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The Evolution of the Minaret, with Special Reference to Egypt-I Author(s): K. A. C. Creswell

The Evolution of the Minaret, with Special Reference to Egypt-I Author(s): K. A. C. Creswell Reviewed work(s):

Source: The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, Vol. 48, No. 276 (Mar., 1926), pp. 134-

135+137-140

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more

more

than

than

one-half,

one-half,

while

while

the

the

prices

prices

paid

paid

for

for

the

the examples

in

in

examples

auction

auction

come are are in in

figures.

figures.

In

In

low

low

landscape

landscape

to

the

Yet

Yet

dirty

part,

part,

tone

tone

before

art before

art

British

British

least,

in the world.

Society

Society

in

world.

the

the

the

of

of

from

from

I769,

I769,

the

the

contain

contain

of

of Arts,

Arts,

British

British

the

the

of

painters

of painters

exhibiting

exhibiting

of

of

pictures.

time

time

pictures.

Where

Where

of

of

many

many

these

these

were

were

frequently

frequently

and

and

their

their

works

works

appeared

appeared

Magazine

Magazine

to be found

to

be found

all

time,

time,

and

and

must

must

objects

" "

some

some

objects

of

of

Life

Life

to-day.

to-day.

of those

of those

here

here

of

pictures

will

will

of pictures

than

not take

offence;

not take offence;

which

which

time

come up from time to time

the

the

up

from time to

with

with

accordance

accordance

few

however,

however,

great

is

is

it

it

universally

universally

Constable;

Constable;

landscape

landscape

the

greatest

The

The

the

the

names

names

hundreds

hundreds

are

are

they

they

now

now

all

all

generously

generously

in

in

this

this

form

form

and

the

been

been

other

great

as

as

library

library

Indeed,

Indeed,

of works

public

public

want

want

of

knowledge

of knowledge

out-

of all but the few great out-

due

due

of all but the

standing

standing

to

English

in English

to

in

part, too, to the dirty condition

part,

condition

canvases.

canvases.

the

the

generally

generally

adopted

adopted

in

in

too,

be,

are

their

their

of the

of the neglected

neglected

the

must

numerically

must be, numerically

the

school

school

school

at least, the greatest school

at

of

of

landscape

landscape

the

records of

records of the

exhibitions

exhibitions

Royal

Royal

Academy

Academy

Institution,

Institution,

we

we are reminded,

sands

sands

reminded,

sands

sands

of

thou-

of thou-

of

of

thou-

thou-

now?

now?

In

In

unknown

unknown

painters

painters

en-

en-

graved;

the

the

graved;

in

in

"

Copperplate

" Copperplate

"

similar

" and other similar

publications

of the

publications

of the

in

in all the great houses

popular

popular

their

their

as

have

have

as

houses

tables

tables

if

if

it

it

of

will

be

be

are

are

and common

and

common

is

is

"

Country

that

that

" Country

objected

objected

recorded

recorded

painters

the author

the author

painters

rather than of works of art,

rather

rather will he

he

art,

rather

glory

for

glory

for

in his

in his catholicity

catholicity

and welcome

and

welcome

A

his

his

that

that

school,

school,

but

but

"

IHome

" A IHome

Lost

Lost

Causes

Causes

" "

is

is

as

as

a

sub-title

a sub-title

to

he

he does,

does,

to

book,

book,

claiming

sustained

sustained

claiming

his

for his

for

subject,

subject,

as

as

" the

"

the

excellence

excellence

of the

English

of the English

over

over

a

a long

long

period,

period,

the

the

most

most

insistent

insistent

least

least

recognized

lover

lover

recognized

characteristic

characteristic

of the

of the

The

art

well hesitate

art may well hesitate

The

school."

school."

of

English

of English

landscape

landscape

may

THE

THE

EVOLUTION

EVOLUTION

OF

OF

THE

THE

REFERENCE

REFERENCE

TO

TO

EGYPT-I

EGYPT-I

BY

BY

K.

K.

A.

A.

C.

C.

