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Mobile Communication Systems-II

Chapter One

Introduction
Dept. of Elec. Eng. IUST, Tehran/Iran email add. afalahati@iust.ac.ir

Marks:

Midterm Exam: 20% Final Exam: 50% Assessments and Project: 30%

Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction The Evolution of Mobile Radio Systems Basic Knowledge of Mobile Radio Channels Structure of the Lecture Note Chapter 2: Important Probability Density Functions Stochastic Processes Deterministic, Continuous and Discrete Time Signals Rice and Rayleigh Processes Methods for the Computation of Doppler Freqs. & Coefs: Equal Distances (ED), Mean Square Error (MSE) Equal Area (EA), Monte-Carlo (MC), Lp-Norm (LPN), Exact Doppler Spread (EDS), Jakes

Contents

Chapter 3: Frequency Non-Selective Channel Models Suzuki Process Modeling and Analysis of Short-Term Fading Modeling and Analysis of Long-Term Fading Rice and Rayleigh Process Jake's and Loo Model Chapter 4: Frequency Selective Channel Models Ellipses Model of Parsons and Bajwa WSS, US and WSSUS Models Cost207 and Cost259 Models and Simulations Fast Channel Simulators

Contents
Chapter 5: Hardware and Software Chammel Simulators Hardware and Software Simulator Designs DSP/OMAP/FPGA Hardware Channel Simulators Simlator Applications Chapter 6: System Analysis Fundamentals Narrow-Band & Wide-band Digital Channel Systems The UTRA FDD Mode WCDMA The UTRA TDD Mode WCDMA CDMA System Performance Power Control and Soft Handover Characteristics

Contents
Chapter 7: UMTS Development Platform UMTS High Level Architectures The UMTS Domains Circuit Switched and Packet Switched Network Element 3G Serving GPRS Support Systems Chapter 8: IMT-2000 Development Platform The IMT-2000 Family

Contents
Chapter 9: The UTRA Physical Layer Design Random Accessing Burst-by-Burst Adaptive Wireless Transceivers Synchronization and Pilot Channels Spreading and Adaptive Modulation Multi-User Detection Blind Adaptation Multiplexing and Channel Coding Intelligent Antenna Arrays and Beam-forming Uplink and Downlink Power Control Channels Mapping Transport Channels onto Physical Channels

Contents
Chapter 10: The UTRA Transmission Systems UMTS Spectrum Allocations Base Stations and Maximum Output Power Spurious Emission Receiver Characteristics: Diversity Adjacent Channel Selectivity Blocking and Inter-Modulation Propagation Models Macro, Micro and Pico Cells

Contents
Chapter 11: Developing. 3G Network
Soft Handover and Orthogonal Processing Multi-service Traffic with circuit and packet switched services Link Budgets Core Network Elements and Design GSM, GSM1800 and UMTS Interference

Chapter 12: IP Based Network


The UMTS Release 99 and 00 Medium Term Architectures Release R4 and R5 Multimedia Resource Functions Multimedia Signaling

Wireless Communication History


A Dramatic, Novel, Short and Rich Inventional and Industrial History
Rrelatively brief (half a century-analog) with the US as a Industrial Pioneer (mostly analog), The first citizen automobile radiotelephone (car phone) serviced in the US in 1946 (Detroit Police). But it was in Japan that the practical mobile system in VHF band became fully operative in 1948 and immediately Detroit as Japanese claim and in Iran, full duplex mobile system with transceiver in 1952 by ITRC . From 1948 to 1980 systems such as Paging, public cordless (80s) were kept coming into the governmental market services (police, ambulances, etc.) but only in North America, Japan and Britain.

Wireless Communication History


Developments in land mobile communications progressed slowly following these initial introductions, but with the advent of the information age in the late 1980s, new services started being offered, resulting in a phenomenal increase in the demand and proliferation of public communication systems, which continues to the present. Specifically, the portable telephone was introduced as radiotelephone in 1989, and the service started in 1993 for digital portable and mobile radiotelephone systems. This is followed in 1995 with the introduction of the Personal HandyPhone System (PHS).

