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Gas Dynamics SS 2012

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GAS DYNAMICS
SUMMER
PROJECT 2012
Prof Dr.-Ing Ernst von Lavante

BY
NISHANT KUMAR
Matrikelnummer :-ES0227948700
M.Sc (Computational Mechanics)

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CONTENTS
Sr.No Chapter Name Page Number
1 Problem statement -----
2 Abstract 3
3 Introduction & theory 4-7
4 Calculations 8-22
5 Comparison of Analytical & Simulation Results 23-25
6 Steps of Simulation in Software Star CMM+ 26-28
7 Simulation Results
8 Conclusion

List of Graphs & Charts
Aim Graph or charts
To find angle Shock Wave angle()

From Graph of Shock wave angle ()
Vs
Deflection angle
To find Mach Number, Pressure ratio,
Temperature ratio, Prandtl-Meyer
Function
Chart of Supersonic flowfor
compressible flow









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Chapter No:-1
Abstract
Given problem is case of oblique shock. It is a flow over wedge. It consist of 2
compression & 4 expansion corners. The fluid flowing through wedge is air.
We are using ideal gas with isentropic expansion & compression.
For the 2 compression corners, 6
0
& 10
0
we split the wave front into 2
components of Mach Number, the Normal component M
n
& the tangential
component M
t
For rest of the expansion corners , there are four expansion corners each of
them having an angle of 4
o
. In a shock wave the pressure, density and
temperature increase. In an expansion wave it is exactly opposite: they all
decrease. The analysis of expansion corner is different as compared to
compression corner. Here we use the Prandtl-Meyer Function().
It is defined as the angle through which a flow with a Mach number = 1 is
turned isentropically to achieve the indicated Mach number.












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Chapter No:-02
Introduction & Theory
- Normal Shock Waves
Where there are supersonic flows, there are usually also shock waves.
A fundamental type of shock wave is the normal shock wave the
shock wave normal to the flow direction.

1. Basic Relations
Consider a rectangular piece of air (the system) around a normal
shock wave, as is shown in figure
1. To the left of this shock wave are the initial properties of the flow
(denoted by the subscript 1). To the right are the conditions behind the
wave.



Figure 1: A normal shock wave.

We can already note a few things about the flow. It is a steady flow
(the properties stay constant in time). It is also adiabatic, since no heat
is added. No viscous effects are present between the system and its
boundaries. Finally, there are no body forces. Using the continuity
equation, we can find that the mass flow that enters the system on the left
is 1 u1 A1 , with u the velocity of the flow in x-direction. The mass
flow that leaves the system on the right is 2 u2 A2 . However, since the
system is rectangular, we have A1 = A2 . So we find that
..........(Continuity Equation)
......................................... (1)

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The stagnation enthalpy remains constant over the flow

but since enthalpy is a function of temperature only


.............(2)

Using the Momentum Equation
............................ (3)

Equations 1,2,3 are the governing equations for the Normal shock. Expressing
all the relations in terms of M
1
we get the Normal Shock tables
The strength of shock can be calculated by using the pressure ratio. The
strength of shock is given by

The change in Entropy for any ideal gas in terms of pressure ratio and density
ratio is given by the relation:
s = C
p
* ln(T
2
/T
1
) - R * ln(p
2
/p
1
) ......................................... (4)
Note that the entropy changes tend to be very small for oblique shocks as the
entropy changes are directly proportional to the cube of the flow deflection
angle which is very small in this case.

The change in Enthalpy is given by
Gas Dynamics SS 2012

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h= C
p
t............................................................... (5)


- Oblique Shocks Waves:-
In reality normal shock waves dont often occur. Oblique shock waves
are more common.
1 Shock Wave Angles When an aircraft is flying, it creates
disturbances in the flow. These disturbance spread around with the speed
of sound a. Figure 1 visualizes these disturbances for an airplane
traveling from point A to point B.



Figure 1: Visualization of the disturbances in a flow.

