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Buendia, Gizelle Natsu Hernandez, Krizia Panganiban, Cendy Tabobo, Anna Beatrice

TEACHING STRATEGIES IN HANDLING STUDENTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY


We all know that teaching students with special needs is not an easy job. It takes time and pure knowledge in order for an individual to interact with people with disabilities. Working with students with intellectual disabilities can be challenging for a new teacher. This article gives an overview of the characteristics of these students, as well as some practical hints on how to teach technology tools for teaching students with intellectual disabilities.

Teaching strategies are one of the essential tools a teacher must have in order to have a good practice. One of the greatest challenges is to provide a positive learning

has a unique characteristic. Educators and parents should incorporate a variety of strategies that are best suited for the child. Intellectual Disability is currently used to refer to a wide spectrum disorders of that

environment for the students in your classroom. Because each student has his or her own unique set of physical and intellectual abilities, perceptions, and needs, the learning styles of your students may vary widely. Every child

neurodevelopment

have the core features of impairment in social interaction, impairment in verbal and non-verbal, and restricted and repetitive in pattern of behaviour.

If language does not develop, it is reasonable that a behavior or

effective communication system is one of the fundamental deficits in children with intellectual Disability and that often leads to behavioral problems. Hodgdon (1999)

behavior disorder might occur. Most nonverbal or language delayed

children have some type of behavior problem (e.g., tantrums, self-

summarizes this concept nicely when she states Communication difficulties can be a primary reason for many behavior problems. Because of the nature of Intellectual Disability and the many combinations of symptoms that may be present, there is no single specific approach that has been identified to take away all the symptoms of intellectual Disability. There are

stimulation, property destruction, Aggression, social withdrawal) and it is easy to see that these behaviors came to function as the childs main form of communication. The

researcher believed that this serious misbehavior intellectual in children should with be

disability

replaced with socially appropriate behaviour. A lack of an effective communication system associated with increased tantrums, aggression, and even self-injury. The lack of an

various types of therapies available including behavior training and

speech therapy. The development of

life skills is important for children with Intellectual Disability. Task that promotes individualism give more opportunity for personal choice and to move freely in a community.

you must develop self-efficacy. Lack of efficacy may be a hindrance that creates concern for teachers

regarding the implementation of services and programs because of their lack of training and education.

The ABA or the Applied Behavior Analysis is one of the behavioral approaches is based on a theory and that is governed by antecedents and consequences. The attitude of the teacher is very important when it comes to teaching students with exceptionalities. It plays a critical role in maintaining a successful program. Negative and positive attitudes may have a big effect to students when it is showed to them. Theorists believed that to teach a student successfully,

Overall, all the teachers expressed that they are in need of supports that they do not have to successfully integrate a student with disabilities into the general education classroom. Some special education teachers say that they need but do not meet the required appropriate class-size and reported that they needed in-service workshops with the general

education teachers. The teachers reported that, the areas that they feel their needs were being met were

in the areas of receiving support from the principal and collaborating with a specialist. The study reported that most of the special education

Understanding

the

current

knowledge and concerns of Special education teachers can help in remediating and supportive

teachers got the needed support from the principal. However, teachers feel that they lacked the trainings needed to implement the instruction successfully. They also felt that sufficient time was not given to them to prepare and they needed more support in the form of getting smaller class- size and assistance in modifying the curriculum. Teachers feel that they have inadequate knowledge and trainings or collaborative teaching opportunities. However, the results from the study showed a more negative outcome in the practice.

procedures may be implemented to improve programs. The study reveals that, some changes are necessary to enhance both programs and teachers in order to meet the learning needs of special education. The author says that there are two ways to a better outcome, which are: 1. Undergraduate teaching

programs should require preservice teachers to spend time observing and student teaching in a classroom.

