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# Four Degree Of Freedom Parallel Manipulator

## Four Degree Of Freedom Parallel Manipulator

Contents

Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Description Introduction Objective of the project Modeling techniques Assumptions Specifications of model Equations of motion Results Conclusion Matlab Code for simulation of dynamics References

Page No 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 13

## Four Degree Of Freedom Parallel Manipulator

1.Introduction
Badminton is a very popular game in Asia. It is played using shuttle cock. A shuttlecock is a high-drag projectile , which has an open conical shape. The cone is formed from sixteen overlapping goose feathers embedded into a rounded cork base. The cork is covered with thin leather. The shuttlecock's shape makes it extremely aerodynamically stable. Regardless of initial orientation, it will turn to fly cork first, and remain in the corkfirst orientation. For playing feathered or synthetic type is used. Synthetic shuttlecock lasts longer, costs less and exhibits less aerodynamic drag compared to feather shuttlecock which is predominantly used by the professional players and have high initial velocity. Unlike most racquet sports, a badminton shuttlecock is an extremely high drag projectile and possesses almost parabolic flight trajectory. The parabolic flight trajectory is generally skewed heavily thus its fall has much steeper angle than the rise. Many papers have been published which details about aerodynamic properties of shuttle cock, obtained through series of experiments with different initial velocity. Typically drag coefficient for shuttlecock is of the order of 0.6-0.7. The trajectory of shuttle cock depends on force and angle of stroke. Moreover air resistance force plays an important factor in determining whether linear or quadratic air resistance force is used. The shuttlecock is very light compared to the area it presents during travel because of which the effect of air resistance on its flight is very pronounced. When struck, the shuttlecock travels cork first, followed by the flexible feathered section. It rapidly loses speed as it travels through the air. An important consequence of its aerodynamic properties is that its fall is significantly steeper than its rise

Shuttlecock

## Four Degree Of Freedom Parallel Manipulator

2. Objective:
To study the dynamics and trajectory of shuttlecock. By studying the trajectory one can determine speed, time, direction and path for different type of strokes. The flight of shuttle cock is a complex phenomenon that results from interaction of aerodynamic forces and dynamic effects. To capture the cork first orientation and study the behavior of trajectory for different aerodynamic drag condition.

3. Modeling Techniques Shuttle cock is modeled as a 3D object with feather as frustum of a cone with shell thickness of unity and cork base as hemisphere embedded on a cylinder.

From these parameters like centre of pressure, centre of gravity, moment of inertia are computed. The forces considered for deriving equations of motion are a. Weight of shuttle cock (mg) b. Buoyant Force (*V*g) constant c. Aerodynamic Force :1/2* *A*V2 Where * *A= b it is computed from free falling condition m*g=b*v2 terminal velocity Vt = (m*g/b)1/2

## Four Degree Of Freedom Parallel Manipulator

terminal velocity is computed from experiment and is constant from which air resistance factor b is calculated .

Location of CP and CG The cp(centre of pressure) is located near feather tip and cg (centre of gravity) at cork base.

Drag Force

Stroke Force

Weight

The aerodynamic drag force creates a torque about cg which is opposed by the pitching moment of inertia of shuttle cock. For stability the cork rotates and aligns with the direction of drag force. This is the principle of cork first direction.

Stable Configuration

## Four Degree Of Freedom Parallel Manipulator

4.Assumptions for deriving equation of motion a. Buoyant force on shuttle cock considering it to be frustum of cone is of the order of 6.1x10-4 N. Hence can be neglected. b. The equation of motion is derived considering i) Drag Force as linear. ii) Drag Force as quadratic. 5.Specifications used for modeling Mass Overall Length Diameter of feather end Diameter of cork end Moment of Inertia (Izz) Centre of Pressure Centre of Gravity Equation of Motion : 5.19 gms. : 85 mm. : 54 mm. : 25 mm. : 1.305x10-5 Kgm2 : 40 mm from fore end of cork. : 8mm towards cork end

## Four Degree Of Freedom Parallel Manipulator

Force Balance (for linear aerodynamic force) i) Vertical direction m*y = -mg - b*y+ Fb Fb buoyant force m-mass of shuttle cock ii) Horizontal direction m*x = -b*x, b: air resistance factor=m*g/vt2

iii) Moment Balance Icg* = Icg r hcp hcg = = = = = = b*[(x-r *)2 +(y+r* )2 ]1/2 *r*sin(-) ; pitching moment of inertia hcp - hcg centre of pressure Centre of gravity angle of rotation of shuttle angle of trajectory

(for quadratic aerodynamic force) Force Balance i) Vertical direction m*y = -mg-b*y2+Fb ii) Horizontal direction m*x = -b*x2 iii) Moment Balance Icg* = b*[(x-r **sin)2 +(y+r* * cos)2 ] *r*sin(-) ;

