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Plant layout is defined as the most effective physical arrangement of machines, equipment, and service departments to have the best co-ordination and efficiency of man, machine and material in a plant. REASONS :Need to make minor correction in present layout due to method improvement, new type of inspection plan, and new type of product, Need to rearrange the existing layout due to various changes, Re-allocating the existing facilities due to new location, Building a new plant. EFFECTS OF A PLANT LAYOUT A good layout will result in the following: Material handling and transportation is minimized The movements made by workers are minimized. Waiting time of the semi-finished products is minimized. Bottlenecks are eliminated Overall satisfaction & simplification Increased production, safer working conditions, well ventilated rooms, clean environment, optimum spaces Increased flexibility , improved work methods and reduced production cycle time In other words, the layout design must consider how to achieve the following: Higher utilization of space, equipment, and people. Improved flow of information, materials, and people. Improved employee morale and safer working conditions. Improved customer/client interaction. Flexibility to change the layout that exists anytime. VARIABLES:Layouts are affected by types of industry, production systems, types of products, volume of production, and types of manufacturing processes Types of industries Synthetic process based industry: In this, two or more materials are mixed to get a product, e.g. cement Analytic process based industry: It is opposite of synthetic process. Here, the final products are obtained as a result of breaking of material into several parts. For example, the petroleum Conditioning process based industry: Here, the form of raw material is changed into the desired products, e.g. jute products in the jute industry, or the milk products in the dairy farm. Extractive process based industry: By applying heat, desired product is extracted from the raw material, e.g. Aluminum from bauxite, and steel from iron ores. Types of production system Continuous Production:-They are characterized by standardized, high-volume, capital-intensive products

Job Shop Production:-This is characterized by made-to-order, low volume, labor-intense products Batch Production:-They are characterized by medium size lots of the same type of item or product Type of product Whether the product is heavy or light, large or small, liquid or solid, etc. Volume of production Whether the production is in small quantity, or in lots or batches, or in huge quantity (mass production). PRINCIPLES OF PLANT LAYOUT Principle of overall integration (of man, materials, machine, supporting activities, etc) Principle of minimum distance between operations Principle of flow (arranging machines according to the sequence of operations) Principle of cubic space Principle of satisfaction and safety Principle of flexibility of rearrangement at a minimum cost. TYPES OF FLOW