When the airplane flies at a subsonic velocity (V < a), the disturbances
can move upstream. If the airplane, however, flies at a supersonic speed (V
> a), the disturbances cannot. In fact, they all stay within a cone and stack
up at the edge, forming a Mach wave. This cone has an angle , where is
called the Mach angle. From figure 1 it can be derived that,

sin=1/M
Suppose we have an airow moving along a wall, which suddenly makes
an angle away from the ow
We then get an expansion wave. In this expansion wave, the airow
bends around the wall edge
While the airow changes direction, its velocity also changes.
we can derive an expression for , being
= (M2) (M1).
the ow is isentropic, so the entropy s stays constant.
In a shock wave the pressure, density and temperature increase. In an
expansion wave it is exactly



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The 3 basic governing equations are;
.................................................(from eqn 1)

....................................(from eqn 2)
.............................................(from eqn 3)

Substituting the last two eqns in the first eqn we get a relation between M
1
and
M
2
as follows:
.........................(eqn 6)

Substituting the value of M
2
in eqn 3 we have a relation between the pressure in
terms of M
1


......................................(eqn 7)
Where M
1
is the Normal Component of the Upstream Flow











Gas Dynamics SS 2012

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Chapter No:-3
Analytical Calculations

Part 1. For Mach 3

- Given Data:-
Given free stream conditions are
M
1
= 3
P
1
= 1.01325 bar
T
1
= 300 K
Compression Curves = 6
o
and 10
o

Expansion Curves = four 4
o
curves

- Solution:-
1) Compression Corner of 6
o

M
1
= 3; P
1
= 1.01325 bar; T
1
= 300 K; = 6
o


Location of Shock and Normal Mach Number
Refer the Oblique Shock Charts ( Reference 1). We obtain for mach
number 3 and = 6
o
the value of the shock wave angle as
1
as 23
o

M
n1
= M
1
* sin
M
n1
= 3*sin (23)
M
n1
= 1.1721

Refer the Normal Shock tables (Reference 2). We obtain for mach
number 1.22 the following values of pressure ratio, temperature ratio
and downstream mach number
p
2
/p
1
= 1.430; T
2
/T
1 =
1.109; M
n2
= 0.8615
p
2
= p
1
* 1.430; T
2
= T
1
* 1.109; M
2
= M
n2
/sin(- )
p
2
= 1.0325 * 1.570; T
2
= 300 * 1.141; M
2
= 0.8300/sin(23-6)
p
2
= 1.4489 bar; T
2
= 332.7 K; M
2
= 2.946

Strength of Shock is given by
(p
2
- p
1)
/p
1
or (p
2
/p
1
) 1
Gas Dynamics SS 2012

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(1.4489 1.01325)/1.01325
= 0.429
Change in Entropy is given by
s = C
p
* ln(T
2
/T
1
) - R * ln(p
2
/p
1
)
s = 1005 * ln(332.7/300) 287 * ln(1.4489/1.01325)
s = 1.3328 J/Kg K

Change in Enthalpy is given by
h= C
p
t
h = 1005 * (T
2
T
1
)
h = 1005 * (332.7 300)
h = 32863.5 J/Kg K


Calculated
Values
T
2

(K)
P
2
(bar)
M
2
s
(J/KgK)
h
(J/KgK)
Compression
Corner 6
0
332.7 1.4489 2.946 1.3328 32863.5

2) Compression Corner of 10
o

M
2
= 2.946; P
2
= 1.4489 bar; T
2
= 332.7 K, =10
0


Location of Shock and Normal Mach Number
Refer the Oblique Shock Charts ( Reference 1). We obtain for mach
number 3 and = 28
o