## Four Degree Of Freedom Parallel Manipulator

8.Results Comparing the trajectory of two cases it can be seen that modeling aerodynamic forces as quadratic is much more accurate than other. For angle of projection of 60 deg with initial velocity of 20 m/s the range of the shuttle cock is nearly 6 m as compared to 25 m in which case the shuttle will go out of the court for most period of time

## Four Degree Of Freedom Parallel Manipulator

9.Conclusion
Formulation of equation of motion using quadratic aerodynamic drag model is much more accurate than linear. Since the range obtained is 6 m (which is with in the badminton court length 13.4m) A higher air resistance factor has been used than that predicted through experiment to capture the rotation of shuttle cock in 2D.

10.Matlab Code
% main program for animating the shuttle cock trajectory global a b L xg close all; clc L=60e-3;% Length of shuttlecock feather b=54e-3;%Feather top diameter a=23e-3;%Cork base diameter r=12.5e-3;%cork base radius xg=-8.00e-3;% x coordinate of cg of shuttle cock yg=0;% y coordinate of cg of shuttle cock alpha=pi/4;% initial angle of rotation for shuttle cock alphadot=0;% angular velocity of shuttle cock v0=20;% Initial Velocity of shuttle cock theta=pi/6; % Initial angle of projection x0=0.1;% Initial position of shuttle cock y0=0.1;% Initial position of shuttle cock vx=v0*cos(theta);%initial horizontal velocity of shuttle cock vy=v0*sin(theta);%initial vertical velocity of shuttle cock p0=[x0 vx y0 vy alpha alphadot]';% initial condition for ode solver options = odeset('Events',@event1); [t,z]=ode45(@shuttle3,0:.001:2,p0,options);%ode solver % plot(t,z(:,7)*180/pi) xsol=z(:,1);%x coordinate displacement solution vxs=z(:,2);% velocity solution ysol=z(:,3);%y coordinate displacement solution vys=z(:,4);% velocity solution thsol=z(:,5);% angular velocity of shuttle cock xc=[0 0 L L 0 0];% x vector to draw shuttle cock yc=[0 a/2 b/2 -b/2 -a/2 0];% y vector to draw shuttle cock % commands for plotting shuttle cock motion with respect to cg xs=[0,-r,r*cos(pi/2:pi/20:3*pi/2)-r,-r,0,0]; ys=[r,r,r*sin(pi/2:pi/20:3*pi/2),-r,-r,r]; xn=[xc xs]-xg; yn=[yc ys]-yg; shuttle = plot(xn,yn,'-'); hold on; plot(0,0,'b+') axis equal; axis([min(xsol)-.05,max(xsol)+0.05,min(ysol)-0.05,max(ysol)+0.05]); pos=[1 35 1366 660];

Four Degree Of Freedom Parallel Manipulator set(gcf,'pos',pos) % axis([min(xsol1)-.05,max(xsol1)+0.05,min(ysol1)-0.05,max(ysol1)+0.05]); % axis([xsol(j)-0.1,xsol(j)+0.1,ysol(j)-0.05,ysol(j)+0.1]); m(1)=getframe; % commands for animating shuttle cock motion for i=2:length(t) % theta=pi/2; xcg=xsol(i); ycg=ysol(i); theta=thsol(i); Rot=[cos(theta) -sin(theta); sin(theta) cos(theta)]; news=Rot*[xn;yn]; newxs=xcg+news(1,:); newys=ycg+news(2,:); set(shuttle,'xdata',newxs,'ydata',newys); plot(xsol(i-1:i),ysol(i-1:i),'b-'); xlabel('Horizontal Distance(m)') ylabel('Vertical Distance(m)') % drawnow; m(i)=getframe; % pause(.01); end % movie(m,5) movie2avi(m,'bnm3.avi','quality',100)% commands for capturing movie

function file
function dz=shuttle3(t,z) global a b L xg % function for solving dynamics of equations of motion for shuttle cock m=0.00519;% mass of shuttlecock g= 9.81; % acceleration due to gravity in metre/sec2 vx=z(2);%horizontal component of velocity vy=z(4);%vertical component of velocity thetadot=z(6);%angular rotation rate of shuttle cock vt=5;%terminal velocity of shuttle cock measured from experiment Ig=1.3051e-5;% moment of inertia of shuttle cock about pitching axis hcg=xg;%centre of gravity of shuttle cock hcp=50e-3;% centre of pressure of shuttle cock % vt=sqrt(vx^2+vy)^2; bv= (m*g)/(vt)^2;% constant depends on property of air % i) Modelling resistance force as quadratic Fv=bv*(vx^2+vy^2); theta=atan2(vy,vx); dz(6,1)= (1/Ig)*0.25*(((vx-(hcp-hcg)*thetadot*sin(z(5)))^2+(vy+(hcphcg)*thetadot*cos(z(5)))^2)*((hcp-hcg)*sin(z(5)-theta))); dz(1,1)=z(2); dz(2,1)=-Fv*cos(theta)/m; dz(3,1)=z(4); dz(4,1)=-g-(Fv*sin(theta)/m); dz(5,1)=z(6);