Wireless Communication Frequency Bands


Historically, land mobile communication systems have used frequencies in relatively low bands, but with the increase in the number of wireless stations (terminals), frequency assignments have expanded from VHF into the UHF region. First frequency allocation given to governmental (public services) as bellow:
60 MHz band 150 MHz band 250 MHz band 400 MHz band 800 MHz band 1.5GHz band 1.9-3GHz 3.6-12Gz Public agency use Public agency use, radio systems for general business amateur radio Pager, cordless telephone Public agency use, radio systems for general business, low power radio and amateur radio, etc. Land mobile radiotelephones, digital land mobile radiotelephones and terminals Digital portable land mobile radiotelephones, etc. PHS, radio LAN, UMTS and IMT-2000 UWB, RFID, WSN, Bluetooth, etc.

Mobile Systems Technical History


The Evolution of Digital Mobile Radio Systems (1994) A brief evolution description of many years system architectures and supporting technologies is presented starting from the birth of GSM (Global System for Mobile coms.) 2nd generation digital mobile communication system. GSM- The most widespread (mostly digital) mobile system in the world today providing the basis to cover the introduction of UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication Services) in relation to its Core Network (CN) and radio architectures.

Mobile Systems Technical History


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The original scope of 3GPP was to produce Technical Specifications and Technical Reports for a 3G Mobile System based on evolved GSM core networks and the radio access technologies that they support (i.e., Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) modes). The scope was subsequently amended to include the maintenance and development of the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) Technical Specifications and Technical Reports including evolved radio access technologies (e.g. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)).

Mobile Systems Technical History


The Growth of Mobile Communications A simultaneous growth with Internet revolution not only incorporated industrial environments but also, grew within domestic applications. Q1. What is the Internet has to do with Mobile system and/or UMTS?

A summary of digital data transmission over wireless channels:


1- 14.4Kb/s allows GSM data calls with a rate of 14.4Kb/s per time slot, resulting in a 50% higher data throughput compared to the current maximum speed of 9.6Kb/s. 2- High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) aggregates symmetrically or asymmetrically several circuit channels, e.g. 28.8Kb/s for two time slots (2+2) or 43.2Kb/s for three time slots (3+1). 3- General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enables GSM with Internet access at high spectrum efficiency by sharing time slots between different users. It affords data rates of over 100Kb/s to a single user while offering direct IP connectivity.

Mobile Systems Technical History


A summary of digital data transmission over wireless channels:
4- Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution (EDGE) modifies the radio link modulation scheme from GMSK to 8QPSK. Thereby increasing by three times the GSM throughput using the same bandwidth. EDGE in combination with GPRS (E-GPRS) will deliver single user data rates of over 300Kb/s. 5- UMTS as 3rd generation wireless technology utilizes a Wideband CDMA or TD/CDMA transceiver. Starting with channel bandwidths of 5MHz it will offer data rates up to 2Mb/s. UMTS uses different spectrum and new radio network configurations while using the GSM core infrastructure.

Advanced Wireless Communication System History


Although the circuit switched enhancements such as HSCSD increases transmission rates, it is packet switched enhancements, which will meet the challenges or demands posed on current wireless networks. The GPRS and UMTS with EDGE as an intermediate solution will provide the platform to support integrated services of voice and data including multimedia. While GPRS, IMT and UMTS meet the demands for Internet (IP) features and higher bandwidth in mobile networks, another evolution step is taking place in the network infrastructure. This is the convergence of single networks into a multi-purpose backbone network. An impact on the implementation of UMTS specially IMT radio access technologies.

Basic Confugration of the Radio Transmision System


Information Source Format Source Encoder Encrpytion Channel Encoder Line Encoder Multiplexer Modulator Multiple Access Frequency Spread

TX

Bit Stream

Bit and Carrier Synchronization

Digital Waveform

Noise

Medium

Format Information Sink

Decryption Source Decoder

Line Decoder Channel Decoder

De-Mod De-Mux

Multiple Access Frequency Despread


Fading Countermeasure I

RX

Fading Countermeasure II

GSM Signalling and Data Transport


AUC MSC VLR GMSC HLR VLR

PSTN ISDN PDN

MSC

SS#7 and leased line


AUC

VLR BSC EIR HLR

Signalling Data Signalling Data and user Data

BTS BTS

Carrier Frequencies and TDMA Frames (GSM900)


A channel in the uplink and the downlink are combined to form a duplex pair. The two channels are separated by 45MHz. Typically a MN will produce 0.6W of power. The uplink frame happens after the downlink frame. Q2;- Draw the two FDMA channel and TDMA time slots for GSM1800. Guass what are Freq. Sep. and MN.

