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I- Introduo Notao Musical

O objetivo de nosso estudo compreendermos basicamente a rea terica e prtica


da NOTAO MUSICAL.
Notao Musical a rea da teoria musical que estuda todos os smbolos e sinais
necessrios para ler e interpretar uma partitura, ou seja, como o prprio nome j indica
(Notao = escrita, Musical= da musica).

1.1 A msica
A definio de musica a arte de combinar sons. So trs os elementos
fundamentais que compe a musica:
*Melodia: Os sons executados de maneira organizada, formando um sentido
musical.
*Ritmo: Movimento ordenado dos sons no tempo.
*Harmonia: Combinao de sons executados simultaneamente.
No estudo da notao musical podemos observar a melodia e o ritmo, sendo que a
harmonia, por sua maior complexidade requer um estudo especfico chamado
Harmonizao.

1.2 Os sons
Som o nome de uma onda longitudinal senoidal (com unidade de frequncia em Hertz)
que se propaga em meios materiais capaz de trazer informaes ao nosso crebro
captadas pelos nossos ouvidos, podendo variar em altura (grave ou agudo) intensidade
(forte ou fraco, referente ao volume) durao (maior ou menor durao) e timbre
(peculiaridade de cada som).

1.3 Notas_Escala_Graus_Tons e Semitons


Os sinais grficos da musica representam as diferentes ondas que chamamos de
notas. So sete as notas musicais: d ou C, r ou D, mi ou E , f ou F, sol ou G, l ou A
e si ou B.
A sequencia destas sete notas seguida da repetio da primeira no final,
denominamos escala. Ex: a escala de D/C seguir ento da nota d e terminar
repetindo-a (d, r, mi, f, sol, l, si e d / C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C). O mesmo seria feito
na escala de R/D : (r, mi, f, sol, l, si e d / D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D).
Cada nota da escala chamada de grau e cada grau recebe um nome especfico, e
representado por algarismos romanos.

Se temos 7 notas musicais, temos assim 7 graus, sendo que na escala a totalidade de
8 notas, de igual forma so 8 os graus sendo o ultimo de mesmo nome que o primeiro.
importante lembrar que as notas no possuem um grau fixo. Variam de grau
mediante a escala situada. Ex: na escala de C, a nota d ser a tnica, porm quando
colocada na escala de F a mesma passar a ser o quinto grau da escala, ou seja, a
dominante.
Alm da regra de sequencia da escala, para estabelecer-se uma escala diatnica
(dia= a partir de , Tnica= I grau da escala) necessrio seguir o modelo da diviso
dos tons e semitons do decorrer da escala.
*Semitom a menor diferena entre dois sons que nosso ouvido pode perceber e
classificar. 1 semitom equivale a Tom.
Para alterar a altura das notas e assim enquadra-las na determinada escala usamos
alguns sinais que por sua vez podem aumentar ou diminuir tons e semitons. Estes sinais
so chamados de acidentes. So eles o (a):

A escala diatnica natural de C a nica que no possui nenhum acidente, por isso
ela tomada como referencial.
Na formao da EDN a diviso dos tons e semitons procede da seguinte forma:
todos os graus so separados por tons com exceo do III para o IV e do VII para o
VIII, que encontram-se semitons. Observe:

Podemos observar tambm que o sustenido de uma nota sempre ser o bemol da
posterior e o bemol de uma nota sempre ser o sustenido da anterior (com exceo do Fb,
E#, Cb e B#).

1.4 Pauta_Linhas Suplementares_Claves


A pauta tambm chamada de Pentagrama ( Palavra originada do latim Penta =
cinco, gramaes= linhas/pontas) so cinco linhas paralelas equidistantes que formam
entre si quatro espaos. Nessas linhas e espaos so colocadas as notas, e as mesmas,
linhas e espaos so contadas de baixo para cima.
No incio de cada pauta colocado um sinal que serve para indicar como sero
nomeadas as notas, chamado clave. So trs as claves:

A clave de G colocada na 2 linha, esta que se chamar


sol, e a partir da nomearemos as demais notas.

A clave de F pode ser colocada na 3 ou 4 linha. Nesta


clave os dois pontinhos servem para indicar em qual linha a
clave est (a linha que passa entre os pontos) . Usamos com
mais frequncia na 4 linha.
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A clave de C pode ser colocada em todas as linhas exceto a 5. Esta clave menos
usada e quando usamos, mais comum aplica-la na 3 linha.