2. Middle school principals must provide special educators with specific training focused on strategies for teaching difficult topics to diverse students. These teaching education

supports or trainings. So it is unlikely that they will not develop self-efficacy. It will not be

implemented appropriately and the students will not really gain all of its genuine benefits The findings of the study revealed that majority of the teachers have a positive attitudes towards teaching in the special education class. Most of the teachers classroom described that their were

programs need to increasingly include strategies for diverse

learners in all methods courses, and including specific strategies to teach challenging topics. Most of the teachers find collaborative learning very effective and having a small group is the most effective instructional strategies that they use. From the variety of articles, the responses are reflect not and that getting adequate

experiences

satisfactory. Although most of the teachers consider having

appropriate training, the majority would like to have more support in the form of resources to address students specific needs,

teachers appropriate

well

trained

instructional knowledgeable

through simulations of three fast food restaurants on the computer using video captions, still

assistants,

administration, and appropriate collaboration time. Teachers feel that the behaviors of some

photographs, and voice recordings. Generalization and maintenance of skills were measured within the three community fast food restaurants. Results indicate that verbal responses to questions and fast food restaurant purchasing skills can be taught to students with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities through CBVI. When using simulation (teaching outside of the natural environment where skills will be used) it is important to closely replicate the actual stimuli and responses found in a natural setting to make things realistic. One example to make a

students with disabilities take away from instructional time and they do not have the time to implement instruction effectively. An article entitled Computer based video instruction to teach children with ID to verbally respond to questions and make purchases in fast food restaurant. shows Computerbased video instruction (CBVI). It was used to teach verbal response to questions presented by cashiers and purchasing restaurants. skills in fast food

Instruction

occurred

realistic simulation, life-like scenarios is through video technology. The use of video recording can provide multiple teaching examples, it can replicate stimuli in the environment and allow repetitive practice of skills. Interactive learning can be generated by combining video technology and computer-based instruction through software programs such as hyper studio and PowerPoint (Microsoft) which access video recordings saved on the computer, an external drive, or compressed onto CD-ROM. The current study expanded on available research by evaluating use of

within the context of functional activities. Research shows how

helpful video modelling is. Video recordings were made depicting the entire process for verbally ordering and using a fast food restaurant. Video recordings served as models and specific segments were delivered by the computer-based program as stimuli to elicit a response by the student or following a student

response. An adult familiar to the students and actual employees at the restaurants appeared in video

recordings. Students viewed video segments of the adult model

Computer-based video Instruction (CBVI) to teach verbal skills to students with intellectual disabilities

performing steps they would later perform in the restaurant or the restaurant cashier making verbal

requests (e.g. Is this for here or to go?) and performing tasks (stimuli) that the student would respond to in the restaurant (e.g. giving change). (Linda C. Mechling, Leslie S. Pridgen, and Beth A. Cronin, 2005). According to what the article said the common pattern that is done inside the classroom was very mainstream and looks like its too boring to do on a daily basis. The objective of the study is to improve the classroom arrangement and to improve the way the lesson is delivered. If classes are considered a purposeful activity

information for class improvement but to provide daily classes and school life better suited to the children. The education for students with intellectual disability is just like learning by doing. The teachers should teach the lesson by applying it through real situations. Students learn through concrete experience. According to Jiraporn Chano 2011, the model communicative can control instructional behavior

problems. Based on what we already know about various strategies that can help the behavioral problems of autistic proposed children, a Chano 2011

conducted as part of the overall school life, however, the essence of class studies for schoolchildren with intellectual disability is not to obtain

comprehensive

communicative instructional model in this research. The model is to draw

from and combine techniques used in Picture Exchange Communication

designed to be an integrated and comprehensive model with a

System (PECS), Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), and Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Children (TEACCH). Handicapped Chano 2011

sequential and logical process to move from assessment to

educational programming, and from less sophisticated goals. move to The through more time the

sophisticated required to

named the model PAT using the first letter of each technique

program depends on the child.

adopted. The PAT model has been Therefore, student with intellectual Levels of Functioning Student having Intellectual Disabilities According to De Mesa, 2010, student with intellectual disabilities will learn new things but at a slower pace than children in the regular classroom. The capacity to acquire skills depends on the severity. disabilities will have a levels where there are estimates how well a person with intellectual disability will be function as a child as adult. Six studies describe how to identify and evaluate how to use the supported eText for student with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities.

