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Master of Business Administration - Semester 3 MB0050: Research Methodology (4 credits) (Book ID: B1206) ASSIGNMENT- Set 1

1. a. Distinguish between Double sampling and multiphase sampling.

Double Sampling: Double and multiple sampling plans were invented to give a questionable
lot another chance. For example, if in double sampling the results of the first sample are not conclusive with regard to accepting or rejecting, a second sample is taken. Application of double sampling requires that a first sample of size n1 is taken at random from the (large) lot. The number of defectives is then counted and compared to the first samples acceptance number a1 and rejection number r1. Denote the number of defectives in sample 1 by d1 and in sample 2 by d2, then: If d1 a, the lot is accepted. If d1 r1 the lot is rejected. If a1 < d1 < r1, a second sample is taken. If a second sample of size n2 is taken, the number of defectives, d2, is counted. The total number of defectives is D2 = d1 + d2. Now this is compared to the acceptance number a2 and the rejection number r2 of sample 2. In double sampling, r2 = a2 + 1 to ensure a decision on the sample. If D2 a, the lot is accepted. If D2 r2 the lot is rejected.

Multiphase Sampling: A sampling method in which certain items of information are drawn
from the whole units of a sample and certain other items of information are taken from the subsample. It is sometimes convenient and economical to collect certain items of information from the whole of the units of a sample and other items of usually more detailed information from a sub-sample of the units constituting the original sample. This may be termed two-phase sampling, e.g. if the collection of information concerning variate, y, is relatively expensive, and there exists some other variate, x, correlated with it, which is relatively cheap to investigate, it may be profitable to carry out sampling in two phases. At the first phase, x is investigated, and the information thus obtained is used either (a) to stratify the population at the second phase, when y is investigated, or (b) as supplementary information

at the second phase, a ratio or regression estimate being used.Two-phase sampling is sometimes called double sampling. b. What is replicated or interpenetrating sampling? Interpenetrating Sampling: interpenetrating sampling (IPS), also known as interpenetrating sub sampling and replicated sampling. IPS was introduced in the pioneering contribution of P.C. Mahalanobis. It was originally proposed in assessing the non sampling errors as the so-called interviewer errors. IPS provides a quick, simple, and effective way of estimating the variance of an estimator even in a complex survey. In fact, IPS is the foundation of modern re-sampling methods like Jackknife, bootstrap, and replication methods. In IPS, three basic principles of experimental designs, namely, randomization, replication, and local control, are used. IPS is used extensively not only in agriculture, but also in social sciences, demography, epidemiology, public health, and many other fields.

2. What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection? Give two specific examples of situations where either observation or interviewing would be more. Observation means viewing or seeing. Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon in its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study. Observation is classical method of scientific study. Observation as a method of data collection has certain characteristics.

It is both a physical and a mental activity: The observing eye catches many things that are
present. But attention is focused on data that are pertinent to the given study.

Observation is selective: A researcher does not observe anything and everything, but selects
the range of things to be observed on the basis of the nature, scope and objectives of his study. For example, suppose a researcher desires to study the causes of city road accidents and also formulated a tentative hypothesis that accidents are caused by violation of traffic rules and over speeding. When he observed the movements of vehicles on the road, many things are before his eyes; the type, make, size and color of the vehicles, the persons sitting in them, their hair style, etc. All such things which are not relevant to his study are ignored and only over speeding and traffic violations are keenly observed by him.

Observation is purposive and not casual: It is made for the specific purpose of noting things
relevant to the study. It captures the natural social context in which persons behavior occur. It grasps the significant events and occurrences that affect social relations of the participants.

Observation should be exact and be based on standardized tools of research and such as
observation schedule, social metric scale etc., and precision instruments, if any. Interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. It may be defined as a two way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant, initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. It involves not only conversation, but also learning from the respondents gesture, facial expressions and pauses, and his environment. Interviewing requires face to face contact or contact over telephone and calls for interviewing skills. It is done by using a structured schedule or an unstructured guide. Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a persons opinions, attitudes, values, beliefs past experience and future intentions. When qualitative information is required or probing is necessary to draw out fully, and then interviewing is required. Where the area covered for the survey is a compact, or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available, personal interview is feasible Interview is often superior to other data-gathering methods. People are usually more willing to talk than to write. Once report is established, even confidential information may be obtained. It permits probing into the context and reasons for answers to questions. Interview can add flesh to statistical information. It enables the investigator to grasp the behavioral context of the data furnished by the respondents. Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. It may be used for studying (a) The behavior of human beings in purchasing goods and services.: life style, customs, and manner, interpersonal relations, group dynamics, crowd behavior, leadership styles, managerial style, other behaviors and actions. (b) The behavior of other living creatures like birds, animals etc. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores, factories, residences etc. (d) Flow of traffic and parking problems (e) movement of materials and products through a plant.

