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INSTRUCTOR’S SOLUTIONS MANUAL TO ACCOMPANY ATKINS’ PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY . Eighth Edition P. W. Atkins Prolessor of Chemistry, University of Oxtord and Fellow of Lincoln College C. A. Trapp Professor of Chemistry, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA M. P. Cady Professor of Chemistry, Incfana Universty Southeast, New Albany, Indiana, USA. C. Giunta Professor of Chemistry, Le Moyne Collage, Syracuse, NY, USA OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS OXFORD ‘UNIVERSITY PRESS Great Clarendon Steet, Oxford OX2 6DP ‘Oxford University Press isa department of the University of Oxford. furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford. New York ‘Auckland Cape Town Dares Salaam Hong Keng Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With office Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republie France Greece ‘Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam ‘Oxford isa registered trade mark of Oxford University Press inthe UK and in contain other countries Published in the United Staves by WH. Freeman and Company, New York © Oxford University Press, 2006 ‘The moral right ofthe authors have been asserted Database right Oxford University Press (maker) First published 2006 Al rights reserved. No part ofthis publication may be reproduced, stored ina retrieval system. or transmitted, in any form or by any means. without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, co as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate eprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction ‘outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department, ‘Oxford University Press, atthe address above ‘You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover ‘and you must impose the same condition on any acquirer Brivish Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Data available ‘Typoset by Newgen Imaging Systems (P) Lid. Chennai, India Printed in Great Britain ‘on acid-fee paper by Ashford Colour Press Lid, Gosport, Hampshire ISBN 0-19-928857-7 978-0-19-928857-1 13579108642 Preface This manual provides detailed solutions toallthe end-of-chapter (b) Exercises, and tothe even-numbered Discussion Questions and Problems. Solutions to Exercises and Problems carried over from previous editions have been reworked, modified, or corrected when needed. The solutions to the Problems in this edition rely more heavily on the mathematical and molecular ‘modeling software that is now generally accessible to physical chemistry students, and thisis particularly true for many of the new Problems which request the use of such software for their solutions. But almost all of the Exercises and many of the Problems can still be solved with a modern hand-held scientific calculator. When a quantum chemical calculation or molecular modeling process has been called for, ‘we have usually provided the solution with PC Spartan Pro™ because of its common availability. In general, we have adhered rigorously to the rules for significant figures in displaying the final answers. However, when intermediate answers are shown, they are often given with one more figure than would be justified by the data, These excess digits are indicated with an overline. We have carefully cross-checked the solutions for errors and expect that most have been eliminated ‘We would be grateful to any readers who bring any remaining errors to our attention, We warmly thank our publishers for their patience in guiding this complex, detailed project to ‘completion. PW.A. CAT. M.P.C. CG