## Matlab code for event detection

function [value,isterminal,direction] = event1(t,y) value=y(3);

## Four Degree Of Freedom Parallel Manipulator isterminal=1; direction=-1;

matlab code for comparision of trajectory of linear and quadratic drag main program
global a b L xg close all; clc L=60e-3; b=54e-3; a=23e-3; r=12.5e-3; xg=-8.00e-3; yg=0; alpha=pi/10; alphadot=0; v0=20;% Initial Velocity of shuttle cock theta=pi/6; % Initial angle of projection x0=0.5; y0=0.5; % theta=pi/20; vx=v0*cos(theta); vy=v0*sin(theta); %(6.51/0.015)*sin(theta); p0=[x0 vx y0 vy alpha alphadot]'; [t,z]=ode45(@shuttle3,0:.001:2,p0); [t1,y]=ode45(@shuttlelinear,0:.001:1,p0); k=z(:,3); m=z(:,1); j=y(:,3); n=y(:,1); p=z(:,5); q=y(:,5); for i=1:1:length(t) if(k(i)>0.01) k1(i)=k(i); t2(i)=t(i); m1(i)=m(i); end end for l=1:1:length(t1) if(j(l)>0.01) j1(l)=j(l); t3(l)=t1(l); n1(l)=n(l); end end length(k1); length(k); length(t); length(t1); plot(t2,k1,'-.r',t3,j1,'-b','LineWidth',2) % hold on xlabel('time (seconds)') ylabel('Vertical Height(m)')

Four Degree Of Freedom Parallel Manipulator title('Height attained by shuttle cock') h = legend('quadratic drag force','Linear Drag Force',2); set(h,'Interpreter','none') figure plot(m1,k1,'-.r',n1,j1,'-b','LineWidth',2) hold on plot(n1,j1,'-b','LineWidth',2) xlabel('Range (m)') ylabel('Height(m)') title('Horizontal Range of shuttle cock') h = legend('quadratic drag force','Linear Drag Force',2); set(h,'Interpreter','none') figure plot(m,(180/pi)*p,'-.r','LineWidth',2) hold on plot(n,(180/pi)*q,'-b','LineWidth',2) xlabel('Range (m)') ylabel('angle of rotation (deg)') title('angle of rotation of shuttle cock') h = legend('quadratic drag force','Linear Drag Force',2); set(h,'Interpreter','none')

% %

function file
function dz=shuttlelinear(t1,y) global a b L xg % function is matrix formulation for computing horizontal velocity and % displacement for linear resistance/drag force m=0.00519;% mass of shuttlecock g= 9.81; % acceleration due to gravity in metre/sec2 vx=y(2);%horizontal component of velocity vy=y(4);%vertical component of velocity thetadot=y(6);%angular rotation rate of shuttle cock vt=5.61;%terminal velocity of shuttle cock measured from experiment % Ig=1.3051e-4;` Ig=1.3051e-4;% moment of inertia of shuttle cock hcg=xg;%centre of gravity of shuttle cock hcp=50e-3; % vt=sqrt(vx^2+vy)^2; bv= (m*g)/(vt)^2;% constant depends on property of air % i) Modelling resistance force as linear Fv=bv*(vx^2+vy^2)^(1/2); % angle of projection of shuttle cock theta=atan2(vy,vx); dz(6,1)= (1/Ig)*1*((vx-(hcp-hcg)*thetadot*sin(y(5)))^2+(vy+(hcphcg)*thetadot*cos(y(5)))^2)^(1/2)*((hcp-hcg)*sin(y(5)-theta)); dz(1,1)=y(2); dz(2,1)=-Fv*cos(theta)/m; dz(3,1)=y(4); dz(4,1)=-g-(Fv*sin(theta)/m); dz(5,1)=y(6);

## 10. References: 1.www.cookeassociates.com/researchretail.html

2.www.wikipedia.org

## 3.www.doi.wiley.com 4.The engineering of sport 7-Maxine Kwan, Michael Skipper Andersen

5.Aerodynamic properties of badminton shuttle cock Firoz Alam, Harun Chowdhury, Chavaporn Theppadungporn, Aleksandar Subic and M Masud Kamal Khan

6. Effect of Local Conditions on the Flight Trajectory of an Indoor Badminton Shuttlecock Raghavan Subramaniyan, Bangalore, India