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African Journal of Business Management Vol. 5(12), pp. 4775-4781, 18 June 2011 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.

org/AJBM ISSN 1993-8233 2011 Academic Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Emotional intelligence and employee participation in decision-making

Asif Kiyani1, Muhammad Haroon2*, Asim Sohail Liaqat3, Mohammad Arif Khattak4, Syed Junaid Ahmed Bukhari4 and Rabia Asad5

Faculty of Management Sciences, Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Faculty of Management Sciences, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan. 3 Management Sciences, Riphah International University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 4 Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 5 Management Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
Accepted 14 January, 2011

This study was conducted to explain the effect of emotional intelligence on employee's participation in decision making. The sample size was 50 employees on different managerial levels. Questionnaire was made on likert scale to check the effect of emotional intelligence on employee's participation in decision making. The data were analyzed by using SPSS in which correlation and regression test were applied to check the results. The results indicated that there is a highly significant and positive relationship between emotional intelligence and participation in decision making. Key words: Emotional intelligence, self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, participation in decision-making. INTRODUCTION Human resource management attracts, retain, and motivate employees and successful policy makers always keep them and involve them in strategic and operational decision making by using their talent and intelligence (Aligning with the mission, 2004). Those employees who comprehend their emotions can response wisely on different situations and their decision-making, problem solving and creativity abilities are stronger and well organized (Scott-ladd, 2004) Emotional intelligence (EI) is the capability to identify own and others feelings and utilize this awareness to facilitate own-self and others (Berman, 2008). Emotionally intelligent individuals can handle and perform efficiently in problems and emergencies, as Scott-ladd (2004) argued that emotional intelligence (EI) in employees is self-awareness and an ability to deal with any exceptional uncertainty. Ahmad (2002) examined that the employees with a high EQ can confidently participate in decision making, as they are better connected with themselves, environment, and also because they act the way they should. Creativity, resilience, constructive discontent, rational and stretched thinking are the other characteristics endowed by an EI person. Harvard Business School investigated that people with strong self-awareness are neither overly critical nor plainly hopeful. Somewhat, they are honest with themselves and with other people who have a high degree of self-awareness know how their feeling affect them other people and their job performance. In Pakistan, organizations are not involving emotionally intelligent employees to contribute in decisions making processes as traditional human resource practices are being used by the employers. Therefore, the aims of this study, is to give a brief description to employers about the significance of emotional intelligence and enables employees to enhance their participation in decision making skills. Lowin (1968) found, employees and higher management feel pride by participating in decision making and it enhanced the work relationship, performance and provides the channel to achieve the organizational objectives. The significance of present study is to help the organizations to know the perceptions of the employees regarding participation in decision making and how effective the emotionally intelligent and participation in decision making and it will be useful for managers for

*Corresponding author.E-mail:mhharoon@gmail.com Tel: +92 333 52 99 517.


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administration and for researcher to open more dimensions in emotionally intelligent and participation in decision making. As concluded by Scott-ladd (2004), the combination of emotional intelligence and participation in decision making are the key factors to change an organizations response. LITERATURE REVIEW Emotional intelligence Bar-On (1997) argues that various facets and components of EI have been claimed to contribute to success and productivity in the work place. Thus, EI is claimed to predict occupational success because it influences ones ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures. According to Mayer and Salovey, (1997) criticized that workers capable with high EI are particularly skillful at designing projects that engross infusing products with feeling and aesthetics. As measured by Golemans (1998), reference to a study of Bell laboratory engineers in which the top performers were seemingly more expressively intelligent than their peers while not differing in level of general intelligence so the extinction of this study support of the important role of EI in work-related studies has been uncritically accepted. According to Araoz (2007), extent to which candidates emotional intelligence is measured in making top executive hiring decisions has a momentous impact on the final success or collapse of those executives for further explanation that the emotionally intelligent manager is competent to contribute in decision making and think through options and integrate expected reactions of others in order to improve the quality of decisions. Self awareness and motivation Zeidner and Roberts (2002), to have perfect in management skills, the best place to start is selfawareness. Self-awareness means knowing once values, personality traits, needs, emotions, strengths, weaknesses, etc. with a sense of whom you are and a vision of the person you want to become is plan for professional or personal development can be created. Besides, selfawareness allows encouraging yourself and managing the stress better, helps in decision making, and helps you to lead and motivate others more successfully. Further Grover (2003) explained that self-awareness helps managers to take decisions and see gaps in their management skills, which endorse skills development. But self-awareness also helps managers find situations in which they will be most effective, assists with spontaneous decision making, and aids stress management and motivation of oneself and others.