CRESWELL

CRESWELL

AN

AN

BERCHEM

BERCHEM

has

has

justly

justly

re-

re-

marked1 that

marked1 that in a discussion

discussion

in

a

of this

of this

custom),

custom),

logical.

logical.

question

the

the

question

there

there

are

aspects

are three aspects

be considered:

three

of

of

problem

functional

functional

problem

to

to

be

(i.e.,

(i.e.,

considered:

as

as

a

a

and

(3)

the

point

(I)

(I)

the

the

religious

religious

(2) the architectural,

architectural,

We

We

(2)

the

and (3) the philo-

first.

the last

the last point first.

philo-

shall

shall

consider

consider

ORIGIN

ORIGIN OF THE ARABIC TERMS EMPLOYED.-

ARABIC TERMS EMPLOYED.-

OF THE

Three

Three

words

words

have

have

minarets:

minarets:

mi'dhana

mi'dhana

been

been

employed

employed

to

to

denote

denote

or

or midhana,

midhana,

sauma'a,

sauma'a,

and

and

mandra.

mandra.

ma'dhana,

ma'dhana,

The

The

is

is

first,

first,

derived

derived

commonly

commonly

from

from

adhdn,

adhdn,

pronounced

pronounced

the

the

call

call

to

to

prayer,

adhdn

adhdn

prayer,

and

simply

and simply

means

means

the

the

place

place

where

where

the

the

is

is

pronounced.2

pronounced.2

Sauma'a

Sauma'a

appears

Arabs

Arabs

appears

to

to

have

have

been

been

the

the

name

name

given

given

by

by

the

the

to

read

read that

that

to

hermits'

hermits'

towers.3

towers.3

For

For

example,

example,

we

we

the

tower

the tower

of

of

the

the

Church

Church

of

of

John

John

the

the

Baptist

Baptist

1

1

2

2

the

the

In

In

Diez,

Diez,

Gottheil,

Gottheil,

Journ.

Journ.

Churasanische

Churasanische

The

" The

"

Origin

Origin

Amer.

Amer.

Oriental

Oriental

3 Fraenkel,

Fraenkel,

3

269-271;

269-271;

and

and

Aramaische

Aramaische

Gottheil,

Gottheil,

loc.

loc.

Baudenkmiiler,

Baudenkmiiler,

and

and

Soc.,

Soc.,

History

History

of

of

Vol.

Vol.

XXX,

XXX,

p.

p.

133.

133.

the

the

Minaret,"

Minaret,"

p.

p.

I33.

I33.

Fremdwvrter

Fremdwvrter

im

im

Arabischen,

Arabischen,

cit.,

cit.,

pp.

pp.

136-137.

136-137.

in

in

pp.

pp.

I34I34

to

upon

he

excellently

feature

as the excellently

such

such a feature of the book, he will have widened

upon

to

every

his

his standard and his

case-it

case-it

every

subscribe

subscribe

to

to

the

the

aesthetic

aesthetic

claims

claims

in

in

will

depend

will depend

his

standard

his

have

and

as

outlook;

outlook;

but

but

if

if

in

of the

order

in order

to form his

to

form

judgment

judgment

he has

has

to consider

to consider

each

each artist in turn,

turn,

artist in

he will

as well

well

as the

a

clear

illustrations

clear illustrations

which

which

form

form

book,

widened

and

and

increased

increased

his

his

knowledge

knowledge

of

of

the

the

art and

art and

enjoyed many a challenging

enjoyed

An

An

to point

mistakes

mistakes

a challenging

many

appeal

appeal

the

to

but pithy statement.

but

statement.

pithy

of

of

omissions

omissions

and

and

is

is

it

as

as

rare as

rare as

is

a

duty,

circum-

a duty,

is

it

it

such

such

circum-

of

of

original

original

is

is

so

so

from

from

James's

James's

Speaking

Speaking

and

and

work

work

accepts

accepts

St.

St.

of

of Budapest,

Budapest,

to

to

discoverers

discoverers

point

To

To

them out

out

them

disarming.

disarming.

respond to it becomes

respond

critic

critic

becomes

to

if

if

to

carping

to the carping

it it can can

in

in

be

be a pleasure.

that

that

pleasure.

a

quaint

quaint

whose

whose

Antwerp

Antwerp

the

the

author

author

buried

he was buried

he

was

in

in

Dr.