Slot Transmission and Duplexing


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Each 200 kHz FDMA channel has 8 TDMA time slot channels. Uplink slots are transmitted with a delay of three time slots referred to the downlink. Handset uses the same duplex number in the uplink as in the downlink say Channel 93 time slot 3.
Each TDMA slot lasts 15/26 ms = 576.9 s. If used, a slot can contain a data burst which lasts 156.25 bit. l Since in the handset Tx and Rx operations are at different times the handset needs no duplexer and can therefore be made more cheaply.

UMTS Services Aspects:


UMTS is the realization of a new generation of mobile communication technology for a world in which personal communications services should allow person-to-person calling, independent of location, the terminal used, the means of transmission (wired or wireless) and the choice of technology. Important services can be namely: Service Management Charging and Billing Network management Quality Of Service (QoS) Security

Mobile Systems Technical History

UMTS, IMT Objectives and Goals


To provide a single integrated system: Users can be able to access services in an easy to use and uniform way in all environments. To allow differentiation: Between service offerings of various serving networks and home environments. To provide a wide range of telecommunication services: Fixed networks and requiring user bit rates of up to 2Mb/s plus mobile services (residential, public and office environments i.e in diverse dense populated areas) compatible to fixed service quality.

UMTS, IMT Objectives and Goals


To provide services at will: Via hand held, portable, movable and fixed terminals in all radio environments. To provide support of roaming users: Enabling users to access services provided by their home environment in the same way even when roaming. To provide: Audio, data, video and particularly multi-media. To provide: The flexible introduction of telecommunication services of future.

UMTS Objectives and Goals


To provide: Pedestrian user to access all services normally offered by fixed networks. To provide: A substitute for fixed networks in diverse densely populated areas approved by the areas authority. To provide support for interfaces: Allowing the use of terminals normally connected to fixed networks. Q5- Can you think of any further objectives UMTS can provide? See ETSI Specifications

UTRA: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access


High level requirements

Bearer Capabilities:Maximum user bit rates


1. Rural Outdoor: at least 144kb/s (aim=> 384kb/s) at max. speed of 50km/h. 2. Suburban Outdoor: at least 384kb/s (aim=> 512kb/s) at max. speed of 120km/h. 3. Indoor/ Low range Outdoor: at least 2Mb/s at max. speed of 10km/h. 4. The UTRA definition should allow evolution towards higher bit rates

UTRA: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access


High level requirements

Bearer Capabilities:- Flexibility


1. Negotiation

of bearer service attributes (bearer type, BER, bit rate, delay, etc) 2. Parallel bearer services (service mix), real/non real-time communication modes, etc. 3. Circuit and packet bearer oriented bearer. 4. Support scheduling (and pre-emption) of bearers (including control bearers) within priority. 5. Adaptability of link to quality, traffic and network load, as well as radio conditions. 6. Wide range of bit rates should be supported with sufficient granularity. 7. Variable bit rate real time capabilities should be provided. 8. Bearer services appropriate for speech shall be provided.

UTRA: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access


High level requirements

Handover:
1. Provide seamless (to user) handover between cells of one operator. 2. The UTRA should not prevent seamless HO between different operator or access networks 3. Efficient handover between UMTS and 2nd generation system, e.g. GSM, should be possible.
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Operational Requirements:-

Compatibility with services provided by present core transport networks: 1. ATM bearer services 2. GSM services 3. IP - based services 4. B/N-ISDN services

UTRA: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access


High level requirements Radio access network planning:
If radio resource planning is required, automatic planning shall be supported.

Public network operators:


It shall be possible to guarantee pre-determined levels of QoS and quality to public UMTS ops.

Private and residential operators:


1. The radio access scheme should be suitable for low cost applications where range, mobility and user speed may be limited. 2. Multiple unsynchronized systems should be able to successfully co-exist in the same environment. 3. It should be possible to install base stations without coordination. 4. Frequency planning should be needed.

UTRA: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access


High level requirements
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Efficient spectrum usage:-

Spectrum efficiency: 1. High spectrum efficiency for typical mixtures of different bearer services. 2. Spectrum efficiency at least as good as GSM for low bit rate speech. Variable asymmetry of total band usage: Variable division of radio resource between up-link and down-link resources from a common pool (NB: this division could be in either frequency, time, or code domains). Spectrum Utilization: 1. Allow multiple operators to use the band allocated to UMTS
without co-ordination. 2. It should be possible to operate the UTRA in any suitable frequency bands.