Empathy Williams and Sternberg (1988), individuals high in empathy are more capable of relating to other group members within a professional organization. In addition, Salovey and Mayer (1990) argues that the ability to empathize with others and relate to the feeling of others plays an important role in the formulation of superior goals, plans, and strategies. Empathic ability is predominantly vital when the dilemma to be solved require resolution of conflicting opinions in such a manner that are adequate to different people working within a same organization. People who are not empathic find it difficult to estimate proper responses to socially serious circumstances; these parties also need aptitude to adapt social deeds to the professional situation, thus failing to include other peoples needs and feelings in to their own conceptualization of socially pertinent behavior. This pursues sensibly from the fact that heeded to make one more sympathetic in allowing anothers proposal for change, since a spirit of sharing and justice is recognized. Inside the organizational context, according to Huy (1999) emotional experiencing and empathy refer to qualities of an organizations efforts to identify emotions aroused during radical change, to accept and internalize them, and to act upon them at a deep level of understanding. Self regulation Goleman (1998) argues that the process of motivation, negotiation and communication involves helping others and to control their emotions, resolve their disagreements and be motivated (emotional mentoring). To help others to manage their emotions, it is crucial to, keep ones own emotional perspective, knowing how to relaxed an out-ofcontrol person, be a supportive listener and help with goal planning and implementation. Basic on component of emotional intelligence is to understand and handled others emotions. Social skills According to Boyatzis et al. (2000), to success in the organization environment emotional and social competencies are important. Collectively advancing these competencies are clearly advocates of mixed rather than ability models of EI. Decision making McGrail (1978) explains that decision-making is generally done in six steps, which are, identify the problem, define alternative solutions, gather all pertinent information, weigh the alternatives, make the decision and follow up

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the decision. Prahalad (1997) criticized; one of the major problems in participation of effective decision making is that all the literature and consultants have suggested that emotions and passion be taken out of management. They believe that strategy is entirely analytical exercise. An emotionally competent person is more aware of himself. Fratzscher (2005) explains that the effectiveness of communication cannot be possible without decision making process. Mayer et al. (2000) and Bunker (1997) argue that process to manage effectively with huge change, all members of organization need to be eagerly involved in monitoring and managing their own and others emotional reactions. Black and Gregersen (1997) developed six dimensions of participation in decision making, which are rationale, formal and informal participation, direct and indirect participation, decision issues for participation, degree of involvement and process of decision-making. According to Black and Gregersen, employees performance can be increased by giving an opportunity to participation in planning, target setting and evaluating results.

METHODOLOGY The study was conducted on the employee's of Bestway Cement Limited and New Jubilee Insurance Ltd, Islamabad. Data were collected through questionnaires. Twenty five questions were about emotional intelligence that is self awareness, self regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills and five were about participation in decision making. Correlation and regression was used to find out the effect of emotional intelligence on employees participation in decision making and also check the variations between male and female employees in Pakistan.

RESULTS AND ANALYSES The present study compared the effect of emotional intelligence on employees participation in the decision making between males and females employees. The data was first analyzed by applying first correlation then regression. Twenty five close ended items have been used to measure EI variable. Cronbachs alpha revealed that overall reliability of this variable is 0.914 or approximately 91.4%. Five close ended items have been used to measure PDM variable. Cronbachs alpha revealed that overall reliability of this variable is 0.760 or approximately 76%. Bivariate analyses

Research objectives 1. To check and analyze the effect of the emotional intelligence on the employees participation in decision making. 2. To compare the effect of male and female employees emotional intelligence in participation in decision making.

