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# PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

## PHYSICS CHAPTER 6 Learning Outcome:

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physic s
6.1 Magnetic field (1 hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Define magnetic field. Identify magnetic field sources. Sketch the magnetic field lines.

## PHYSICS 6.1 Magnetic field

CHAPTER 6

is defined as a region around a magnet where a magnetic force can be experienced. experienced A stationary electric charge is surrounded by an electric field only. only When an electric charge moves, it is surrounded by an moves electric field and a magnetic field. The motion of the electric field charge produces the magnetic field. field Magnetic field has two poles, called north (N) and south (S). (S) This magnetic poles are always found in pairs whereas a single magnetic pole has never been found. Like poles (N-N or S-S) repel each other. Opposite poles (N-S) attract each other.

PHYSICS
6.1.1 Magnetic field lines

CHAPTER 6

Magnetic field lines are used to represent a magnetic field. By convention, magnetic field lines leave the north pole and enters the south pole of a magnet. Magnetic field lines can be represented by straight lines or curves. The tangent to a curved field line at a point indicates the direction of the magnetic field at that point as shown in Figure 6.1. P Figure 6.1

## direction of magnetic field at point P.

Magnetic field can be represented by crosses or by dotted circles as shown in Figures 6.2a and 6.2b.
X X X X X X

X X

Figure 6.2a : magnetic field lines Figure 6.2b : magnetic field lines enter the page perpendicularly leave the page perpendicularly 4

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

A uniform field is represented by parallel lines of force. This force means that the number of lines passing perpendicularly through unit area at all cross-sections in a magnetic field are the same as shown in Figure 6.3.

## unit cross-sectional area

Figure 6.3 A non-uniform field is represented by non-parallel lines. The number of magnetic field lines varies at different unit crosssections as shown in Figure 6.4.
5

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

A1
stronger field in A1

A2

weaker field in A2

Figure 6.4

The number of lines per unit cross-sectional area is proportional to the magnitude of the magnetic field. field Magnetic field lines do not intersect one another.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

## 6.1.2 Magnetic field lines pattern

The pattern of the magnetic field lines can be determined by using two methods. compass needles (shown in Figure 6.5)

Figure 6.5: plotting a magnetic field line of a bar magnetic. sprinkling iron filings on paper (shown in Figure 6.6).

Figure 6.6: thin iron filing indicate the magnetic field lines. 7

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

Figures 6.7 shows the various pattern of magnetic field lines around the magnets. a. Bar magnet

Figure 6.7b

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

## Figure 6.7c d. Two bar magnets (like poles) - repulsive poles

Neutral point (point where Figure 6.7d the resultant magnetic force is zero). zero
9

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

## 6.1.3 Earths magnetic field

The Earths magnetic field is like that of a giant bar magnet as illustrated in Figure 6.8 with a pole near each geographic pole of the Earth. The magnetic poles are tilted away from the rotational axis by an angle of 11.5. Since the north pole of a compass needle (Figure 6.8) points toward the north magnetic pole of the Earth, and since opposite attract, it follows that the north geographical pole of the Earth is actually near the south pole of the Earths magnetic field. field

Figure 6.8

Figure 6.8 also shows that the field lines are essentially horizontal (parallel to the Earths surface) near the equator but enter or leave the Earth vertically near the poles. 10 poles

PHYSICS
6.1.4

CHAPTER 6
Magnetization of a Soft Iron

Using the permanent magnet One permanent magnet A permanent magnet is bring near to the soft iron and touching the surface of the soft iron by following the path in the Figure 6.9.

Figure 6.9

This method is called induced magnetization. magnetization The arrows in the soft iron represent the magnetization direction with the arrowhead being the north pole and arrow tail being the south pole. It is also known as domains ( the tiny magnetized region because of spin magnetic 11 moment of the electron). electron

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

In an unmagnetized piece of soft iron, these domains are arranged randomly but it is aligned in one direction when the soft iron becomes magnetized. The soft iron becomes a temporary magnet with its south pole facing the north pole of the permanent magnet and vice versa as shown in Figure 6.9. Two permanent magnets Bring and touch the first magnet to one end of the soft iron and another end with the second magnet as shown in Figure 6.10.

NN
Figure 6.10

S
12

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

Using the electrical circuit A soft iron is placed inside a solenoid (a long coil of wire consisting of many loops of wire) that is connected to the power supply as shown in Figure 6.11.

N
I
Current anticlockwise Switch, S

S
I
Current - clockwise

Figure 6.11 When the switch S is closed, the current I flows in the solenoid and produces magnetic field. The directions of the fields associated with the solenoid can be found by viewing the current flows in the solenoid from both end or applying the right hand grip rule as shown in Figure 13 6.11.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

Other examples:

S
I Note: Thumb north pole

N S
I I

N
I

Other fingers direction of current Figure 6.12a Figure 6.12b in solenoid. solenoid If you drop a permanent magnet on the floor or strike it with a hammer, you may jar the domains into randomness. The randomness magnet can thus lose some or all of its magnetism. Heating a magnet too can cause a loss of magnetism. The permanent magnet also can be demagnetized by placing it inside a solenoid that connected to an alternating source. source
14

PHYSICS
6.1.5

CHAPTER 6
Magnetic flux density, B

is defined as the magnetic flux per unit area across an area at right angles to the magnetic field. field Mathematically,

B= A

(6.1)

where

## : magnetic flux A : area at right angles to the magnetic field

It also known as magnetic induction (magnetic field intensity OR strength) strength It is a vector quantity and its direction follows the direction of the magnetic field. field Its unit is tesla (T) OR weber per metre squared (Wb m2). Unit conversion :

1 T = 1 Wb m 2 = 10 4 gauss(G )

15

PHYSICS
Example 1 :

CHAPTER 6

The direction of any magnetic field is taken to be in the direction that an Earth-calibrated compass points. Explain why this mean that magnetic field lines must leave from the north pole of a permanent bar magnet and enter its south pole. Solution : Near the north pole of a permanent bar magnet, the north pole of a compass will point away from the bar magnet so the field lines leave the north pole. Near the south pole of a permanent bar magnet, the north pole of a compass will point toward the bar magnet so the field lines enter the south pole.