M
n2
= M
2
* sin
M
n2
= 2.946* sin (28)
M
n2
= 1.383

Refer the Normal Shock tables (Reference 2). We obtain for Mach
number 1.383 the following values of pressure ratio, temperature
ratio and downstream mach number
p
3
/p
2
= 2.055; T
3
/T
2 =
1.242; M
n2
= 0.7483
p
3
= p
2
* 2.055; T
3
= T
2
* 1.242; M
3
= M
n2
/sin ( - )
p
3
= 2.977 bar; T
3
= 413.21 K; M
3
= 2.422
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Strength of Shock is given by
(p
3
- p
2)
/p
2
or (p
3
/p
2
) 1
(2.977 1.4489)/1.4489
= 1.054662

Change in Entropy is given by
s = C
p
* ln(T
3
/T
2
) - R * ln(p
3
/p
2
)
s = 1005 * ln(1.242) 287 * ln(2.055)
s = 6.257 J/Kg K

Change in Enthalpy is given by
h= C
p
t
h = 1005 * (T
3
T
2
)
h = 1005 * (413.21 332.7)
h = 80912.55J/Kg K

Calculated
Values
T
3

(K)
P
3
(bar)
M
3
s
(J/KgK)
h
(J/KgK)
Compression
Corner 10
0
413.21 2.997 2.422 6.257 80912.55

3) Expansion Corner of 4
0

M
3
= 2.422; P
3
= 2.997 bar; T
3
= 413.21 K;
3
= 4
o


Prandtl-Meyer Function
Refer the Isentropic Charts
( Reference 2). We obtain for mach number 2.422 the value of
Prandtl- Meyer Function
3
= 37.229

4
=
3
+
3

4
= 33.018 + 4

4
= 41.229
o

Refer the Normal Shock tables (Reference 2). We obtain for
4
=
41.229
o
the value of corresponding mach number M
4
as 2.59.
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Referring the same following values of pressure ratio and
temperature ratio are obtained as follows
p
4
/p
3
= p
4
/p
4t
* p
4t
/p
3t
* p
3t
/p
3
; T
4
/T
3
= T
4
/T
4t
* T
4t
/T
3t
* T
3t
/T
3
;
Since the flow is isentropic and no work is done, the stagnation
temperature is constant (T
t
= constant). Also there are no losses in
the flow, hence the stagnation pressure is also constant (p
t
=
constant)
p
4
/p
3
= 0.5090 * 1 * (0.6630)
-1
; T
4
/T
3
= 0.4271 * 1 *(0.4606)
-1

p
4
= 2.2855 bar; T
4
= 383.15 K
Strength of Shock is given by
(p
4
/p
3
) 1
0.7625 - 1
= -0.2374

Change in Entropy is given by
s = C
p
* ln(T
4
/T
3
) - R * ln(p
4
/p
3
)
s = 1005 * ln(0.9272) 287 * ln(0.7677)
s = -0.09367 J/Kg K

Change in Enthalpy is given by
h= C
p
t
h = 1005 * (T
4
T
3
)
h = 1005 * (383.15 413.21)
h = -30210.3 J/Kg K

Calculated
Values
T
4

(K)
P
4
(bar)
M
4
s
(J/KgK)
h
(J/KgK)
Expansion
Corner 4
0
383.15 2.2855 2.59 -0.09367 -30210.3

4) Expansion Corner of 4
o

M
4
= 2.59; P
4
= 2.2855 bar; T
4
= 383.15 K;
4
= 4
o


Prandtl-Meyer Function
Refer the Isentropic Charts ( Reference 2). We obtain for mach
number 2.59 the value of Prandtl- Meyer Function
4
= 41.229
Gas Dynamics SS 2012