Terey,

Dr. de Terey,

de

stances

stances

no

longer

no longer

Jan

Jan

Siberechts,

Siberechts,

Flemish

Flemish

painter

painter

quickly

quickly

recognizable,

recognizable,

Buckeridge

Buckeridge

that

that

Church,

Church,

Piccadilly.

Piccadilly.

however,

however,

whose

whose

magnum

magnum

opus

opus

on

on

the

the

painter

not

not

painter

is

approaching

burial

is at last approaching

at

last

church

the burial records of that church

the

completion,

completion,

searched

searched

only

the

the records of wills

wills

only

records

of

that

but

but also

also

records

of

at

at Somerset

Somerset

House

House

without

without

finding

finding

any

any

confirmation

confirmation

of

of the

the

statement;

statement;

it

it

must

must

be

be

left

left

an

an

open

open

question.

question.

Thomas

Thomas

Lawranson

Lawranson

is

is

given

given

as

as

dying

dying

in

in

I778;

I778;

but

but

it

it

would

would

seem

seem

to

to

have

have

been

been

after

after

1786,

1786,

as

as

his

his

portrait

portrait

of

of

O'Keefe

O'Keefe

in

in

the

the

National

National

Portrait

Portrait

Gallery

Gallery

was

was

dated

dated

in

in

Samuel Samuel

and imitator of Richard

and imitator

of Richard

that

that

year.

year.

Drummond,

Drummond,

the

the

copyist

copyist

Wilson,

Wilson,

is

is

recorded

recorded

as

as

having

having

been

been

on

born on

born

Christmas

Christmas

Day,

Day,

and not

1765, and not

1765,

I763.

I763.

But these

But

these

are

trifling

are trifling

and

and

dates,

dates,

with humour,

with

humour,

matters

matters in a work compact

compact

in

a

work

economy

economy

of facts

of facts

admirably

admirably

marshalled

marshalled

and

and

and precision.

and

precision.

set

set

out

out

spirit,

spirit,

MINARET,

MINARET,

WITH

WITH

SPECIAL

SPECIAL

at Damascus

occupied

leave when

occupied

first refused to leave when

first refused to

at Damascus

was

was

by a monk,

by

Khalif

the Khalif

the

monk,

a

who

who

at

at

al-Walid

al-Walid

commenced

commenced

to

to demolish

demolish

build-

it,

it, preparatory to build-

and

and Ibn Jubayr speaks

western

the western

the

his

his

speaks

preparatory

Ibn

Jubayr

time

at the

at the time

each

case

is

to

ing the Great Mosque4;

ing

of

Moslem

of a Moslem

Mosque4;

the Great

a

recluse

recluse who occupied

occupied

who

in

minaret of the same

minaret of the same

mosque

mosque

of

of

visit.5

visit.5

The word used in each case is sauma'a.

The word

sauma'a.

used

All

All

Syrian

Syrian

thirteenth

towers before the

towers before the thirteenth

century

century

were

square,

were square,

in this

and in this

and

connexion

connexion

it

it

is

speci-

is speci-

interesting

ally interesting

ally

term

to find

to find that this word is the term

that this

North

North

word

Africa,

Africa,

of this

of this

is the

where

where

type.6

type.6

employed

minarets

employed

minarets

throughout

throughout

the

the

are

always

are nearly always

nearly

The

The

third

term,

" "

third term,

mandra,

mandra,

originally

originally

can

can

only

and

and

only

have

have

meant

meant

an

an

that

object

Arab

Arab

object that

gives

gives

light,"

light,"

as such

such

as

in

is used

is used in

poetry

poetry

for

for the

the

oil-lamp

oil-lamp

or

or rush-light

rush-light

the cell

in the cell

in

of the

of the

Christian

Christian

monk.7

monk.7

4 'Illmawi,

'Illmawi,

4

t.

gme

gme s6rie, t.

s6rie,

Sauvaire's

Sauvaire's

transl.,

and

and

transl.,

VII,

VII,

p.

p.