16

PHYSICS
Exercise 6.1 :
1.

CHAPTER 6
Sketch the magnetic field lines pattern around the bar magnets for following cases. a.

b.

17

## PHYSICS CHAPTER 6 Learning Outcome:

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physic s
6.2 Magnetic produced by current-carrying conductor (1 hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Apply magnetic field formula for a long straight wire,

0 I B= 2r

0 I B= 2R

for a solenoid.

B = 0 nI

18

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

## 6.2 Magnetic field produced by current carrying conductor

When a current flows in a conductor wire or coil, the coil magnetic field will be produced. produced The direction of magnetic field around the wire or coil can be determined by using the right hand grip rule as shown in Figure 6.13.

Note: Thumb direction of current Other fingers direction of magnetic field (clockwise OR anticlockwise) anticlockwise Figure 6.13
19

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

## 6.2.1 Magnetic field of a long straight conductor (wire) carrying current

The magnetic field lines pattern around a straight conductor carrying current is shown in Figures 6.14 and 6.15.

B
OR

B
I
Figure 6.14

B
Current out of the page
20

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

B
I
Figure 6.15

OR

XI

B
X Current into the page

Consider a straight conductor (wire) carrying a current I is placed in vacuum as shown in Figure 6.16.

21

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

r
I

XB
P into the page (paper)

Figure 6.16

The magnitude of magnetic flux density (magnetic field intensity), B at point P at distance r from the wire carrying current is given by

0 I B= 2r

(6.2)

## T m A 1 r : distance of a point from a straight conductor (wire)

22

PHYSICS
6.2.2

CHAPTER 6
Magnetic field of a circular coil

The magnetic field lines pattern around a circular coil carrying current is shown in Figures 6.17.

N S
I
Figure 6.17 OR

N
X

S
23

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

Consider a circular shaped conductor with radius R that carries a current I as shown in Figure 6.18.

The magnitude of magnetic field intensity B at point O (centre of the circular coil or loop) , is loop given by

R
O where

0 NI B= 2R

(6.3)

Figure 6.18

0 : permeability of free space R : radius of the circular coil N : number of coils (loops) I : current
24

PHYSICS
6.2.3

CHAPTER 6
Magnetic field of a solenoid

A solenoid is an electrical device in which a long wire has been wound into a succession of closely spaced loops with geometry of a helix. helix The magnetic field lines pattern around a solenoid carrying current is shown in Figure 6.19.

N
I
Figure 6.19

S
I

25

PHYSICS
OR

CHAPTER 6

XI

XI

XI

XI

N
I I I I

26

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

The magnitude of magnetic field intensity at the centre (mid-point/ inside) of N turn solenoid is given by

0 NI B= l
N =n and l

B = 0 nI

(6.4)

The magnitude of magnetic field intensity at the end of N turn solenoid is given by

1 B = 0 nI 2
where n : number of

(6.5)

## turns per unit length

27

PHYSICS
Example 2 :

CHAPTER 6

Two long straight wires are placed parallel to each other and carrying the same current I. Sketch the magnetic field lines pattern around both wires a. when the currents are in the same direction. b. when the currents are in opposite direction. Solution : a.

I
28

PHYSICS
Solution : a. OR

CHAPTER 6

29

PHYSICS
Solution : b.

CHAPTER 6
I

I
OR

XI

30

PHYSICS
Example 3 :

CHAPTER 6

A long wire (X) carrying a current of 50 A is placed parallel to and 5.0 cm away from a similar wire (Y) carrying a current of 10 A. a. Determine the magnitude and direction of the magnetic flux density at a point midway between the wires : i. when the current are in the same direction. ii. when they are in opposite direction. b. When the currents are in the same direction there is a point somewhere between X and Y at which the magnetic flux density is zero. How far from X is this point ? (Given 0 = 4 107 H m1)

31

PHYSICS
Solution : I X a. i.
X

CHAPTER 6
= 50 A; d = 5.0 10 2 m; I Y = 10 A d BX B

rX BY
IX

A r Y

OR

IX

rX

rY

BY

IY

IY

d rX = rY = = 2.5 10 2 m 2

By using the equation of magnetic field at any point near the straight wire, then at point A Magnitude of BX :

0 I X BX = 2rX

BX

## Direction : into the page OR upwards

BX = 4.0 10 4 T

( 4 10 )50 = 2 ( 2.5 10 )
7 2
32

PHYSICS
Solution : I X

CHAPTER 6

## = 50 A; d = 5.0 10 2 m; I Y = 10 A a. i. Magnitude of BY : 0 I Y 4 10 7 10 BY = BY = 2rY 2 2.5 10 2 BY = 8.0 10 5 T

Direction : out of page OR downwards Therefore the total magnetic flux density at point A is

BA = BX + BY

BA = BX + BY

## Direction : into the page OR upwards

33

PHYSICS
Solution : I X a. ii.

CHAPTER 6
= 50 A; d = 5.0 10 2 m; I Y = 10 A d BX B

rX

X BY A r Y

OR

IX

BY A rY rX

IY

IX

IY

By using the equation of magnetic field at any point near the straight wire, then at point A Magnitude of BX :

BX

( 4 10 )50 = 2 ( 2.5 10 )
7 2

BX = 4.0 10 4 T
Direction : into the page OR upwards 34

PHYSICS
Solution : I X

CHAPTER 6

## = 50 A; d = 5.0 10 2 m; I Y = 10 A a. ii. Magnitude of BY : 4 10 7 10 BY = 2 2.5 10 2 BY = 8.0 10 5 T

Direction : into the page OR upwards Therefore the resultant magnetic flux density at point A is

BA = BX + BY

BA = BX BY

## Direction : into the page OR upwards

35

PHYSICS
Solution : I X b.

