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Declaration

I Student Name, bearing USN: 4JC03LIE58, hereby declare that this dissertation work entitled Analysis and Implementation of IEC 61850 Standard for Communications in Substations was independently carried out by me under the guidance and supervision of Dr. Internal Guide Name, Professor of Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Your College of Engineering, College City and Industry guide Mr. Albert Einstein, Engineering ocer IV, Information Technology and Implementation Division, Some Research Institute, Bangalore. This dissertation work is submitted to Visvesvaraya Technological University in partial fulllment of the requirements for the award of Degree of Master of Technology in Industrial Electronics during the academic year 2005 - 2006.

Place: Date: Ekalavya F

Abstract
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Acknowledgements
With immense pleasure, I acknowledge the help, guidance and support received from various quarters during the course of my project work. Hence, I hereby express my gratitude to one and all. My sincere thanks to my project guide and mentor, Prof. ABC for his support and guidance. His vision and suggestions throughout the project period from choosing the problem, solving and presenting has been fundamental in completion of the project. Sir, you have been a source of motivation throughout. Heartfelt gratitude to my internal guide Prof. XXX YYY for the encouragement and advice provided to me during the project work and for reviewing and advising me on the report. My labmates here at Protocol Engineering & Technology Unit deserve more than a mention here. I acknowledge Pratik for all the support and help during my stay in PET Lab. I would not have realized the importance of Wikipedia had it not been for him. I acknowledge my other labmates Muruli, Narendra Sir, Varaprasad, Vikas and Vinod for their companionship, camaraderie and support. Every conversation on every coee session with you people was memorable and will be cherished. The lab wouldnt be as much fun to stay in without you all. I have to thank Stud and Hero with whom I spent some of the most cherished moments of my stay in Bangalore. Every one at nammamitra deserves more than a mention for their regular advice and inputs on everything academic or otherwise. I would never have been able to write the Literature Survey without all your suggestions. It would be unfair if I did not remember the pioneers of TEX type setting system, Donald Knuth,
A and L TEX document preparation system, Leslie Lamport, without whose foresight report writing

would become a complex, frightful, tasteless job. And all those who created university thesis class les from which I have copied deserve a good hand. This section would not be complete without the mention of xxxxxx whose love and aection will be treasured throughout. My family members have always been a source of constant support, encouragement and inspiration. Thanking them would be an understatement. So i would like to conclude my acknowledgments by dedicating this project report to my parents.

Student Name. ii

Table of Contents

Abstract

Acknowledgements

ii

List of Figures

iv

List of Tables

1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Technology Primer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Context Aware Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proposed Idea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization of the Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 2 4 5 5 5 6 6 8

2 Context Aware Systems 2.1 Context Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

References

A First Appendix Chapter

iii

List of Figures
1.1 1.2 Mobile Wireless Internet Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simulation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3

iv

List of Tables
1.1 Statistics for training of various neural networks, averaged over 5 runs . . . . . . . . 2

Chapter 1

Introduction
The purpose of this le is to provide every body with a generic report that you can cut and paste into. please feel free to remove text here and overwrite. General guidelines when overwriting: \chapter{Change every chapter name here}. \section{Change every section name here}. Latex numbers everything u dont have 2 worry abt it. Check all the labels (\label{}) and all the references (\ref{}) to the labels.When latex nds a \ref{architecture} it looks for the \label{architecture} and replaces \ref{} with the chapter/gure/section number. Similarly check all the \cite{} and replace by appropriate references.
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Problem Dimensions of network (i,h,o) Number of examples Learning rate Max. MSE Total training cycles Training time (s) Avg. time/example (s)

Odd/even classier 5, 30, 1 10 0.2 5 109 500 32.15 0.0643

Character classier 35, 60, 26 26 0.3 1 106 2600 511.92 0.197

Paganini note classier 46, 100, 46 77 + 20% rests = 92.4 0.3 1 106 50000 10850.65 0.217

Table 1.1: Statistics for training of various neural networks, averaged over 5 runs

Figure 1.1: Mobile Wireless Internet Architecture. The rest of the report is total junk for you to read when u have no other work to do. Music is an extremely complex one-dimensional signal, generally regarded as pleasing to the human ear. It is the result of interactions between the musician or ensemble, the musical score the instrument and the environment (for example, the geometry of the surroundings). The resultant sound is aected by all of these factors, and no two performances are identical as a result of the complex nature of this interaction. Current technologies related to context aware computing are introduced in the following section.