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5
=
4
+
4

5
= 45.229
o


Refer the Normal Shock tables (Reference 2). We obtain for
5
= 41.018
o
the
value of corresponding mach number M
5
as 2.78. Referring the same following
values of pressure ratio and temperature ratio are obtained as follows
p
5
/p
4
= p
5
/p
5t
* p
5t
/p
4t
* p
4t
/p
4
; T
5
/T
4
= T
5
/T
5t
* T
5t
/T
4t
* T
4t
/T
4
;
p
5
/p
4
= 0.3799 * 1 * (0.5090)
-1
; T
5
/T
4
= 0. 3928* 1 * (0.4271)
-1

p
5
= 1.70 bar; T
5
= 352.97 K

Strength of Shock is given by
(p
5
/p
4
) 1
= 0.2561

Change in Entropy is given by
s = C
p
* ln(T
5
/T
4
) - R * ln(p
5
/p
4
)
s = 1005 * ln(0.9196) 287 * ln(0.7463)
s = -0.25144 J/Kg K

Change in Enthalpy is given by
h= C
p
t
h = 1005 * (T
5
T
4
)
h = 1005 * (352.37 383.15)
h = -30933.9 J/Kg K

Calculated
Values
T
5

(K)
P
5
(bar)
M
5
s
(J/KgK)
h
(J/KgK)
Expansion
Corner 4
0
352.37 1.70 2.78 -0.25144 -30933.9

5) Expansion Corner of 4
o

M
5
= 2.78; p
5
= 1.70 bar; T
5
= 352.37 K;
5
= 4
o


Prandtl-Meyer Function
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Refer the Isentropic Charts/ Normal Shock Charts ( Reference 2). We
obtain for mach number 2.54 the value of Prandtl- Meyer Function
5
=
41.018

6
=
5
+
5

6
= 49.229
o


Refer the Normal Shock tables (Reference 2). We obtain for
6
= 45.018
o

the value of corresponding mach number M
6
as 2.98. Referring the same
following values of pressure ratio and temperature ratio are obtained as
follows
p
6
/p
5
= p
6
/p
6t
* p
6t
/p
5t
* p
5t
/p
5
; T
6
/T
5
= T
6
/T
6t
* T
6t
/T
5t
* T
5t
/T
5
;
p
6
/p
5
= 0.2895 * 1 * (0.3799)
-1
; T
6
/T
5
= 0.3602 * 1 * (0.3928)
-1

p
6
= 1.29 bar; T
6
= 323.125 K

Strength of Shock is given by
(p
6
/p
5
) 1
= -0.2411

Change in Entropy is given by
s = C
p
* ln(T
6
/T
5
) - R * ln(p
6
/p
5
)
s = 1005 * ln(0.9170) 287 * ln(1.55172)
s = -0.257 J/Kg K

Change in Enthalpy is given by
h= C
p
t
h = 1005 * (T
6
T
5
)
h = -29391.22 J/Kg K


Calculated
Values
T
6

(K)
P
6
(bar)
M
6
s
(J/KgK)
h
(J/KgK)
Expansion
Corner 4
0
323.125 1.29 2.78 -0.257 -29391.22


Gas Dynamics SS 2012

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6)Expansion Corner of 4
o

M
6
= 2.78; p
6
= 1.29 bar; T
6
= 323.125 K;
6
= 4
o


Prandtl-Meyer Function

7
=
6
+
6

7
= 53.229
o

Refer the Normal Shock tables (Reference 2). for
7
= 53.229
o
, mach number
M
7
as 3.0123. values of pressure ratio and temperature ratio are obtained as
follows
p
7
/p
6
= p
7
/p
7t
* p
7t
/p
6t
* p
6t
/p
6
; T
7
/T
6
= T
7
/T
7t
* T
7t
/T
6t
* T
6t
/T
6
;
T
t
= constant and p
t
= constant
p
7
/p
6
= 0.2682 * 1 * (.2895)
-1
; T
7
/T
6
= 0.3556 * 1 * (0.3602)
-1

p
7
/p
6
= 0.9264; T
7
/T
6
= 0.917
p
7
= 1.195 bar; T
7
= 318.99 K

Strength of Shock is given by
(p
7
/p
6
) 1
= -0.0736

Change in Entropy is given by
s = C
p
* ln(T
7
/T
6
) - R * ln(p
7
/p
6
)
s = - 0.6514J/Kg K