CHAPTER 6
= 50 A; d = 5.0 10 2 m; I Y = 10 A d BX B
X

rX

BY

rY

OR

IX

rX

rY

IX
BC = BX + BY 0 = BX + BY

IY

rX = r rY = d r

BY

IY

## Since the resultant magnetic flux density at point C is zero thus

BX = BY where BX =

0 I X 2rX

and

0 I Y BY = 2rY
36

PHYSICS
Solution : I X b.

CHAPTER 6
= 50 A; d = 5.0 10 2 m; I Y = 10 A

## 0 I X 0 I Y = 2rX 2rY IX IY = r (d r) 50 10 = r 5.0 10 2 r

r = 4.2 10 2 m

37

PHYSICS
Example 4 :

CHAPTER 6

Two long straight wires are oriented perpendicular to the page as shown in Figure 6.20.

The current in one wire is I1Figure 6.20 = 3.0 A pointing into the page and the current in the other wire is I2= 4.0 A pointing out of page. Determine the magnitude and direction of the nett magnetic field intensity at point P. (Given 0 = 4 107 H m1)
38

PHYSICS
Solution :

CHAPTER 6
I1 = 3.0 A; I 2 = 4.0 A; r1 = 5.0 10 2 m

P
B2

B1
r2

r2 =

(5.0 10 ) + (5.0 10 )
2 2

2 2

r2 = 7.1 10 2 m r1 5.0 10 2 cos = = r2 7.1 10 2 cos = 0.704 5.0 10 2 sin = = 0.704 2 7.1 10

r1

I1 X 5.0 10 2 m

I2

By applying the equation of magnetic field intensity for straight wire, thus I 4 10 7 3.0

B1 =

0 1

2r1

B1

( =

2 5.0 10 2

B1 = 1.20 10 5 T

39

PHYSICS
Solution : and

CHAPTER 6
I1 = 3.0 A; I 2 = 4.0 A; r1 = 5.0 10 2 m

0 I 2 B2 = 2r2

B2

B2 = 1.13 10 5 T

( 4 10 )4.0 = 2 ( 7.1 10 )
7 2

Vector

x-component (T)

y-component (T)

B1 B2

## B1 = 1.20 10 5 B2 cos = 1.13 10 5 ( 0.704 )

0
B2 sin = 1.13 10 5 ( 0.704 )

## = 7.96 10 6 = 7.96 10 6 6 Bx = 1.20 10 5 7.96 10 6 B y = 0 7.96 10 Vector

sum

= 4.04 10

= 7.96 10 6
40

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6
2

Solution : I1 = 3.0 A; I 2 = 4.0 A; r1 = 5.0 10 m Therefore the magnitude of the nett magnetic field intensity at point P is given by

B = Bx + B y =

( 4.04 10 ) + ( 7.96 10 )
6 2

6 2

B = 8.93 10 6 T
and its direction is

B1
63.1 B

B2

= 63.1

## (297 from +x-axis anticlockwise) OR

41

PHYSICS
Example 5 :

CHAPTER 6

a. A closely wound circular coil of diameter 10 cm has 500 turns and carries a current of 2.5 A. Determine the magnitude of the magnetic field at the centre of the coil. b. A solenoid of length 1.5 m and 2.6 cm in diameter carries a current of 18 A. The magnetic field inside the solenoid is 2.3 mT. Calculate the length of the wire forming the solenoid. (Given 0 = 4 107 T m A1) Solution : 10 10 2 a. Given R =

## = 5.0 10 2 m; N = 500; I = 2.5 A

By applying the equation for magnitude of the magnetic field at the centre of the circular coil, thus

0 NI B= 2R

## ( 4 10 )( 500) 2.5 B= 2(5.0 10 )

7 2

B = 1.57 10 2 T

42

PHYSICS
Solution : b. Given l = 1.5 m; r

CHAPTER 6
I = 18 A

## 2.6 10 2 = = 1.3 10 2 m; Bi = 2.3 10 3 T; 2

By applying the equation of magnetic flux density inside the solenoid, thus 7

0 NI Bi = l

2.3 10

1 .5 N = 153 turns

( 4 10 ) N (18) =
(

Since the shaped for each coil in the solenoid is circle, then the

## L = 153 8.17 10 2 L = 12.5 m

43

PHYSICS
Exercise 6.2 :
Given 1.
0

CHAPTER 6
= 4 107 T m A1

10.0 cm
P1
5.0 cm

P2

15.0 cm

5.00 A

Figure 6.21

5.00 A

The two wires shown in Figure 6.21 carry currents of 5.00 A in opposite directions and are separated by 10.0 cm. a. Sketch the magnetic field lines pattern around both wires. b. Determine the nett magnetic flux density at points P1 and P2. ANS. : 1.33 105 T, out of page; 2.67 106 T, out of page
44

PHYSICS
Exercise 6.2 :
2.
X

CHAPTER 6
X

Figure 6.22 Four long, parallel power wires each carry 100 A current. A cross sectional diagram for this wires is a square, 20.0 cm on each side as shown in Figure 6.22. a. Sketch the magnetic field lines pattern on the diagram. b. Determine the magnetic flux density at the centre of the square. ANS. : 4.0 104 T , to the left (180)
45

## PHYSICS CHAPTER 6 Learning Outcome:

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physic s
6.3 Force on a moving charged particle in a uniform magnetic field (1 hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Use formulae:

F =q v B

Describe circular motion of a charge in a uniform magnetic field. Use relationship FB = FC.