189;

189;

in

in

the

the

Journal

Journal

Asiatique,

in Quatremere,

in

Quatremere,

Asiatique,

Ibn

Shakir,

Ibn Shakir,

Sultans

Sultans

Mamnlouks,

Mamnlouks,

II

II

5

5

(I),

(I),

p.

p.

264.

264.

Quoted by

Quoted by

Gottheil,

Gottheil,

loc.

loc.

cit.,

cit.,

6

Doutt6,

6 Doutt6,

p.

p.

in

in

the

the

Revue

Revue

Africaine,

Africaine,

Martais,

Martais,

arabes de

Les Monuments arabes de

Les

Monuments

I37.

I37.

1899,

1899,

p.

p.

399

399

Tlemcen,

Tlemcen, p. 45.

p. 45.

ff.;

ff.;

arid

arid

,

B-Umm ar-Rasas
B-Umm
ar-Rasas
, B-Umm ar-Rasas A-Monastery of St. George, Sameh E Mosque of al-Khidr, Bosra; F-Great C -
A-Monastery of St. George, Sameh
A-Monastery
of St. George, Sameh
, B-Umm ar-Rasas A-Monastery of St. George, Sameh E Mosque of al-Khidr, Bosra; F-Great C -
E Mosque of al-Khidr, Bosra; F-Great
E Mosque of al-Khidr, Bosra; F-Great

C-WIosque

Qairowan

of

Sidi

'Oq

Mosque, Ma'arrat an-Nu'man; G-G-reat Mosque in the Citadel, Aleppo;

The Evolution of the Minaret, with special reference to Egypt-I

to

For

and

then

being

a

minaret was known. He and his

when they

ing

that

the

naqusis

thin piece of wood struck with

oa'iuavrpov a long,

a flexible

to

to

prayer
have

who found,

that

had it revealed to him

in

adopted

Bilal, who was his herald, and who thus became

the first mu'adhdhin, to He was accustomed to

highest

mosque,l5

Muhammad's

The first mosque at Basra were both

but nothing

likewise, the

minaret, and,

poet

chanted

the

no

is said about a minaret.

(638),

Gabriel.'a

that he

a

adhan or call to

the

same

reason

it came

to be applied

generally,9

"

word

it.

the Pharos8

THE

and to light-houses

towers,

our

corruption

of

to mosque

merely

a

minaret"

EARLIEST MOSQUES

LACKED MINARETS.-

no such

thing

as

followers,

prayed, accord-

any

preliminary

heard

In the time of Muhammad

first came to

to

Ibn

Hisham,

Jews

or

used

Madina,

without

prayer1?;

a

horn,

(the

but having

and

the

so-called

Christians

aiyta

clapper

v'Xa or

equiva-

wabil),

they

wanted something

The

idea

of

to some

the

lent for their own use.

is said,

calling

according

to

of Ziyad,

and

traditions,

been suggested

a

had just

Another

son

Prophet

by 'Umar,

when he communicated

been

anticipated

tradition

the

the decision,

by

has

the

it

Angel

Prophet,

who

ordered

prayer.'4

the

from

of

the

of

'Abdallah,

dream

it.13

roof

informed

Muhammad,

in

the

was

therefore,

give the call to it

neighbourhood

pronounce

merely

the

which

courtyard

house.

first

at Kufa

and the first mosque

year 17 H.

At Fustat,

'Amr

had

Umayyads,

as being

which is now

built in the

mosque

time

of

of the

in the

al-Farazdaq

on the

speaks of the adhan

every

city.'6

wall of

At Damascus

the great temenos,

7 Wellhausen, Skizzen, III,

in the

8 By

Z.D.M.G.,

Ibn Khordadbeh

LII.,

p.

p.

146.

9

Thiersch,

For

Pharos,

example,

was

p.

200 f.,

quoted by Schwally

Ibn aI

texts

Faqih

(849-885), Ya'qubi

etc.

See the

(891),

40

ff.

(985) says

guard-houses

that

of the

(c. 903), Ibn Rosteh (c. 903),

in

Palestine

with levies,

come

that whenever

lighting

night,

Le

by

Zum

pp.

p. in

10

pp.

found

Annali dell'

Caetani,

collection of

the

Muqaddasi

with

of

(ribat) garrisoned

to

coast

used

provided

and that

places,

such a

fire

signal

to these

the

etc.