Bivariate analysis has been carried out in order to study the relationship between dependent and independent variables. For bivariate analysis both correlation and regression have been used. Correlation Correlation coefficient has been computed to identify the significance of existing relationship between emotional intelligence and participation in decision making. Since p value is less than 0.01, so test results are highly significant. In other words, that the sample data support the alternate hypothesis and relationship between variables in the sample also holds for the population as well. It means that the study can generalize the sample results for entire population (Table 1). Another correlation coefficient was computed to derive the relationship between Male and Female employees. Since p value is less than 0.01, so test results are highly significant. Therefore, the studies reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis (Table 2). In others words, that sample data supports the alternate hypothesis and relationship between variable in the sample also holds the population as well. It means that the study can generalize the sample for entire population. For females, the correlation equation is: rPDMEIf (50) = .972; p<0.01

Hypotheses H1: Emotional Intelligence helps the employees in participation in decision making. H2: Emotional Intelligence does not help the employees in participation in decision making.

Variables Independent variable Independent variable is emotional intelligence that effects the employees participation in decision making.

Dependent variable Participation in decision making is the dependent variable defined as the level of influence employees have in the process of decision-making (Figure 1).


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Independent Variables

Dependent Variable

Emotional Intelligence

Participation in Decision making

Figure 1. Schematic diagram for theoretical framework.

Table 1. Correlations between emotional intelligence and participation in decision making.

Variable PDM

Pearson correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N

PDM 1 50 0.636(**) 0.000 50

EI 0.636(**) 0.000 50 1 50


** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). rEIPDM(50) = 0.636; p<0.01

Table 2. Correlations between male and female employees.

Gender PDM Male Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N

PDM 1 45 0.434(**) 0.003 45 1 5 0.972(**) 0.006 5

EI 0.434(**) 0.003 45 1 45 0.972(**) 0.006 5 1 5


PDM Female EI

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). rPDMEIm (50) = 0.434; p<0.01.

p value is less than 0.01, so test results are highly significant. Table 3 illustrates that value of R is .189 which is equal to 18.9%. This means that independent variable that is EI in organization is accounting for 18.9% of variation in the dependent variable that is participation in decision

making. F (1, 48) = 11.159; P<0.01 Since the value of p is less than 0.01, so the study can say that overall effect of this independent variable is highly significant (Table 4). Therefore, the study can

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Table 3. Model summary a predictors: (Constant), EI.

Model 1

R 0.434(a)

R 0.189

Adj. R 0.172

Std. error of the estimate 0.50137

(a) Predictors: (Constant), EI.

Table 4. ANOVA (b).

Model 1 Regression Residual Total

Sum of squares 2.805 12.066 14.871

Df 1 48 49

Mean square 2.805 0.251

F 11.159

Sig. 0.002(a)

(a) Predictors: (Constant), EI (b) Dependent Variable: PDM

generalize the results of sample to predict for the entire population. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS In present study, variable emotional intelligence has been operationalized with the help of five items. These items include: self awareness, self regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. Emotional intelligence helps the managers in participation in decision making. The result of correlation coefficient revealed that emotional intelligence of an employee in an organization is significantly related with participation in decision making as argued by Scott-Ladd (2004) by having clear role of emotional intelligence employees in decision making participation, the organization can increase the job commitment, loyalty and growth of organization. Most of the respondents of this study agree with this argument that they are getting help from their emotional competences. Sharan (2009) also concluded that emotionally intelligent employees utilizes participation in decision making opportunities to achieve their as well as organizational objectives. In general, all the respondents are highly emotionally competent in their participation in decision making. Female employees are receiving more help in participation in decision making as compared to male employees. RECOMMENDATIONS The findings of the present study lead to certain suggestions in relation to emotional intelligence in accordance with the participation in decision making. 1. Emotional intelligence training should be given to employees to enhance their emotional intelligence. 2. Emotional intelligence has not been given much importance in Pakistani culture. This study is a little push to change the existing mindset of apathy towards the