46

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

## 6.3 Force on a moving charged particle in a uniform magnetic field

6.3.1 Magnetic force

A stationary electric charge in a magnetic field will not experience a magnetic force. But if the charge is moving with force a velocity, v in a magnetic field, B then it will experience a magnetic force. force The magnitude of the magnetic force can be calculated by using the following equation:

F = qvB sin
where F : magnetic force

(6.6)

B : magnetic flux density v : velocity of a charge q : magnitude of the charge : angle between v and B

47

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6
F =q v B

## In vector form, form

)
B

(6.7)

The direction of the magnetic force can be determined by using the Flemings hand rule. Flemings right hand rule for negative charge shown in Figures 6.23 Flemings left hand rule for positive charge and 6.24

v
Note: Figure 6.23 Thumb direction of Force First finger direction of Field Second finger direction of Velocity Figure 6.24

48

PHYSICS
Example 6 :

CHAPTER 6

Determine the direction of the magnetic force, F exerted on a charge in the following problems: a. b.

B
c.
X X X X X

X X X

d.

BX

X v X

I
e.

v
49

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6
F (into the page) v

## Solution : a. By using Flemings left hand rule, thus

B
b. By using Flemings right hand rule, thus

X X

B
X X X

## c. By using Flemings right hand rule, thus

X X X
50

BX

X v X

PHYSICS
Solution :

CHAPTER 6

d. Using right hand grip rule to determine the direction of magnetic field produces by the current I on the charge position. Then apply the Flemings right hand rule, thus

## (to the left) F

X X

vX I

X X

e. Using right hand grip rule to determine the direction of magnetic field forms by the current I on the charge position. Then apply the Flemings left hand rule, thus F (upwards)
X X X X XB X

X X
51

PHYSICS
Example 7 :

CHAPTER 6

Calculate the magnitude of the force on a proton travelling 5.0 107 m s1 in the uniform magnetic flux density of 1.5 Wb m2, if : a. the velocity of the proton is perpendicular to the magnetic field. b. the velocity of the proton makes an angle 50 with the magnetic field. (Given the charge of the proton is +1.60 1019 C) Solution : v = 5.0 10 a. Given = 90 Therefore
7

m s 1 ; B = 1.5 Wb m 2
19 7

= 50 b. Given
Hence

F = qvB sin

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

## 6.3.2 Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field

Consider a charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field with its velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field. field As the particle enters the region, it will experiences a magnetic force which the force is perpendicular to the velocity of the particle. Hence the direction of its velocity changes but the magnetic force remains perpendicular to the velocity. This magnetic force, FB makes the path of the particle is a circular as shown in Figures 6.25a, 6.25b, 6.25c and 6.25d.
X X X X

X X

F X B
X X

X FB
X X

+ FB

FB

X v
X

v
Figure 6.25b
53

Figure 6.25a

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6
X X

FB

vX

X X X

X X X

XF X B
X X X

v FB FB v

Figure 6.25c

Figure 6.25d

Since the path is a circle therefore the magnetic force FB contributes the centripetal force Fc (nett force) in this motion. Thus

mv 2 qvB sin = r

FB = Fc

and

= 90
54

PHYSICS
mv r= Bq

CHAPTER 6
(6.8)

v : magnitude of the velocity r : radius of the circular path q : magnitude of the charged particle The period of the circular motion, T makes by the particle is given
by

2r v= T

2 v = r and = T

2r T= v 2m
T= Bq

and

mv r= Bq
(6.9)

## And the frequency of the circular motion is

1 f = T

55

PHYSICS
Example 8 :

CHAPTER 6

v
A

20.0 cm

Figure 6.26 An electron at point A in Figure 6.26 has a speed v of 2.50 106 m s-1. Determine a. the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field that will cause the electron to follow the semicircular path from A to B. b. the time required for the electron to move from A to B. (Given e=1.60 1019 C and me= 9.11 1031 kg)

56

PHYSICS
6 1

CHAPTER 6
2

Solution : v = 2.50 10 m s ; d = 20.0 10 m a. Since the path makes by the electron is a semicircular thus the the magnitude of the magnetic field is given by

mv r= Be d mv = 2 Be

and

)(

## Direction of magnetic field : into the page OR

v
A

B F

B
57

PHYSICS
Solution : v = 2.50 10 m s b. The period of the electron is
6 1

CHAPTER 6
; d = 20.0 10 2 m

v = r

and

d 2 v = 2 T

2 = T 2.50 10 6

T T = 2.51 10 7 s

( 20.0 10 ) =
2

Since the path is the semicircular then the time required for the electron moves from A to B is given by

1 t= T 2 1 t = 2.51 10 7 2

)
58

t = 1.26 10 7 s

PHYSICS
Exercise 6.3 :
1.

CHAPTER 6
Determine the sign of a charge in the following problems. B a. b.

B v

ANS. : positive; positive 2. Determine the direction of the magnetic force exerted on a positive charge in each problem below when a switch S is closed. a. b.

+
Switch, S

v
Switch, S

## ANS. : into the page; out of page

59

PHYSICS
Exercise 6.3 :
3.

CHAPTER 6
An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2.9 106 m s1 in a magnetic field when it is moving north. The force is upward and of magnitude 7.2 1013 N. Determine the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field. (Given the charge of the electron is 1.60 1019 C)
(Physics for scientists & engineers ,3rd edition, Giancoli, Q22, p.705)

ANS. : 1.6 T to the east 4. An electron moving with a speed of 9.1 105 m s1 in the positive x direction experiences zero magnetic force. When it moves in the positive y direction, it experiences a force of 2.0 1013 N that points in the negative z direction. What is the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field? (Given e=1.60 1019 C and me= 9.11 1031 kg)
(Physics, 3rd edition, James S. Walker, Q8, p.762)

## ANS. : 1.37 T to the left (in the negative y direction)

60

PHYSICS
Exercise 6.3 :
5.