1.1

Technology Primer
. . . the most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it . . . . - Mark Weiser[1].

The three revolutions in computing[2]:

Products vs. Customers 100 Product 1 Product 2 Product 3 80 80 100

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60 Products Products 40

60

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0 0 20 40 Customers 60 80 100

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Figure 1.2: Simulation results 1950, Mainframe Computing. One computer is used by many people. Computing resources were scarce and sharing of resources was the norm. 1975, Personal Computing. One computer is used by one person. Relationship with the computing device is personal. The device contains ones data, and he/she interacts with it directly. 2000, Ubiquitous Computing. Many computers used by one person. Some of these computers will be among the hundreds one may access in the course of a few minutes of Internet browsing. Others will be embedded in walls, chairs, clothing, light switches, cars - in everything. Ubiquitous Computing is fundamentally characterized by the connection of things in the world with computation. This will take place at many scales, including the microscopic. Ubiquitous computing (also called Pervasive Computing) integrates computation into the environment, rather than having computers which are distinct objects. One of the goals of ubiquitous computing is to enable devices to sense changes in their environment and to automatically adapt and act based on these changes based on user needs and preferences. Some simple examples of this type of behavior include GPS-equipped automobiles that give interactive driving directions and RFID store checkout systems. Ubiquitous Computing enables Calm Technology. The computing settles in the background working towards making the users life calm and comfortable. This is achieved by the knowledge of the several aspects of the persons life such as her environment, preferences, locations etc. Prominent enabling technologies of Ubiquitous Computing are listed here. Sentient Computing. Use of sensors to perceive the environment and react accordingly. Includes design, development and strategic deployment of sensors to form an optimal Sensor Network. The individual data from the sensors are aggregated and sorted by an intelligent server, hence sensing the environment.

Intimate Computing. The computing device has total knowledge about every aspect of the users life. The data available includes, but not limited to, personal and professional contacts, physiological data, schedules, tastes, likes/dislikes etc. A PDA knows the users friends, relatives, spouse, favorite restaurant, day-to-day schedule etc. A nano chip embedded under the skin collects information about the persons blood pressure, wbc count, blood circulation etc. Wearable Computing. Devices are either integrated into the users clothing or can be attached to the body through some other means, like a wristband. They may also be integrated into everyday objects that are constantly worn on the body, like a wrist watch or a hands-free cell phone. Context Aware Computing. To acquire and utilize information about the context of a device to provide services that are appropriate to the particular context (people, place, time, events, etc). Mobile Computing. The application of small, portable, and wireless computing and communication devices like Laptops with Wireless LAN technology, mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) with Bluetooth or IRDA interfaces for communication and computing. Context Aware Computing uses information that can be used to characterize the situation(context), to provide context aware services to the user. The following section provides a brief overview of context aware systems and some of the basic concepts involved. A more detailed illustration is presented in chapter 2. Section 1.3 gives a brief overview of software agents. The project work is introduced in section 1.4. The organization of the rest of the report is presented in 1.5.

1.2

Context Aware Systems

Context is a powerful and longstanding concept in human-computer interaction. Conventional interaction with computational devices is by explicit acts of communication (e.g., pointing to a menu item). Context information can be used to understand the state of the system the user is interacting with. Context can be used to interpret explicit acts, making communication much more ecient. Contextual elements a Context Aware System may detect include spatial, environmental, social, temporal and social information. This information can be used by the system to provide services applicable to the current context. The challenge for such systems lies in the complexity of capturing, representing and processing contextual data. Invariably user contexts are unique to the individual user and consequently this necessitates complex and dedicated tracking and proling capabilities in order to derive the necessary leverage from such systems.

1.3

Agents

An agent is a process that acts autonomously on behalf of a person or organization. Each agent has its own thread of execution so that it can perform tasks on its own initiative. An agent may interact or negotiate with its environment and/or with other agents. It may make decisions, such as whether to trust and whether to cooperate with others, when to leave the current node (if the agent is mobile) etc. A multi-agent system (MAS) is a system composed of several agents, capable of mutual interaction. The interaction can be in the form of message passing or producing changes in their common environment. Multi-agent systems can manifest self-organization and complex behaviors even when the individual strategies of all their agents are simple. A few examples of software agents are given below: User Agents for browsing the World Wide Web (example: browser, bots, spiders). Mail Transfer Agents transfer e-mails from one computer to another. SNMP Agents are used in network management. Management Agents run on a managed node (example: a router) and provide an interface to manage it.