Change in Enthalpy is given by
h= C
p
t
h = 1005 * (T
7
T
6
)
h = -4155.67 J/Kg K


Calculated
Values
T
7

(K)
P
7
(bar)
M
7
s
(J/KgK)
h
(J/KgK)
Expansion
Corner 4
0
318.99 1.195 3.0123 - 0.65140J -4155.67


Gas Dynamics SS 2012

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The Total Change in Entropy
s = C
p
* ln(T
7
/T
1
) - R * ln(p
7
/p
1
)
=1005*ln(318.99/300)-287*ln(1.195/1.0135)
= 0.01414 J/Kg K

The Total Change in Enthalpy
h =32863.5+80912.5-30210.3-30933.9-29391.22-4155.67 = 1.908 KJ/Kg
K



Part 2. For Mach 4:-


- Given Data:-
Given free stream conditions are
M
1
= 4
P
1
= 1.01325 bar
T
1
= 300 K
Compression Curves = 6
o
and 10
o

Expansion Curves = four 4
o
curves

- Solution:-
1) Compression Corner of 6
o

M
1
= 4; P
1
= 1.01325 bar; T
1
= 300 K;
1
= 6
o


Location of Shock and Normal Mach Number
Refer the Oblique Shock Charts ( Reference 1). We obtain for mach
number 3 and = 19
o

M
n1
= M
1
* sin
M
n1
= 4*sin(19)
M
n1
= 1.3022

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Refer the Normal Shock tables (Reference 2). We obtain for mach
number 1.22 the following values of pressure ratio, temperature ratio
and downstream mach number
p
2
/p
1
= 1.805; T
2
/T
1 =
1.191; M
n2
= 0.7860
p
2
= p
1
* 1.805; T
2
= T
1
* 1.191; M
2
= M
n2
/sin( - )
p
2
= 1.828 bar; T
2
= 357.3 K; M
2
= 3.49

Strength of Shock is given by
(p
2
- p
1)
/p
1
or (p
2
/p
1
) 1
= 0.8045

Change in Entropy is given by
s = C
p
* ln(T
2
/T
1
) - R * ln(p
2
/p
1
)
s = -0.342 J/Kg K

Change in Enthalpy is given by
h= C
p
t
h = 1005 * (T
2
T
1
)
h = 57586.5 J/Kg K

Calculated
Values
T
2

(K)
P
2
(bar)
M
2
s
(J/KgK)
h
(J/KgK)
Compression
Corner 6
0
357.3 1.828 3.49 -0.342 57586.5

2) Compression Corner of 10
o

M
2
= 3.49; P
2
= 1.828 bar; T
2
= 357.3 K, =10
0


Location of Shock and Normal Mach Number
Refer the Oblique Shock Charts ( Reference 1). We obtain for mach
number 4 and = 25.5
o

M
n2
= M
2
* sin
M
n2
= 3.49* sin (25.5)
M
n2
= 1.5024

Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 17

Refer the Normal Shock tables (Reference 2). We obtain for Mach
number 0.7011 the following values of pressure ratio, temperature
ratio and downstream mach number
p
3
/p
2
= 2.458; T
3
/T
2 =
1.320; M
n2
= 1.5024
p
3
= p
2
* 2.458; T
3
= T
2
* 1.320; M
3
= M
n2
/sin( - )
p
3
= 4.493bar; T
3
= 471.636 K; M
3
= 2.623

Strength of Shock is given by
(p
3
- p
2)
/p
2
or (p
3
/p
2
) 1
= 1.457

Change in Entropy is given by
s = C
p
* ln(T
3
/T
2
) - R * ln(p
3
/p
2
)
s = 1005 * ln(1.320) 287 * ln(2.458)
s = 0.209 J/Kg K

Change in Enthalpy is given by
h= C
p
t
h = 1005 * (T
3
T
2
)
h = 114907.68J/Kg K