Sabendo-se que a pauta possui apenas 5 linhas e 4 espaos, logo percebemos que
caberiam apenas 9 notas na pauta, entretanto dificilmente um instrumento se limitar a
esse universo, podendo expressar notas tanto mais agudas, quanto mais graves. Para
expressar essas notas que no cabem na pauta foram criadas as Linhas e Espaos
Suplementares Superiores (colocados acima da pauta, contadas de baixo para cima) e
Inferiores (colocados abaixo da pauta, contados de cima para baixo).
Para se identificar em qual linha suplementar (LS) a nota est s contar o numero
de linhas que foram adicionadas. Quando forem observar os espaos suplementares (ES)
s adicionar 1 ao numero de linhas evidentes, j que o 1ES no requer a adio de
linha.
interessante tambm, ressaltar que nos ESS a nota sempre vir acima da linha e
quando esta presente nos ESI vir de mesmo modo abaixo da linha. Quando porm a
nota estiver em uma LS ser identificada por a linha estar cortando-a ao meio.
A quantidade mxima de linhas tanto SS quanto SI a serem colocadas 5 linhas.

1.5 Valores_Diviso Proporcional dos Valores ( DPV)


Valores o nome dado as figuras que indicam a durao dos sons ou do silncio na
musica.
H dois tipos de valores:
*Positivos (figuras de som): so aqueles que indicam a durao dos sons
*Negativos (pausas): so os que indicam a durao do silncio.
Cada valor positivo tem um respectivo
valor negativo que de igual modo possui
um mesmo nome, um mesmo numero
referencial e indica a mesma durao do
som/silncio. So eles:
A diviso proporcional dos valores
tomada a partir da noo de interpretao
em que cada figura tem um nmero que
coresponde ao seu nome dado pela
quantidade de figuras necessrias para
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igualar-se ao valor da semibreve. Ex: 1 semibreve igual a 2 mnimas, 4 semnimas, 8


colcheias (...); 1 mnima igual a 2 semnimas, 4 colcheias (...); 1 semnima igual a 2
colcheias etc...

Toda figura de som formada por no mnimo 1 e no Maximo 3 partes que so:

1.6 Compassos
Os valores no tem durao fixa. A durao de cada valor determinada pelo
compasso (frao colocada logo aps a clave onde o numerador indica quantos
tempos ter cada compasso e o denominador indica qual figura ser tomada como
unidade de tempo).
Os compassos so divididos por barras simples (indicam apenas o termino de um
compasso), barras duplas (indicam o termino de uma frase ou trecho musical, tambm
usada quando a aplicao de uma nova armadura de clave) ou traves finais (indicam
o termino da musica). (Ver imagens em 1.8 Sinais de articulao_Sinais de repetio/ ritornello).
Como numerador pode ser usado qualquer numero maior do que 1, e como
denominador apenas nmeros que correspondem a alguma figura musical.
So mais utilizados os compassos de denominador 4, variando em binrios ( de
numerador 2), ternrios (de numerador 3 ) e quaternrios ( de numerador 4).

1.7 Ligadura_Ponto de Aumento_Fermata


Ligadura uma linha curva colocada sob ou sobre 2 figuras e indica que estas
devem ser executadas sem interrupo de som. Ex:

Ponto de aumento um pontinho colocado a direita da figura e indica que ser


somada a metade do valor ao valor nominal da mesma. Ex:

Fermata uma linha curva com um ponto no centro colocada acima ou abaixo da
figura que indica que o musico ou regente poder manipular a durao do tempo da
nota. (Para uma maior durao se a a fermata for colocada acima, e para uma menor
durao se for colocada abaixo da nota).

1.8 Sinais de Articulao_ Sinais de Repetio


Sinais de articulao so aqueles que nos indicam o modo de atacar os sons.
Temos trs principais que so:

a) Ataque crescente ou decrescente: um sinal de maior qu (>), ou

menor qu (<) que colocado sobre uma nota que indica que devemos
executa-la de maneira crescente (<) ou decrescente (>).

b) Staccato: Palavra italiana, significa

destacado. Indica que os sons devem ser


articulados de maneira seca, como se
houvessem pausas entre as notas.

c) Tenuto: a juno dos 2 sinais acima. O som deve ser

executado de maneira seca e estridente.

Os principais sinais para determinar a repetio de um trecho musical so:


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*Al segno: Da capo al Segno uma expresso italiana que significa


do principio ate o segno. Indica que se deve voltar ao lugar onde se
encontra o segno e terminar onde estiver escrita a palavra FIM.
* Coda: Tambm chamado sinal de salto, indica que os compassos
colocados entre eles no devem ser tocados na 2 vez que for tocar a musica.
* Ritornello: Palavra italiana, significa retornar. Indica que o trecho
que estiver entre os dois ritornellos deve ser repetido.

* Chaves de volta: Usadas quando o trecho musical a repetir no


terminar perfeitamente igual. Coloca-se sobre os compassos que sero
modificados as expresses 1 e 2 vez.

Nesta figura observamos os


nmeros 1 e 5 na primeira
chave, o que indica que deve-se
tocar 5 vezes o trecho e na
6vez pular a casa de 1 a 5 e
passar para a que contem o n6.