3. How case study method is useful to Business Research? While case study writing may seem easy at first glance, developing an effective case study (also called a success story) is an art. Like other marketing communication skills, learning how to write a case study takes time. Whats more, writing case studies without careful planning usually results in sub optimal results. Savvy case study writers increase their chances of success by following these ten proven techniques for writing an effective case study: Involve the customer throughout the process. Involving the customer throughout the case study development process helps ensure customer cooperation and approval, and results in an

improved case study. Obtain customer permission before writing the document, solicit input during the development, and secure approval after drafting the document. Write all customer quotes for their review. Rather than asking the customer to draft their quotes, writing them for their review usually results in more compelling material. Involve the customer throughout the process. Involving the customer throughout the case study development process helps ensure customer cooperation and approval, and results in an improved case study. Obtain customer permission before writing the document, solicit input during the development, and secure approval after drafting the document. Write all customer quotes for their review. Rather than asking the customer to draft their quotes, writing them for their review usually results in more compelling material.

4. Would case studies be considered as scientific research? Why or why not? Earlier research with an n of one (meaning one subject in the test) was common. Then social science got into numbers and percentages and such, and the case study fell away as not useful enough to learn from. However, especially in the soft sciences (psychology, sociology, anthropology, ethnology, etc.) that have to do with people rather than formulas or numbers or the like, case studies can be helpful and important, especially if they are well-constructed, or longitudinal, or are in depth on their topic.

5. What are the contents of research reports? The outline of a research report is given below: I. Prefatory Items Title page Declaration Certificates Preface/acknowledgements Table of contents

List of tables List of graphs/figures/charts Abstract or synopsis

II. Body of the Report Introduction Theoretical background of the topic Statement of the problem Review of literature The scope of the study The objectives of the study Hypothesis to be tested Definition of the concepts Models if any Design of the study Methodology Method of data collection Sources of data Sampling plan Data collection instruments Field work Data processing and analysis plan Overview of the report Limitation of the study

Results: findings and discussions Summary, conclusions and recommendations

III. Reference Material Bibliography Appendix Copies of data collection instruments Technical details on sampling plan Complex tables Glossary of new terms used.

6. Write short notes on the following: Answer: a. Median: Median is the middlemost item of a given series. In individual series, we arrange the given data according to ascending or descending order and take the middlemost item as the median. When two values occur in the middle, we take the average of these two values as median. Since median is the central value of an ordered distribution, there occur equal number of values to the left and right of the median. Individual series Median

= (N+ 1 / 2) th item

Illustration 1. Find the median of the following scores. 97 50 95 51 90 60 85 80 70 75 First we arrange the series according to ascending order. 50 51 60 64 65 70 75 90 95 97 Median = (N+ 1) / 2 th item = (13+ 1) / 2 th item = (14 / 2) th item = (7) th item = 75







b. Standard Deviation Standard deviation is the most important measure of dispersion. It satisfies most of the properties of a good measure of dispersion. It was introduced by Karl Pearson in 1893. Standard deviation is defined as the mean of the squared deviations from the arithmetic mean. Standard deviation is denoted by the Greek letter ??? Mean deviation and standard deviation are calculated from deviation of each and every item. Standard deviation is different from mean deviation in two respects. First of all, algebraic signs are ignored in calculating mean deviation. Secondly, signs are taken into account in calculating standard deviation whereas, mean deviation can be found from mean, median or mode. Whereas, standard deviation is found only from mean. Standard deviation can be computed in two methods 1. Taking deviation from actual mean 2. Taking deviation from assumed mean. Formula for finding standard deviation is S (x-x)2 / N Steps 1. Calculate the actual mean of the series S x / N 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Take deviation of the items from the mean ( x-x) Find the square of the deviation from actual mean?( x-x)2 / N Sum the squares of the deviations S ( x-x)2 Find the average of the squares of the deviations S ( x-x)2 / N Take the square root of the average of the sum of the deviation