CHAPTER 6
Two charged particles with different speeds move one at a time through a region of uniform magnetic field. The particles move in the same direction and experience equal magnetic forces. a. If particle 1 has four times the charge of particle 2, which particle has the greater speed? Explain. b. Calculate the ratio of the speeds, v1/v2.
(Physics, 3rd edition, James S. Walker, Q9, p.762)

ANS. : 1/4 6. A 12.5 C particle of mass 2.80 105 kg moves perpendicular to a 1.01 T magnetic field in a circular path of radius 26.8 m. a. How fast is the particle moving? b. How long will it take the particle to complete one orbit?
(Physics, 3rd edition, James S. Walker, Q18, p.763)

61

## PHYSICS CHAPTER 6 Learning Outcome:

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physic s
6.4 Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field (1 hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Use formulae:

F = I l B

62

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

## 6.4 Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field

When a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field B, thus a magnetic force will acts on that conductor. conductor The magnitude of the magnetic force exerts on the currentcarrying conductor is given by

F = IlB sin
In vector form, form

(6.10)

F = I l B
where F : magnetic force

(6.11)

B : magnitude of the magnetic flux density I : current l : length of the conductor : angle between direction of I and B 63

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6
F B

The direction of the magnetic force can be determined by using the Flemings left hand rule as shown in Figure 6.27. Note: Thumb direction of Force

## I First finger direction of Field

Second finger direction of Current Figure 6.27

From the equation (6.10), the magnetic force on the conductor has its maximum value when the conductor (and therefore the current) and the magnetic field are perpendicular (at right angles) to each other then =90 (shown in Figure 6.28a).

64

PHYSICS
= 90

CHAPTER 6
Fmax = IlB sin 90 Fmax = IlB
B

Figure 6.28a the magnetic force on the conductor is zero when the conductor (and therefore the current) is parallel to the magnetic field then (shown in Figure 6.28b). =0

I
Note:

= 0

F = IlB sin 0 F =0

Figure 6.28b

One tesla is defined as the magnetic flux density of a field in which a force of 1 newton acts on a 1 metre length of a conductor which carrying a current of 1 ampere and is perpendicular to the field. 65

PHYSICS
Example 9 :

CHAPTER 6

Determine the direction of the magnetic force, exerted on a currentcarrying conductor in the following cases. a. b.
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

BX

BX

## Solution : For both cases, use Flemings left hand rule : b. a.

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X

BX

X X

## X (to the right) X

66

PHYSICS
Example 10 :

CHAPTER 6

A wire of 100 cm long is placed perpendicular to the magnetic field of 1.20 Wb m2. a. Calculate the magnitude of the force on the wire when a current of 15 A is flowing. b. For the same current in (a), determine the magnitude of the force on the wire when its length is extended to 150 cm. c. If the force on the wire in part (b) is 60 102 N and the current flows is 12 A, calculate the magnitude of magnetic field was supplied. 2 Solution : l = 1.00 m; B = 1.20 Wb m ; = 90 a. Given I = 15 A

## F = IlB sin = (15)(1.00)(1.20) sin 90 F = 18 N

67

PHYSICS
Solution : b. Given I

CHAPTER 6
= 15 A; l = 1.50 m
F = IlB sin = (15)(1.50)(1.20) sin 90 F = 27 N

## The magnitude of the magnetic force on the wire is given by

c. Given

I = 12 A; l = 1.50 m; F = 60 10 2 N
F = IlB sin

## 60 10 2 = (12)(1.50) B sin 90 B = 3.33 10 2 T

68

PHYSICS
Example 11 :

CHAPTER 6

A straight horizontal rod of mass 50 g and length 0.5 m is placed in a uniform magnetic field of 0.2 T perpendicular to the rod. The force acting on the rod just balances the rods weight. a. Sketch a labelled diagram shows the directions of the current, magnetic field, weight and force. b. Calculate the current in the rod. (Given g = 9.81 m s2) 3 Solution : m = 50 10 a.

b. Since the magnetic force acting on the rod just balances the rods F = IlB sin weight, therefore

g; l = 0.5 m; B = 0.2 T; = 90 F B I mg

mg = IlB sin

3

I = 4.91 A

69

## PHYSICS CHAPTER 6 Learning Outcome:

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physic s
6.5 Forces between two parallel current-carrying conductors (1 hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Derive force per unit length of two parallel currentcarrying conductors. Use formulae:

F 0 I1 I 2 = l 2d

70

## PHYSICS Forces between two parallel 6 CHAPTER current6.5

6.5.1 Force per unit length

carrying conductors

Consider two identical straight conductors 1 and 2 carrying currents I1 and I2 with length l are placed parallel to each other as shown in Figure 6.29.

I1
F21

F12

I2 B1 P

B2

I1

I2
71

Figure 6.29

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

The conductors are in vacuum and their separation is d. The magnitude of the magnetic flux density, B1 at point P on the conductor 2 due to the current in the conductor 1 is given by

Conductor 2 carries a current I2 and in the magnetic field B1 thus the conductor 2 will experiences a magnetic force, F12. The magnitude of F12 is given by F12 = I 2lB1 sin and

0 I1 B1 = 2d

## Direction : into the page

= 90

0 I1 = I 2l sin 90 2d 0 I1 I 2 l F12 = 2d
72

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6
= 90

## 0 I 2 = I1l sin 90 2d 0 I1 I 2 l F21 = 2d IIl Conclusion : F = F = F = 0 1 2 12 21 2d

(6.12)

and the type of the force is attractive. attractive From the equation (6.12), thus the force per unit length is given by F 0 I1 I 2 (6.13) =

2d

73

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6
1 2

Note:

If the direction of current in the conductor 2 is change to upside down as shown in Figure 6.30.