Muqaddasi,

Palestine

Strange,

Hartmann

Thema;

388-390.

109 n.;

Diez,

in

Minaret

See

also

loc.

Musnad

Gottheil,

Many

Wustenfeld's

133-134.

the

the war galleys

bringing prisoners

ship appeared

(mandra)

of

p.

117;

under the

Memnon,

und

III,

p.

Reitemeyer,

cit.,

pp.

Greeks

of war for ransom;

given by

were

it

p. 291;

in

cit.,

to

be

See

the alarm was

the

ribat,

if

transl.,

also

Ranking's

Moslems,

220

132-133;

p.

by

p. 23;

quoted

his

Islam,

Agyptens,

I,

Berchem,

f.,

and

Der

Der

and Van

113.

Gottheil,

effect

Leuchtturm,

same

(d.

in

Beschreibung

Churasanische Baudenkmiiler,

in

ed.,

347;

traditions

p.

of

Ibn

IV,

still

quoted

to the

Hanbal

p. 208.

in

loc.

are

A.D. 855).

Islam,

11

12 Musnad,

p.

IV,

14 Gottheil, loc. cit., p. 134.

The Aramaic ndkosha,

Islam,

quoted

218.

p.

p.

by

43;

347,

I,

use among

the Nestorians.

and

op.

the

Sahih,

p.

Margoliouth,

quoted

3 ff.;

in the

Mohammed

Rise of

13 Musnad,

p.

222.

222.

p. 15 Ibn

P-

also

75;

cit.,

See also Margoliouth, op. cit.,

Bukhari,

143;

I,

by

Margoliouth,

and

Z.D.M.G.,

LII,

p. I34.

Hisham,

quoted by

Schwally

quoted by

an-Nawawi,

Gottheil, loc. cit.,

J

the

towers of

These towers no doubt

as

(mi'dhana),

older than Islam.17

Great

Ibn

Umayyad

no

great

al-Faqih

although

Mosque,

height,

(903)

calls

square

one at each corner.

had

four

became the first minarets,

them minarets

he knew that they were

The naqas

morning

year

that

of

until 53 H.

call

the

to

(673)

Egypt,

"to

was used for the

but

ordered

the

enlarge

early

in

Maslama,

Mosque

of

structed four sawdmi' for the

corners.

in

prayer at

build

Fustat,l8

sawami'

his

Khalif

of

and

adhan.

Mu'awiya

to

Governor

'Amr

(pl.

sauma'a)

it;

there

the

added

those

for the

So

mosque

con-

Maslama at its four

construct them

time

He was the first one to

having

ladder

been

(sullam),

none

by

was

Similar

to the

of

before

means

of which

until

the

the muezzins mounted, Khalid ibn Sa'id

mosque."'9

were

except

being

Corbet

exact form

sawdmi',

is

minaret.

like sentry-boxes,

each

sky-pointing

to

the

four

Damascus,

more

gave

Umayyad Khalif,

in the

it

street

inside

transported

places

masjids

for

of

all

and

did

the

the

muezzins

khittats,

which,

Khaulan

mosques,

is

It

Tujaib,

not

to

need

near the

says:

"

them.20

what

use

the

roof at

say may have been.

by

words

our authority

The

in

they

on the

difficult

of these

given

of

them

the

name

(Maqrizi),

ordinarily were but some-

for

neither

In all likelihood

germ

minaret."'2

the

of

having

thing

The

perched

of

four

been

of

corner;

idea

the

future graceful

places

at

for

each

suggested

the

corner

by

temenos

call

of

the

at

is rendered still

Khalif

who

A

later

enlarged

Al-Farazdaq was

in

114 (732/3).

died

presumably

first

ago by

in the

That

the

prayer

constructed-one

have

the

mosque-may

towers

at

probable

the order

by

the

a possibility the fact that the

corners

which

by ruled from that city.22

al-Walid,

cit.,

p.

when

135.

probably

Iraq,

as

was

he

16 Quoted

born about

Having

applies

mosques

Lane,

Gottheil, loc.

(640/I)

his

of

and

life in

as well

minarets

(X860 ed.),

20 H.

spent part