Although it is important to recognize that each was conducted with a learning conditions. Most of the student with intellectual disabilities will require more support audio version of the text. Visual support is form of pictures, videos, photographs to increase comprehension of reading materials for it is significance of the students in this study. And visual supports promote to increase the generalization and maintenance of the information. The instruction

studies summarize here, the research in the areas of eText, AT, and nonreaders with intellectual

disabilities are requiring a larger investment of time to explore fully. This discussion explores of

conducting research supported eText as well as the implications of research interested making text is more meaningful in the lives of individual disabilities. The eText supports

become readily accessible to student with intellectual disabilities to

should be provided so that the student will learn how to use the eText supports. In the last two studies, students were taught how to develop a graphic organizer to have an impact on their comprehension. From the

enhance their literacy materrials that represented electronically. The

evaluation of AT supports how the learners can lead the understanding what support is to improve their comprehension skills. Teachers

should

aware

of

the

eText

today the students have severe intellectual disability were

technologies because to integrate them into a daily instructional lessons and to provide the student for their use in teaching. As stated in Balajthy, 2005, individual with intellectual disabilities need to used will benefit AT tools, and to access the beneficial aspects of their lives. Therefore, accessibility and understanding of eText with students having the intellectual disabilities is to have a greater independence of their lives. Students with severe intellectual disabilities cannot read and write, communication is needed so that they will get or always interpret their behaviors as their needs and wants. It was believed in the past or even

uneducable, they have no right to access educational program but they were acceptable to be in the house in big institutions. We accept that students can learn the skills and participate in the life of their families and part of their lives. Through special education this developed the practices and strategies to teach functional skills to the learners of intellectual disability. Special

Education, especially for students with high support needs developed teaching technology for behavior analysis (Newmann, Marks, &

Gamoran, 1996). The quality teaching can be met by thoughtful use of

range of teaching strategies (Gerten & Baker, 1998). Therefore, students with intellectual disabilities must be taught some teaching technologies to have an easy way of teaching them. They need the guidance of their family in their daily needs.

maintenance of skills were measured within the three community fast food restaurants. Results indicate that verbal responses to questions and fast food restaurant purchasing skills can be taught to students with moderate to severe intellectual

disabilities through CBVI. When using Teaching Strategies Computer-based video simulation it is important to closely replicate the actual stimuli and responses found in a natural setting to make things realistic. One example to make a realistic simulation, life-like scenarios technology. recording can is through video

instruction (CBVI) was used to teach verbal response to questions

presented by cashiers and purchasing skills in fast food occurred of three restaurants. through fast food

Instruction simulations

The use of video provide multiple

restaurants on the computer using video captions, still photographs, and voice recordings. Generalization and

teaching examples; it can replicate stimuli in the environment and allow repetitive practice of skills.

Interactive learning can be generated by combining video technology and computer-based instruction through software programs such as hyper studio and PowerPoint (Microsoft) which access video recordings saved on the computer, an external drive, or compressed onto CD-ROM. The current study expanded on available research by evaluating use of

Video recordings served as models and specific segments were delivered by the computer-based program as stimuli to elicit a response by the student or following a student

response. An adult familiar to the students and actual employees at the restaurants recordings. methods appeared Findings for in in video

effective writing

teaching

Computer-based video Instruction (CBVI) to teach verbal skills to students with intellectual disabilities within the context of functional activities. Research shows how

revealed that writing instructions effects on various written expression outcomes averaging overlapping studies. were aggregated of by nonacross that

percentage data

(PND) revealed

helpful video modeling is. Video recordings were made depicting the entire process for verbally ordering and using a fast food restaurant.

Findings

strategy instruction was investigated more frequently than other types of approaches. Strategy instruction was

consistently

found

to

be

very

intellectual disabilities that make teaching written communication skills a challenge. Individuals tend with to

effective for teaching writing skills to students with intellectual disabilities. Students provided with with to disabilities even learn are fewer written

intellectual

disabilities

acquire skills at a slower rate and have difficulty using strategies such as rehearsing, conceptualizing (e.g., generating new ideas or connecting sets of ideas to previous

opportunities

expression skills during their formal schooling years in contrast to their peers without disabilities (Berninger et al., 1998; Erickson, Koppenhaver, & Yoder, 1994). The differences between students with disabilities and their same age peers without disabilities can be observed both in their writing quality and quantity as well as their knowledge of various text genres (Graham & Harris, 1997). There are some characteristics that are generally associated with

experiences), transferring, planning, organizing, (Arabsolghar and & monitoring Elkins, 2000;

Banikowski & Mehring, 1999; Turner, Dofny, & Dutka, 1994). These skills may be improved by interacting with written language (Kaderavek &