Calculated
Values
T
3

(K)
P
3
(bar)
M
3
s
(J/KgK)
h
(J/KgK)
Compression
Corner 10
0
471.636 4.493 2.623 0.209 114907.68

3) Expansion Corner of 4
0

M
3
= 2.623; P
3
= 4.493 bar; T
3
= 471.636K;
3
= 4
o


Prandtl-Meyer Function
Refer the Isentropic Charts/ Normal Shock Charts ( Reference 2).
We obtain for mach number 2.623 the value of Prandtl- Meyer
Function
3
= 41.868
Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 18


4
=
3
+
3

4
= 45.868
o

Refer the Normal Shock tables (Reference 2). We obtain for
4
=
41.229
o
the value of corresponding mach number M
4
as 2.81.
Referring the same following values of pressure ratio and
temperature ratio are obtained as follows
p
4
/p
3
= p
4
/p
4t
* p
4t
/p
3t
* p
3t
/p
3
; T
4
/T
3
= T
4
/T
4t
* T
4t
/T
3t
* T
3t
/T
3
;
Since the flow is isentropic and no work is done, the stagnation
temperature is constant (T
t
= constant). Also there are no losses in
the flow, hence the stagnation pressure is also constant (p
t
=
constant)
p
4
/p
3
= 0.3629* 1 * (0.4259)
-1
; T
4
/T
3
= 0.3877 * 1 *(0.4196)
-1

p
4
= 3.3517 bar; T
4
= 435.77 K
Strength of Shock is given by
(p
4
/p
3
) 1
= 0.254

Change in Entropy is given by
s = C
p
* ln(T
4
/T
3
) - R * ln(p
4
/p
3
)
s = -0.33523 J/Kg K

Change in Enthalpy is given by
h= C
p
t
h = 1005 * (T
4
T
3
)
h = -36039.3J/Kg K

Calculated
Values
T
4

(K)
P
4
(bar)
M
4
s
(J/KgK)
h
(J/KgK)
Expansion
Corner 4
0
435.77 3.3517 2.81 -0.33523 -36039.3

4) Expansion Corner of 4
o

M
4
=2.81; P
4
=3.3517 bar; T
4
=435.77 K;
4
= 4
o


Prandtl-Meyer Function
Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 19

Refer the Isentropic Charts/ Normal Shock Charts ( Reference 2).
We obtain for mach number 2.81 the value of Prandtl- Meyer
Function
4
= 45.868

5
=
4
+
4

5
= 49.868
o


Refer the Normal Shock tables (Reference 2). We obtain for
5
= 49.868
o
the
value of corresponding mach number M
5
as 3.00. Referring the same following
values of pressure ratio and temperature ratio are obtained as follows
p
5
/p
4
= p
5
/p
5t
* p
5t
/p
4t
* p
4t
/p
4
; T
5
/T
4
= T
5
/T
5t
* T
5t
/T
4t
* T
4t
/T
4
;
p
5
/p
4
= 0.2722 * 1 * (0.3629)
-1
; T
5
/T
4
= 0. 3571* 1 * (0.3877)
-1

p
5
= 2.514 bar; T
5
= 401.37 K

Strength of Shock is given by
(p
5
/p
4
) 1
= -0.2499

Change in Entropy is given by
s = C
p
* ln(T
5
/T
4
) - R * ln(p
5
/p
4
)
s = -0.2978 J/Kg K

Change in Enthalpy is given by
h= C
p
t
h = 1005 * (T
5
T
4
)
h = -34572 J/Kg K

Calculated
Values
T
5

(K)
P
5
(bar)
M
5
s
(J/KgK)
h
(J/KgK)
Expansion
Corner 4
0
401.37 2.514 3.00 -0.2978 -34572





Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 20

5) Expansion Corner of 4
o

M
5
=3.00; p
5
= 2.514bar; T
5
=401.37 K;
5
= 4
o


Prandtl-Meyer Function
Refer the Isentropic Charts/ Normal Shock Charts ( Reference 2). We
obtain for mach number 3 the value of Prandtl- Meyer Function
5
=
49.868