The currents are in the same direction 2 conductors attract each other. The currents are in opposite direction 2 conductors repel each other.

I1
B2

I2 B1 P

F12

F21

I1

I2

Figure 6.30 The magnitude of F12 and F21 can be determined by using the eq. (6.12) and their direction can be determined by applying Flemings left hand rule. Conclusion : Type of the force is repulsive. repulsive
74

PHYSICS
Example 12 :

CHAPTER 6

Two long straight parallel wires are placed 0.25 m apart in a vacuum. Each wire carries a current of 2.4 A in the same direction. a. Sketch a labelled diagram to show clearly the direction of the force on each wire. b. Calculate the force per unit length between the wires. c. If the current in one of the wires is reduced to 0.64 A, calculate the current needed in the second wire to maintain the same force per unit length between the wires as in (b). (Given 0 = 4 107 T m A1) Solution : I1 = I 2 a. The diagram is

= 2.4 A; d = 0.25 m
I1 F21
1 d

F12

I2

75

PHYSICS
F 0 I1 I 2 = l 2d
I1 = 0.64 A

CHAPTER 6
F 4 10 7 ( 2.4 )( 2.4 ) = l 2 ( 0.25 ) F = 4.6 10 6 N m 1 l

Solution : I1 = I 2 = 2.4 A; d = 0.25 m b. The force per unit length between the wires is given by

c. Given

## F 0 I1 I 2 = l 2d 4 10 7 ( 0.64 ) I 2 4.6 10 6 = 2 ( 0.25 ) I 2 = 8.98 A

76

PHYSICS
6.5.2 The ampere

CHAPTER 6

From the eq. (6.13), if two long straight parallel conductors are placed 1.0 m apart in a vacuum and carry equal currents of 1.0 A thus the force per unit length that each conductor exerts on each other is given by

The ampere is defined as the constant current, which flowing in each of two infinitely long parallel straight conductors of negligible of cross sectional area separated by a distance of 1.0 metre in vacuum, would produce a force per unit length between the conductors of 77 2.0 107 N m 1.

## F 0 I1 I 2 = l 2d 4 10 7 (1)(1) = 2 (1) F = 2.0 10 7 N m 1 l

PHYSICS
Exercise 6.4 :
1. Given 0 = 4 107 T m A1

CHAPTER 6
A vertical straight conductor Y of length 0.5 m is situated in a uniform horizontal magnetic field of 0.1 T. a. Sketch a labelled diagram to show the directions of the current, field and force. b. Calculate the force on Y when a current of 4 A is passed into it. c. Through what angle must Y be turned in a vertical plane so that the force on Y is halved?
(Advanced level physics, 7th edition, Nelkon&Parker, Q6, p.336)

ANS. : 0.2 N; 60 2. A current-carrying conductor experiences no magnetic force when it is placed in a uniform magnetic field. Explain the statement.

78

## PHYSICS CHAPTER 6 Learning Outcome:

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physic s
6.6 Torque on a coil (1 hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Use formulae:

= NI A B

where N = number of turns Explain the working principles of a moving coil galvanometer. Explain the DC electrical measuring instruments.

79

## PHYSICS 6.6 Torque on a coil

6.6.1 Formula of torque

CHAPTER 6

Consider a rectangular coil (loop) of wire with side lengths a and b that it can turn about axis PQ. The coil is in a magnetic field of flux density B and the plane of the coil makes an angle with the direction of the magnetic field. A current I is flowing round the coil as shown in Figure 6.31.

80

PHYSICS
B
P

CHAPTER 6
I B A

B F 1

B
F1

b
I
Q

B
I

Figure 6.31a
81

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6
B B
F1

A
rotation

b 2

b sin 2 b sin 2

rotation

F1

Figure 6.31b: side view From the Figure 6.31b, the magnitude of the force F1 is given by

## F1 = IlB sin 90 and l = a F1 = IaB

From the Figure 6.31a, the forces F lie along the axis PQ.
82

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

From the Figure 6.31a, the forces F lie along the axis PQ. The resultant force on the coil is zero but the nett torque is not zero because the forces F1 are perpendicular to the axis PQ as shown in Figure 6.31a. The forces F1 cause the coil to rotate in the clockwise direction about the axis PQ as shown in Figure 6.31b. The magnitude of the nett torque about the axis PQ (refer to Figure 6.31b) is given by

b b = F1 sin F1 sin 2 2 b and F = IaB = 2 F1 sin 1 2 b = 2( IaB ) sin 2 = IabB sin and ab = A(area of coil)

83

PHYSICS
= IAB sin
since

CHAPTER 6
= 90 thus
= IAB sin 90

= IAB cos For a coil of N turns, the magnitude of the torque is given by

= NIAB sin
OR

(6.14)

= NIAB cos
where : torque on the coil

(6.15)

B : magnetic flux density I : current flows in the coil : angle between vector area A and B : angle between the plane of the coil and B N : number of turns (coils) 84

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6
= NI A B

From the eq. (6.14), thus the formula of torque in the vector form is given by

(6.16)

The torque is zero when = 90 or = 0 and is maximum when = 0 or = 90 as shown in Figures 6.32a and 6.32b.

= 90

= 0
Figure 6.32a

= 90 A

= 0
Figure 6.32b

= NIAB sin 0
OR

## plane of the coil

= NIAB sin 90
= NIAB cos 0
OR

=0

= NIAB cos 90

max = NIAB

85

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

In a radial field, the plane of the coil is always parallel to the field magnetic field for any orientation of the coil about the vertical axis as shown in Figure 6.33.