Rabidoux, 2004). In fact, despite challenges that individuals with

intellectual disabilities face, there

have been case studies and other research that suggest that individuals with intellectual disabilities can learn to express themselves rather

that

will

assist

student can

with be

intellectual

disability

supported by appropriate use of technology. Technology has become an important part of all of our lives. Most student use computers in their school and even at home as well. If students with intellectual disability are denied access in technology, this will only widen the gap between students with disability and students without disability. That is why

successfully through various forms of writing (e.g., Kaderavek & Rabidoux, 2004; Kahn-Freedman, 2001; Pershey & Gilbert, 2002). referred The to, teaching so far

strategies educational

assessment, instructional, adaptations, and

individualized curriculum

partial/supported participation are concerned were related to each other. They all imply that student with intellectual disability, whether they are in a regular class or special class should have an educational program. Many teaching strategies

teachers nowadays use technology in teaching to be fit in the society, besides technology helps teachers and students to communicate to each other much easier, with the help of technology teachers can easily deliver their lessons. Students with

intellectual disability have difficulties understanding written materials,

motivating for the students. Lessons should be fully implemented by teachers skilled in effective reading instruction. Students with intellectual disability always have a hard time understanding reading materials

techniques that will provide them with the skills necessary to fully process individual words in

connected text and derive meaning from the text should be taught for clearer understanding. These findings suggest that when given scientifically based and rigorously intensive

thats why there is a need of large amount of repetition to make

meaningful progress. To summarize the review of related literature, in this portion, the researchers have combined all the information gathered and analyzed the items carefully and came up with a new idea. Teachers who handle students with different disabilities have their own techniques and strategies on handling them. We may not avoid those teachers who lack

reading instruction over an extended period of time, these children

respond positively, making important gains in literacy development.

Instructions must be systematically and explicitly given, including all reading components. It is also

needed to be repetitive in its use of routines and must be highly

information

when

it

comes

to

having a hard time reading and doing solving problems. They have weak verbal comprehensions. Also, they have the-so-called short attention span. They get distracted easily and they easily forgot information given to them. Next is the moderate level. In this level of severity, the student experiences a hard time interacting with other people. They are so dependent with the people around them. They are also self-sufficient and they have a hard time using their motor skills and speech. The severe level of intellectual disability shows a 0% of the knowledge in writing and reading. The student totally does not know how to write or read. They are uneducable and they have no right to

handling students with disabilities. But with the seminars and workshops who feeds their knowledge, teachers gain ideas on of the handling the them

correctly. disabilities

One is

common Intellectual

Disability. For sure, this disability is heard all over the world. We are currently conducting a research

about this and we found out that those teachers who handles children with intellectual disability in the Philippines is mostly aware on how to handle a student with the said disability. A student with this kind of disability experiences slow learning. It has its level of severity. One is the mild level. In this level, the student is

access educational programs. They interpret their actions based on others. They must have the attention of another person in order to communicate and have focused of the attention with other person. These children will be able to learn basic self-help skills such as feeding themselves and bathing. The

less

activity

level

receive

less

affection and experiences are more care. Children with profound

intellectual disabilities have other medical problems, such as cerebral palsy, and may need nursing care. They have delays in all areas of development. The study shows on how tangibles for can support with

profound level of severity of a student shows total dependency of daily wants and needs. They facial

independent

students

intellectual disabilities. Student with intellectual disabilities are reluctant of others opinion and attitudes. There are common of pupil like general with poor logical in

communicate

through

expression, movements and sounds because they nature in communicate behaviour needs are difficulty

characteristics intellectual verbal

disabilities

interpret and misunderstood. They have less engagement to daily

memory, and

poor

reasoning,

difficulties

activities. Communicative skills and

attention. Emotional skills and lack of

confidence are also their difficulties. The study also and shows lack of with

charts,

pictures,

figures

and

everything that can be seen by the students. In this strategy, the best way in teaching them is through their environment. Visual components are the ones that are very useful in teaching them. The teachers also have to have their immediate

confidence

initiative

characteristics of the students. These finding interventions with student using tangible with support of for

environment

independent

student with intellectual disabilities. Teachers used the strategies that demonstrates one step at a time model wherein the students can adopt on the speed that they can perform. The most effective strategy that the teacher used to the students with Intellectual Disabilities is the

feedback on the students because a delay in providing immediate

feedback may interrupt the cause and effect on the students mind and a probability that the point will be lost.