1.9 Dinmica musical (Andamentos e sinais de Intensidade)


Andamento o movimento rpido ou lento dos sons, estando diretamente ligado ao
ritmo. Os andamentos so indicados por palavras italianas. Partindo de um mais lento
para um mais rpido, temos de maneira crescente em velocidade: Largo, Larghetto,
Lento, Adgio, Andante, Andantino, Moderato, Allegretto, Allegro, Vivace, Vivo,
Presto e Prestssimo.
A intensidade da musica um dos elementos principais, quando queremos
expressar nossos sentimentos e incrementar a melodia. Indica-se a intensidade dos sons
por palavras italianas e sinais de crescendo (<) e diminuindo (>) colocados abaixo da
pauta.

Eis as abreviaturas mais usadas:

II Noes bsicas de Harmonizao


Como j se foi estudado, por sua maior complexidade a harmonia requer um estudo
especfico que denominamos Harmonizao. Estudaremos de maneira simplificada
alguns dos inmeros itens que compe o universo infinito da formao harmnica
musical.

2.1 Acordes
Definio: Chamamos de acorde quando trs (trade), quatro (ttrade) ou mais notas
so executadas simultaneamente.
Existem vrios tipos de acorde, porm estudaremos apenas cinco: maior (M),
menor (m), diminuto (dim ou ), aumentado (aum ou +) e com stima (7 ou 7).
Na maioria dos acordes sua formao dada pela tnica, mediante e dominante da
escala nominal sofrendo apenas algumas alteraes em seus tons (obs: nunca variar-se-
a tnica). Observe
Acorde maior: formado pela tnica, mediante e dominante da escala nominal.

Ex:

Acorde de F maior (F). Formado pelas notas f (Tonica),


l (mediante) e d (dominante) sobrepostas em forma de
intervalo harmnico.

Acorde menor: de mesmo modo que o acorde maior porm com a diminuio

de um semitom na mediante. Ex:

Acorde de Fa menor (Fm). Formado pelas notas f (Tonica), l bemol


(mediante -1st) e d (dominante), sobrepostas em forma de intervalo
harmnico.

Acorde diminuto: Aplica-se a diminuio de um semitom no III e V grau. Ex:

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Acorde de Mi diminuto (E ou E/dim). Formado pelas


notas mi (Tonica), sol (mediante -1st) e si bemol
(dominante -1st), sobrepostas em forma de intervalo
harmnico.

Acorde Aumentado: Aplica-se o acrscimo de um semitom na dominante. Ex:

Tomando como princpio a Clave de Sol, Acorde de D aumentado (C+ ou


C/aum). Formado pelas notas d (Tonica), mi (mediante) e sol sustenido
(dominante +1st), sobrepostas em forma de intervalo harmnico.

Acorde com stima: Acrscimo VII grau na formao do


acorde. Ex:

Tomando como princpio a Clave de Sol, Acorde de Sol com stima (G7 ou
G7) Formado pelas notas sol (Tonica), si (mediante), r (dominante) e f
sustenido (sensvel), sobrepostas em forma de intervalo harmnico.

2.2 Noes bsicas do Campo Hamnico


O campo harmnico se constitui em quais notas ou acordes podem ser aplicados em
determinada musica, dependendo totalmente em qual tom esta se encontra.
O campo harmnico determina que numa musica o acorde da:
Tnica: ser maior
Supertnica: ser menor
Mediante: ser menor
Subdominante: ser justo
Dominante: ser justo
Superdominante: ser menor
Sensvel: ser diminuto

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Os trs ltimos desejos de um rei poderoso


Quando j beira da morte, um rei muito poderoso
convocou
os seus generais e relatou seus 3 ltimos desejos:
1 - que seu caixo fosse transportado pelas mos dos
mdicos mais renomados da poca;
2 - que fosse espalhado no caminho at seu tmulo os seus
tesouros conquistados (prata, ouro, pedras preciosas...); e...
3 - que suas duas mos fossem deixadas balanando no ar,
fora do
caixo, vista de todos.
Um dos seus generais, admirado com esses desejos
inslitos, perguntou ao rei quais as razes de trs desejos
to inusitados. E o rei com a voz j se extinguindo explicou:
Quero que os mais iminentes mdicos carreguem meu
caixo para mostrar que eles no tm poder de cura perante
a morte; Quero que o cho seja coberto pelos meus tesouros
para que as pessoas possam ver que os bens materiais aqui
conquistados, aqui permanecem; E por ultimo, quero que
minhas mos balancem ao vento para que as pessoas
possam ver que de mos vazias viemos e de mos vazias
partimos.

A persistncia o caminho mais rpido


rumo ao xito! Por isso aproveite o tempo
que lhe dado hoje, pois no sabes se
amanh estars aqui. E apesar de deste
mundo no levares nada, deixars
lembranas, essas que so capazes de
eternizar-lhe
ou
lanar-lhe
no
39

esquecimento. Contudo, faa tudo o que


bom e agradvel, cultive amigos,
adquira cada vez mais conhecimento,
pois suas aes que lhe faro ser
lembrado!

Thiago Henrique S.
Montimr

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