UTRA: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access


High level requirements
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Efficient spectrum usage:1. The system should be flexible to support a variety of initial coverage/capacity configurations and facilitate coverage/capacity evolution. 2. Flexible use of various cell types and relations between cells (e.g. indoor cells, hierarchical cells) within a geographical area without under waste of radio resources. 3. Ability to support cost effective coverage in rural areas.

Coverage/Capacity:

Mobile terminal viability:


1. Hand-portable and PCM-CIA card sized UMTS terminals should be viable in terms of size, weight, operating time, range, effective radiated power and cost.

Network complexity and cost:


The development and equipment cost should be kept at a reasonable level, taking into account cell site cost, cross-connect, signaling load and traffic overhead (e.g. due to handovers).

Mobile station types:


1. It should be possible to provide a variety of mobile station types of varying complexity, cost and capabilities in order to satisfy the needs of different types of users

UTRA: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access


High level requirements
Requirements from bodies outside GSM:Alignment with IMT-2000: UTRA shall meet at least the technical requirements submission as a candidate technology for IMT-200. Minimum bandwidth allocation: It should be possible to deploy and operate a network in a limited bandwidth (e.g. 5MHz). Electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC): The peak and average power and envelope variation have to be such that the degree of interference caused to other equipment is not higher than in todays system. RF radiation effects: UMTS shall be operative at RF emission power levels, which are in line with the recommendations related to electromagnetic radiation. Security: The UMTS radio interface should be able to accommodate at least the same level of protection as the GSM radio interface does. Co-existence with other systems: 1. The UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access should be capable of coexisting with other systems within the same or neighbouring band depending on systems and regulations 2. Multi-mode implementation capabilities. 3. It should be possible to implement dual mode UMTS/GSM terminals cost effectively.

UTRA: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access


Concluding Remarks By looking at the bearer capabilities from previous three slides one can conclude:
Evolution towards higher rates will initially apply mainly to indoor rates. In this environment convergence will also have higher impact. In addition, UTRA will not only prevent seamless HO between different operators or access networks, but also support HO between 2G and 3G system, e.g. GSM and UMTS. UTRA will support key technologies, like ATM, IP, BISDN, as well as GSM, when it comes down to core network (CN) transport. This will constitute the trend of 2G CN towards integrated circuit switched and packet switched services.

UMTS Fields:Capacity Increasing Antennas

Enhancing Technologies:
By increasing the number of BS antennas we can resolve the uplink limitation of WCDMA. This approach does not allow a single step solution because many factors intervene before completing process. UTRA will support key technologies, like ATM, IP, BISDN, as well as GSM, when it comes down to core network (CN) transport. This will constitute the trend of 2G CN towards integrated circuit switched and packet switched services.

Student Activity
Q2- Describe the system configurations of two types of land mobile communication systems, and discuss the basic techniques used by each system. Q3- Describe the relationship between the multiple access system and the radio communication system (the combined techniques of radio signal transmission and radio link control) used in land mobile communication system. Q4- Describe what is considered as the major problem characteristics of land mobile communications, and give an example of the countermeasures used to solve the problem.

References:
[1]. M. Patzold, "Mobile Fading Channels", John Wiley & Sons, 2002 [2]. H. Sasaoka, "Mobile Communications", IOS Press, Wave Summit Course, 2000. [3]. H. Holma and A. Toskala, "WCDMA for UMTS", John Wiley & Sons, 2001. [4]. J.P. Castro, "The UMTS Network and Radio Access Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2001. [5]. J.S. Blogh and L. Hanzo, "Third Generation and Inteligent Wireless Networking", John Wiley & Sons, 2002. [6]. K. Tachikawa, "W-CDMA Mobile Communications Systems", John Wiley & Sons, 2002. [7] J. G. Proakis, "Digital Communication" 2nd edn, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000 [8]. W. C. Y. Lee, "Mobile Communication Engineering: Theory and Applications", McGraw-Hill 1998. [9]. T.J. Willink, "MIMO OFDM For Broadband Fixed Access", IEE Proc. On Comm., Feb 2005. [10]. C.R.N. Athaudge and A.D.S. Jayalath, "Delayed Spread estimation using cyclicPrefix in Wireless OFDM Systems", IEE Proc. On Comm., Dec 2004. [11]. R.D. Latima and D. R. Yarwood, "UMTS 2004", ETSI Book Publications 2004. [12]. M.C. Roma and D. Ryanold, "WCDMA and IMT-2000", IEEE Book Publications, Nov. 2004.