFCs HFCs PFCs

Source: EPA Climate Change Directory http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/index.html

Forces Driving Emissions Reductions


New emissions regulations
Currently limited to emissions measurement Possibly future cap-and-trade restrictions on emissions

Economics
Lost production is very costly Payback on upgrades typically less than one year

Reliability
Increase lifecycle of equipment Operating efficiency becoming a competitive necessity

Emissions Management
Vapor Recovery System
Channel emissions back to a controlled source Can be expensive and complicated

Modify Existing Packing Case to Reduce Leakage


WAT ring used to restrict gas flow into the vent
Field testing confirms low leakage Additional frictional heat loading on piston rod Application temperatures should be reviewed Low-Friction Seal Technology

Low Leak Packing Technology


Possibly able to utilize existing cases Documented results from years of field applications

Vent Rings
WAT Ring
Side-loaded ring, single-acting Seals well at low pressures

Traditional Packing Seal Rings


Basic functionality of a single-acting seal ring:
During discharge stroke, high pressure gas enters packing case Pressure loads ring against sealing surfaces

Standard Pressure Packing


Traditional setup Several seal rings Standard vent seal Outdated design

Low Leak Packing Technology


More effective seals Fewer rings required Years of documented field results
Near-zero leakage Longer packing life

Seal Rings

Seal Rings

Seal Rings

Seal Rings

Piston Rod Temperature


350

Conventional Packing
300 ROD TEMPERATURE ~ F

250

200

Low Leak Technology


150

100 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 DISCHARGE PRESSURE ~ PSI

Vent Rings
WAT Ring
Side-loaded ring, single-acting Seals well at low pressures

Vent Seal Rings


Vent Seal Ring Upstream of Vent

Typical Low Leak Packing Design

Vent-Seal Ring Upstream of Vent Cup

Piston Rod Temperature:

400
Temperature (F)

300 Test 1 200 100 0 Test 2 Test 3

Standard Packing

Vent Seal Ring Upstream of Vent Cup

Low-Friction Seal Technology


Restricts gas flow into the vent Reduced frictional heat on piston rod
Friction causes increased piston rod temperatures
Increased leakage rates Decreased packing lifespan

Controls leakage in standby mode Confirmed field and lab results

FIELD DATA

Static cylinders can result in significant leakage

Cylinder 1 8.93 SCFM $38,675 / yr (based on $8 / decatherm)

Low Leak

Std. Bronze

Low Leak

* Year based on 8,760 run hours

It is possible to obtain low rates (~0.1 SCFM) in running conditions.

Leak rates are below 0.1 SCFM

Low Leak

Std. Bronze

Low Leak

* Year based on 8,760 run hours

A small number of cylinders can cause a large amount of the total leakage.

96% of the total packing leakage comes from Cylinder 1 24 SCFM - ~$100K / yr!

Distance Piece leakage can contribute a significant amount to the total leakage.

23% of the total leakage is coming from the distance piece vent

Unknown packing and Low Leak packing maintained low leak rates. Standard bronze packing has developed a moderate leak at 12,900 hours.
Std.

Low Leak =

Low Leak =

Cumulative Leakage Comparison


The area under the curve represents the total leakage throughout the life of the packing

Standard Packing Seal Rings STANDARD Upgraded Packing Case Low Leak Technology

Cumulative Leakage Comparison


The area under the curve represents the total leakage throughout the life of the packing

Standard Packing Seal Rings Upgraded Packing Case STANDARD Low Leak Technology

Cumulative Leakage Comparison


The area under the curve represents the total leakage throughout the life of the packing

Justification for Packing Replacement

Standard Packing Seal Rings Upgraded Packing Case STANDARD Low Leak Technology

Best Practices
Packing case maintenance
Upgrade nose gasket to a spiral wound gasket Replace existing BD vent rings to a WAT Lap cups
4 light bands flatness

Verify parallelism of cup faces


Within .001

Verify cup depths & ring clearances Verify rod surface finish
8-12 Ra for induction-hardened rod 6-8 Ra for TC-coated or nitrided rod

Verify packing case alignment Ensure proper bolt tightening procedures

CASE STUDIES

Case Study I
Measured packing vent flow
Two identical H2 machines
Five-throw Worthington BDCs

Utilized thermal mass flow meter to gather emissions data

Provided options for emissions measurement


Permanent installation Portable installation

Results

Case Study II
24 cylinders Standard packing Measured packing vent leakage on-site Changed all cases over to Low Leak technology Measured leakage after upgrades
Below measurable range of flow meter
<0.01 SCFM per cylinder

Payback less than 6 months

Measured Losses of $50,000 per year in Lost Potential Revenue

Leakage Comparison (SCFM)


3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0

Leakage <0.01 SCFM

Low Leak

Standard

OTHER EMISSIONS SOURCES

Dresser Rand KVR Unloader

Upgrade to Seal Cartridge


Indicator Pin

Before
Air Cylinder Actuator Rod

After

Rope Packing

Seal Cartridge

Plug

Compressor Valve Unloader & Actuator

Jack Bolt Style Retainers


Poor sealing around the jack bolt results in fugitive emissions, which can be hazardous to people and the environment

Potential Leak

High Strength Retainer


Replace the single jam nut with a multiple jam nut design O-ring around the cage jack bolt provide superior sealing

Thank You!