1.4

Proposed Idea

The project aims to build a Context Aware Information Services System for a Rural Community Centre. Information relevant to the rural community are hosted on several servers over a certain geographical area (eg. a state). Such servers can be either mobile or static. Information such as agriculture advice, seed/crop details, weather forecast, seasonal infections for dierent crops, selling rates of produce, rural news, animal husbandry data and other relevant information may be hosted in the servers. Other services such as government contact facility, training programmes etc. may be hosted on the servers. The input query with input parameters if any and context information together form the input to the system. The consolidated query is disintegrated into smaller tasks and each task is handed over to a mobile agent.

1.5

Organization of the Report

The rest of the project report is organized as follows. The concepts, design and components of Context Aware Systems are illustrated in Chapter 2. The conclusions and future work are presented in Chapter last. The list of cited references can be found in the References chapter. Appendix A contains a short glossary of relevant terms.

Chapter 2

Context Aware Systems


Over the next few years, mobile computing, sensing technologies, and distributed middleware will combine to create a new generation of adaptive, context-aware services[3]. Context sensing infrastructures will be deployed in Physical Service Environments such as airports, conference centers, government agencies, and services. These infrastructures will use the wealth of information generated by sensors to better serve the needs of mobile users, including visitors and people and businesses operating in the physical environment. This chapter will introduce the concepts and enabling technologies of context aware systems. The organization of the rest of the chapter is as follows. Section 2.1 gives a conceptual overview of the terms context and context awareness.

2.1

Context Awareness

Context is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and applications themselves[4]. Context information includes all relevant details of a situation such as: Identity. Name, Address etc. Spatial information. Location, mobility etc. Temporal information. Time, day, season, year etc. Environmental information. Temperature, humidity, forecast, noise etc. Social situation. People relevant to this context, past/future occupants etc. Resources nearby. Computing resources, accessible devices etc. Physiological measurements. Height, weight, pulse rate, blood pressure, wbc count etc. Activity. Walking, running, talking, in a meeting etc. Schedules & agendas. Schedules for the day/week/month, completed/pending jobs etc.

Context-aware environments intelligently monitor objects in the real world, and interact with them in a pro-active, autonomous, responsible and user authorized way. . . Context-awareness refers to the ability of the system to recognize and localize objects as well as people and their intentions[5]. Physical information of the environment can be recorded through relevant sensors. Such information is used in deriving context information. Context awareness is the ability of an utility to use this context information collected by sensors and deduce the past, present and possible future implications of the context on a user and structure his activities accordingly. The utility should be able to communicate to the user any suggestions for actions to be taken in case of unusual situations. Two types of context awareness can be identied: Active Context Awareness: An application automatically adapts to discovered context, by changing the applications behavior. Passive Context Awareness: An application presents the new or updated context to an interested user or makes the context persistent for the user to retrieve later. Consider the following practical scenario. Amar is planning a weekend tour to place X. He enters this information into his personal scheduler on his PDA. His PDA is context aware and checks on the latest weather updates by a popular weather service and nds out that the weather is ne (no rain to spoil the picnic) and indicates so to Amar. If it nds that the weather report for the place X is not good (i.e. rain expected), the utility should consult the local tour maps for places that are approximately same distance and suiting Amars taste (his personal preferences should give this piece of information). Itll suggest to him alternatives and obtain a nal tour destination. Then it checks on his personal friends contacts sends an email/SMS to all of his friends (or to a set of people depending on his prole). Any reply to this email/SMS will be recognized by the PDA and Amar will be notied of his friends willingness to join him on the tour. Typically, a context-aware service uses context information to: Automatically deploy services for a user or control an environment Associate context information with other information, allowing subsequent access to this based on contextual search criteria (e.g. nd all information relevant to this place) Personalize modes of interaction between the user and the service Select services relevant to the user in a given environment or situation (Context-Aware service discovery and provisioning).

References
[1] M. Weiser, The computer of the twenty-rst century, Scientic American, pp. 94100, 1991. [2] http://www.ubiq.com/hypertext/weiser/UIST94 4up.ps. [3] G. Cortese, M. Lunghi, and F. Davide, Applications of agent technology in communications: A review, Context-Awareness for Physical Service Environments, pp. 7196, 2005. [4] A. K. Dey, Providing Architectural Support for Building Context-Aware Applications. PhD thesis, College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Dec. 2000. [5] A. Ferscha, Coordination in pervasive computing environments, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises, Proceedings of the Twelfth IEEE International, (Linz, Austria), June 2003.

Appendix A

First Appendix Chapter


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