= 0

= 90

OR

radial field fixed soft coil iron cylinder Figure 6.33: Plan view of moving coil meter Hence the torque on the coil in a radial field is always constant and maximum given by = NIAB cos 0 = NIAB sin 90 OR

= NIAB

maximum
86

## Radial field is used in moving coil galvanometer.

PHYSICS
Example 13 :

CHAPTER 6

A 50 turns rectangular coil with sides 10 cm 20 cm is placed vertically in a uniform horizontal magnetic field of magnitude 2.5 T. If the current flows in the coil is 7.3 A, determine the torque acting on the coil when the plane of the coil is a. perpendicular to the field, b. parallel to the field, c. at 75 to the field. Solution : N = 50 turns; B = 2.5 T; I = 7.3 A The area of the coil is given by a.

B From the figure, = 90 and = 0 , thus = 90 the torque on the coil is A = NIAB cos OR = NIAB sin

A = (10 10 2 )( 20 10 2 ) = 2.0 10 2 m 2

= NIAB cos 90 =0

= NIAB sin 0

87

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6
B the torque on the coil is = 90 = NIAB cos

)( 2.5) cos 0

c.

B = 75 = 15 A

88

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

## 6.6.2 Moving-coil galvanometer

A galvanometer consists of a coil of wire suspended in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. The coil is rectangular shape and consists of many turns of fine wire as shown in Figure 6.34.

Figure 6.34

89

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6
= NIAB

When the current I flows through the coil, the magnetic field coil exerts a torque on the coil as given by This torque is opposed by a spring which exerts a torque, s given by (6.17) s = k where

## k : torsional constant : rotation angle of the coil in radian

The coil and pointer will rotate only to the point where the spring torque balances the torque due to magnetic field, field = s thus

NIAB = k k I= NAB

(6.18)
90

PHYSICS
Example 14 :

CHAPTER 6

A rectangular coil of 10 cm 4.0 cm in a galvanometer has 50 turns and a magnetic flux density of 5.0 102 T. The resistance of the coil is 40 and a potential difference of 12 V is applied across the galvanometer, calculate the maximum torque on the coil. 2 Solution : N = 50 turns; B = 5.0 10 T; R = 40 ;

V = 12 V

## A = (10 10 2 )( 4.0 10 2 ) = 4.0 10 3 m 2

12 = I ( 40) I = 0.3 A

V = IR

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

## 6.6.3 Electrical instruments

Ohmmeter It is used to measure the unknown resistance of the resistor. resistor Figure 6.35 shows the internal connection of an Ohmmeter.

where

RM
RS

## RM : meter (coil) resistance RS : variable resistance RX : unknown resistance

RX
Figure 6.35

Q
92

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

When nothing is connected to terminals P and Q, so that the Q circuit is open (that is, when R ), there is no current and no deflection. deflection When terminals P and Q are short circuited (that is when R = 0), the ohmmeter deflects full-scale. 0 full-scale For any value of RX the meter deflection depends on the value of

RX.
Ammeter It is used to measure a current flows in the circuit. circuit Ammeter is connected in series with other elements in the circuit because the current to be measured must pass directly through the ammeter. ammeter

An ammeter should have low internal resistance (RM) so that the current in the circuit would not affected. affected

93

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

The maximum reading from the ammeter is known as full scale deflection (fs). If the full scale current passing through the ammeter then the potential difference (p.d.) across that ammeter is given by

## where RM : meter(coil) resistance

Vfs = I fs RM

If the meter is used to measure currents that are larger than its full scale deflection (I >Ifs ), some modification has to be done.

## I fs : full scale current Vfs : full scale potential difference (p.d.)

A resistor has to be connected in parallel with the meter (coil) resistance RM so that some of the current will bypasses the meter (coil) resistance. resistance This parallel resistor is called a shunt denoted as RS. Figure 6.36 shows the internal connection of an ammeter with a shunt in parallel.
94

PHYSICS
0

CHAPTER 6
max

I fs

IS

RM
RS

## VRM = VRS I fs RM = I S RS and I S = I I fs I fs RM RS = I fs RM = ( I I fs ) RS I I fs

Figure 6.36 Since shunt is connected in parallel with the meter (coil) resistance then

(6.19)
95

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

Voltmeter It is used to measure a potential difference (p.d.) across electrical elements in the circuit. circuit Voltmeter is connected in parallel with other elements in the circuit therefore its resistance must be larger than the resistance of the element so that a very small amount of current only can flows through it. An ideal voltmeter has infinity resistance so that no it current exist in it. To measure a potential difference that are larger than its full scale deflection (V > Vfs ), the voltmeter has to be modified.

A resistor has to be connected in series with the meter (coil) resistance RM so that only a fraction of the total p.d. appears across the RM and the remainder appears across the serial resistor. This serial resistor is called a multiplier OR bobbin denoted as RB.
96

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

Figure 6.37 shows the internal connection of a voltmeter with a multiplier in series.

0
V
RB

max

I fs

RM V

Electrical element Figure 6.37 Since the multiplier is connected in series with the meter (coil) resistance then the current through them are the same, Ifs .
97

I1

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6
The p.d. across the electrical element is given by Hence the multiplier resistance is

V = VRB + VRM

V = I fs RB + I fs RM

Note:

V I fs RM RB = I fs

(6.20)

To convert a galvanometer to ammeter, a shunt ammeter (parallel resistor) is used. To convert a galvanometer to voltmeter, a multiplier voltmeter (serial resistor) is used.

98

PHYSICS
Example 15 :

CHAPTER 6

A milliammeter with a full scale deflection of 20 mA and an internal resistance of 40 is to be used as an ammeter with a full scale deflection of 500 mA. Calculate the resistance of the shunt required. I = 20 10 3 A; R = 40 ; I = 500 10 3 A fs M Solution : By applying the formula of shuntresistor, thus

I fs RS = I I RM fs

20 10 3 ( 40) = 3 3 500 10 20 10

RS = 1.67
99

PHYSICS
Example 16 :

CHAPTER 6

A galvanometer has an internal resistance of 30 and deflects full scale for a 50 A current. Describe how to use this galvanometer to make a. an ammeter to read currents up to 30 A. b. a voltmeter to give a full scale deflection of 1000 V. 6 Solution : I fs = 50 10 A; RM = 30 a. We make an ammeter by putting a resistor in parallel (RS) with the internal resistance, RM of the galvanometer as shown in figure below.