emotional intelligence.
REFERENCES Aligning with the Mission (1999), Strategic Human Resources Management: U.S. Office of Personnel Management Office of Merit Systems Oversight and Effectiveness. Araoz CF (2007). Great People Decisions: Why They Matter So Much, Why They are So Hard, and How You Can Master Them. Wiley Bar-On R (1997). The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): A Test of Emotional Intelligence. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems. Berman EM, West JP (2008). Managing Emotional Intelligence in U.S. Cities: A Study of Social Skills among Public Managers. Pub. Adm. Rev., 68 (4): 742 758. Black JS, Gregersen HB. (1997). Participative decision-making: an integration of multiple dimensions. Hum. Relat., .50(7): 859879. Boyatzis RE, Goleman D, Rhee K (2000). Clustering competence in emotional intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI)s. In R. Bar-On and J.D.A. Parker (eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 343-362. Bunker KA (1997). The Power of Vulnerability in Contemporary Leadership, Consulting Psychol. J., 49 (2): 122-136. Grover R (2003). Stalking a wily prey at Disney. Business Week Online, Dec. 2. Goleman D (1998) working with emotional intelligence (Hardcover ed) Bantam Dell Publishing, A Division of Random House, Inc. New York. Goleman D (1998) what makes a Leader. Harvard Business Review, November-December, pp. 93-102. Huy QN (1999). Emotional capability, emotional intelligence, and radical change. Acad. Manage. Rev., 24(2):325345. Lowin A (1968). Participative decision making: A model, literature critique, and prescriptions for research. Organ. Behav. Hum. Perform., 3 (1): 68-106. Mayer JD, Salovey P (1997). What is emotional intelligence? Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Education Implications. New York: Basic Books, pp.10-11. Prahalad CK., Hamel G (1990). The core competence of the corporation. Harv. Bus. Rev., 68(3): 79-91. Salovey P, Mayer JD (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imaginat. Cogn. Pers., 9: 185-211. Scott-Ladd B, Chan CCA Chan (2004). Emotional intelligence and participation in decision-making: strategies for promoting Organizational learning and change. Strateg. Chang., 13(2): 95105. Sharan Kaur Garib Singh (2009) A study on employee participation in decision making Unitar-E-J. 5(1):20-38. Williams W, Sternberg R (1988). Group intelligence: Why some groups are better than others. Intelligence. 12(4): 351-377.


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Appendix Questionnaire: 1. Age (Please tick one) i. 25 to 35 years ii. 36 to 45 years iii. 46 and above 2. Gender (Please tick one) i. Male ii. Female 3. Nature of job (Please tick one) i. Permanent base ii. Contractual base 4. Job experience (Please tick one) i. Less than two years ii. More than two years Strongly disagree Strongly agree

Question Self awareness 1. I can recognize my emotions and their effects easily. 2. I am aware of my strengths and limits. 3. I can judge my self-worth and capabilities. Self regulation 4. I can keep in check my disturbing emotions and desires. 5. I always maintained standards of honesty and integrity. 6. I always take responsibly of my personal performance. 7. I am quite flexible in handling change. 8. I feel comfortable with novel ideas, approaches and new information. Motivation 9. I always force to improve or meet a standard of excellence. 10. I align with the goals of the group or organization. 11. I always ready to act on opportunities. 12. I keep myself persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles and setbacks. Empathy 13. I feel others feeling and perspectives and take an active interest in their concerns. 14. I understand others development needs and courage their abilities. 15. I anticipate, recognize and meet customer's needs. 16. I can develop opportunities through different kind of people. 17. I can analyze groups emotional, current and power relationships.




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Questions Social skill 18. I exercise effective tactics for urging. 19. I listen others openly and send them convincing messages. 20. I can negotiate and resolve disagreements. 21. I inspire and guide individual and groups. 22. I can take initiative and manage change easily. 23. I develop helpful relationships. 24. I work with others toward mutual goals. 25. I create group synergy in pursue collective goals. Participation in decision making 26. In general, how much say or influence do you have or how you perform your job? 27. To what extent are you able to decide how to do your job? 28. In general, how much say or influence do you have on what goes on in your work group? 29. In general, how much say or influence do you have on decisions that affect your job? 30. My superiors are keep time and listen to my ideas and suggestions?

Strongly disagree




Strongly agree