6
=
5
+
5

6
= 53.868
o


Refer the Normal Shock tables (Reference 2). We obtain for
6
= 45.018
o

the value of corresponding mach number M
6
as 3.22. Referring the same
following values of pressure ratio and temperature ratio are obtained as
follows
p
6
/p
5
= p
6
/p
6t
* p
6t
/p
5t
* p
5t
/p
5
; T
6
/T
5
= T
6
/T
6t
* T
6t
/T
5t
* T
5t
/T
5
;
p
6
/p
5
= 0.1964 * 1 * (0.2722)
-1
; T
6
/T
5
= 0.3253 * 1 * (0.3571)
-1

p
6
= 1.813 bar; T
6
= 365.6 K

Strength of Shock is given by
(p
6
/p
5
) 1
= -0.2788

Change in Entropy is given by
s = C
p
* ln(T
6
/T
5
) - R * ln(p
6
/p
5
)
s = -0.0622 J/Kg K

Change in Enthalpy is given by
h= C
p
t
h = 1005 * (T
6
T
5
)
h = -35948.85 J/Kg K

Calculated
Values
T
6

(K)
P
6
(bar)
M
6
s
(J/KgK)
h
(J/KgK)
Expansion
Corner 4
0
365.60 1.813 3.22 -0.0622 -35948.85
Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 21


6)Expansion Corner of 4
o

M
6
=3.22; p
6
= 1.813 bar; T
6
= 365.60 K;
6
= 4
o


Prandtl-Meyer Function

7
=
6
+
6

7
= 57.868
o

Refer the Normal Shock tables (Reference 2). for
7
= 53.229
o
, mach number
M
7
as 3.0123. values of pressure ratio and temperature ratio are obtained as
follows
p
7
/p
6
= p
7
/p
7t
* p
7t
/p
6t
* p
6t
/p
6
; T
7
/T
6
= T
7
/T
7t
* T
7t
/T
6t
* T
6t
/T
6
;
T
t
= constant and p
t
= constant
p
7
/p
6
= 0.1388 * 1 * (.1964)
-1
; T
7
/T
6
= 0.2946 * 1 * (0.3253)
-1

p
7
/p
6
= 0.706; T
7
/T
6
= 0.905
p
7
= 1.281 bar; T
7
= 331.09 K

Strength of Shock is given by
(p
7
/p
6
) 1
= -0.2934

Change in Entropy is given by
s = C
p
* ln(T
7
/T
6
) - R * ln(p
7
/p
6
)
s = -0.001723J/Kg K

Change in Enthalpy is given by
h= C
p
t
h = 1.005 * (T
7
T
6
)
h = -34682.55 J/Kg K


Calculated
Values
T
7

(K)
P
7
(bar)
M
7
s
(J/KgK)
h
(J/KgK)
Expansion
Corner 4
0
331.09 1.281 3.0123 -0.00172 -34682.55

Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 22


The Total Change in Entropy
s= C
p
* ln(T
7
/T
1
) - R * ln(p
7
/p
1
)= 0.82995 J/Kg K
The Total Change in Enthalpy
h = -34682.55-35948.85-34572-36039.3+114907.98+57586.5 = 3.125
KJ/Kg K













Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 23

CHAPTER NO:-04
Comparison of Analytical & Simulation results

1) Temperature

Sr No. Mach Number
Temperature(k)
Shock wave Number
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1
3(Analytical
Values) 300 332.7 413.21 383.15 352.37 323.125 318.99
2
4(Analytical
Values) 300 357.3 471.636 435.77 401.37 365.6 331.09
3
3(simulation
results) 229.86 331.27 410 385 350 325 320
4
4(simulation
results) 299.78 355 465 430 400 360 331




X axis:-Shock Wave Number
Y axis:-Temperature (k)




0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Mach 3
Mach 4
Mach 3-Simulation values
Mach 4-simulation values
Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 24