I I fs
IS

RM

G
RS
100

PHYSICS
Solution : a. Given I

CHAPTER 6

## (50 10 )( 30) = (30 50 10 ) R

6 6

I fs RM = ( I I fs ) RS

b. We make a voltmeter by putting a resistor in series (RB) with the internal resistance, RM of the galvanometer as shown in figure R below.

RS = 5.0 10 5 in parallel.

RB

I fs

I fs
101

PHYSICS
Solution : I fs = 50 10 b. Given V = 1000 V
6

CHAPTER 6
A; RM = 30

V = VRB + VRM

## 1000 = 50 10 6 RB + 50 10 6 ( 30) RB = 2.0 107

in series.

V = I fs RB + I fs RM

102

PHYSICS
Exercise 6.5 :
1.

CHAPTER 6

A moving coil meter has a 50 turns coil measuring 1.0 cm by 2.0 cm. It is held in a radial magnetic field of flux density 0.15 T and its suspension has a torsional constant of 3.0 106 N m rad1. Determine the current is required to give a deflection of 0.5 rad. ANS. : 1.0 103 A 2. A milliammeter of negligible resistance produces a full scale deflection when the current is 1 mA. How would you convert the milliammeter to a voltmeter with full scale deflection of 10 V? ANS. : 1.0 104 in series 3. A moving-coil meter has a resistance of 5.0 and full scale deflection is produced by a current of 1.0 mA. How can this meter be adapted for use as : a. a voltmeter reading up to 10 V, b. a ammeter reading up to 2? ANS. : 9995 in series; 2.5 103 in parallel 103

## PHYSICS CHAPTER 6 Learning Outcome:

www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physic s
6.7 Motion of charged particle in magnetic field and electric field (1 hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Explain the motion of a charged particle in both magnetic field and electric field. Derive and use formulae

E v= B
in a velocity selector.

104

PHYSICS CHAPTER 6 6.7 Motion of charged particle in magnetic field and electric field

Consider a positively charged particle with mass m, charge q and velocity v enters a region of space where the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to the particles velocity and to each other as shown in Figure 6.38.

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ++ +
X X X X X X

FB
+

X X X

X X X

vX
X

XB
X X

X X X FE X

Figure 6.38
105

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

The charged particle will experiences the electric force FE is downwards with magnitude qE and the magnetic force FB is upwards with magnitude qvB as shown in Figure 6.38. If the particle travels in a straight line with a constant velocity hence the electric and magnetic forces are equal in magnitude. Therefore magnitude

FB = FE qvB sin 90 = qE
E v= B

(6.21)

Only the particles with velocity equal to E/B can pass through without being deflected by the fields. fields Eq. (6.21) also works for electron or other negatively charged particles.
106

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

Figure 6.38 known as velocity selector. selector Normally, after the charged particle passing through the velocity selector it will enter the next region consist of a uniform magnetic field only. This apparatus known as mass only spectrometer as shown in Figure 6.39.
X X X

r X X + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ++ + X + X X X B X FB X X X XF B X X X X v X X v X vX + +
X X X X X E F X X

X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X
107

X X X X X X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

Figure 6.39

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

When the charged particle entering the region consist of magnetic field only, the particle will make a semicircular only path of radius r as shown in Figure 6.39.Therefore

FB = FC mv 2 qvB = r E q v and v = = m rB B q E = 2 m rB

(6.22)

From the eq. (6.22), the mass spectrometer can be used to determine the value of q/m for any charged particle.
108

PHYSICS
Example 17 :

CHAPTER 6

An electron with kinetic energy of 8.0 1016 J passes perpendicular through a uniform magnetic field of 0.40 103 T. It is found to follow a circular path. Calculate a. the radius of the circular path. b. the time required for the electron to complete one revolution. (Given e/m = 1.76 1011 C kg-1, me = 9.11 1031 kg) a. The speed of the electron is given by

## K = 8.0 10 16 J; B = 0.40 10 3 T Solution :

1 2 K = mv 2 1 16 8.0 10 = 9.11 10 31 v 2 2

v = 4.19 107 m s 1
109

PHYSICS
16

CHAPTER 6
3

Solution : K = 8.0 10 J; B = 0.40 10 T a. Since the path made by the electron is circular, thus

(1.76 10 )(
11

## FB = FC mv 2 evB sin 90 = r v e B = r m 4.19 10 7 3 0.40 10 = r

r = 0.595 m

b. The time required for the electron to complete one revolution is 2r given by v=

## T 2 ( 0.595) 7 4.19 10 = T T = 8.92 10 8 s

110

PHYSICS
Exercise 6.6 :
1.

CHAPTER 6

An electron moving at a steady speed of 0.50 106 m s1 passes between two flat, parallel metal plates 2.0 cm apart with a potential difference of 100 V between them. The electron is kept travelling in a straight line perpendicular to the electric field between the plates by applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the electrons path and to the electric field. Calculate : a. the intensity of the electric field. b. the magnetic flux density needed. ANS. : 0.50 104 V m1; 0.010 T 2. A proton moving in a circular path perpendicular to a constant magnetic field takes 1.00 s to complete one revolution. Determine the magnitude of the magnetic field.
(Physics for scientist and engineers, 6th edition, Serway&Jewet, Q32, p.921)

(mp=1.67 1027 kg and charge of the proton, q=1.60 1019 C) ANS. : 6.56 102 T
111

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 6

Next Chapter
CHAPTER 7 : Electromagnetic induction

112