2) Absolute Pressure(bar)

Sr No. Mach Number
Absolute Pressure(bar)
Shock wave Number
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1
3(Analytical
Values) 1.01325 1.4489 2.977 2.2855 1.7 1.29 1.195
2
4(Analytical
Values) 1.01325 1.828 4.493 3.3517 3 1.813 1.281
3
3(simulation
results) 1.0118 1.4407 3 2.27 1.7 1.3 1.2
4
4(simulation
results) 1.0035 1.725 4.267 3.225 2.3 1.657 1.25





X axis:-Shock Wave Number
Y axis:-Absolute Pressure (bar)
Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 25

3) Mach Number
Sr No. Mach Number
Mach Number
Shock wave Number
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1
3(Analytical
Values) 3 2.946 2.422 2.59 2.78 2.98 3.0123
2
4(Analytical
Values) 4 3.49 2.623 2.81 3 3.22 3.0123
3
3(simulation
results) 3.0011 2.8 2.2 2.5 2.8 2.9 3
4
4(simulation
results) 4.002 3.5 2.8 2.1 3.2 3.3 3.01





X axis:-Shock Wave Number
Y axis:-Mach Number


Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 26

CHAPTER NO:-05
Steps of Simulation in Software Star CMM+
- Step 1:- Initial Environment setting
Star CMM+ is a server based software, all calculations & simulations
are done through remote server of company CD-adapco, so every time
for running the software we have to check for licensing of the software
for that we follow these steps;
File Menu-New Simulation-Run Mode-Serial-Click OK
After following these steps server will check for licensing of the software,
after that the work can be started in software.
- Step 2:- Importing a meshed wedge file
Follow the following sequence for importing a meshed model
File Menu-import mesh-volume mesh-select the .cas file-click OK
Scaling the Mesh file;
Mesh menu-scale mesh-enter value 0.01-apply-close

- Step 3:- Pre-Processing Data
Select the data for input for the problem
Continua-Physics-Implicit unsteady (as its easy to solve from implicit
unsteady equations)-Gas-Coupled Flow-ideal Gas-Laminar flow

Regions-Fluid-Velocity inlet-Free stream-physics value-mach number-
constant (change value to 3 & 4)

- Step 4:- Solvers
Now after putting initial data the software has to be given a command of
solving the problem for that follow the steps;

Solvers-Implicit unsteady-Change time step to 0.0001 sec-Change
Temporal Discritisation to 2
nd
Order (as these equations leads to more
converging solution)

Stopping criteria (Up to limits to which calculations has to be done)
Maximum inner iterations (the iterations carried out for calculations)-
Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 27

Disenabling maximum physical time-Maximum steps (Steps upto which
iterations has to be performed)
- Step 5:- Post Processing
After solving the data needs to be post proceeds for visulations

Scene-New Scene-Scalar-Change function to Mach Number, Absolute
Pressure & Temperature-For improving the colour quality of results-
Displayers-Scalar 1-Counter Style-smooth filled





















Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 28

Chapter No:-06
Simulation Results






















Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 29

Chapter No:-07
Conclusion
It is observed that there is slight variation between the analytical &
simulation results it is due to following reasons;
1) As simulation (solving in software) is based on approximation of
governing algebraic equation which leads to deviation from actual
value.
2) The type of mesh used on component, if the descritization i.e mesh
creation is not proper the results would deviate from actual value.
Also the mesh connectivity is of prime importance, if mesh
connectivity specifically near the curvature is not proper then solver
cannot compute the right result.

3) The higher the number of iterations selected would result into higher
degree of accurate results but it has a disadvantage of more iterating
time & power.
4) The entropy change in each region and over the entire is region yields
a very small value since the entropy change is directly affected by the
cube of flow deflection angle.
5) Coding behind the software is also one of the reasons behind
differences in values.







Gas Dynamics SS 2012

Page 30

References
1) Zucker gas Dynamics
2) Naca Report