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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM NAME A.

SALIVARY GLANDS

1. parotid gland (largest) 2. submaxillary gland 3. sublingual gland 4. molar gland * 5. infraorbital gland * B. ORAL CAVITY 1. lips 2. cheeks 3. vestibule 4. hard palate

DESCRIPTION/LOCATION - outgrowths of oral epithelium - 5 pairs in cat - on muscles of head and throat - ventrad and craniad of base of pinna of ear, just under the skin - at angle of jaw near posterior margin of masseter - at the beginning of submaxillary duct - between skin and external surface of mandible, in front of masseter - floor of orbit

FUNCTION - secrete amylase

- opening for food intake - between teeth & lips - anterior roof of oral cavity - supported by premaxilla, maxilla, palatine bones - posterior roof of oral cavity - opening at anterior end of hard palate behind incisors

5. soft palate 6. nasopalatine duct * 7. frenulum 8. tongue

8.1. fungiform papillae 8.2. filiform papillae 8.3. vallate papillae 8.4. foliate papillae C. PHARYNX

- floor of oral cavity - fusion of 4 components (primary tongue, tuberculum impar, 2 lateral lingual swellings) - remainder of tongue - anterior tongue - 4 to 6 in V-shaped row - posterior & dorsal to soft palate - nasopharynx - dorsal to soft palate (uppermost part) - oropharynx - behind oral cavity - laryngopharynx - connects to esophagus - opening formed by free border of soft palate - large opening at top of larynx - base of tongue - sides of anterior of free border of soft palate - in tonsillar fossa - anterior to tonsillar fossa - posterior to tonsillar fossa - anterior end of nasopharynx - oblique slits on lateral wall of nasopharynx - derived from 2nd & 3rd gill arches - sides of body of hyoid - chain of 4 bony pieces (hypo-, cerato-, stylo-, tympanohyal) - external surface at base of tongue - posterior to body of hyoid - ventral wall of larynx

- connects mouth & nasal cavity by incisive foramina - attaches tongue to floor of oral cavity - guides food for swallowing

- passageway for air & food, leads to esophagus

1. isthmus of fauces 2. glottis 3. epiglottis 4. tonsillar fossa 4.1. palatine tonsil 4.2. glossopalatine arch 4.3. pharyngopalatine arch 5. posterior nares / choanae * 6. auditory/Eustachian tube * D. HYOID APPARATUS * 1. anterior posterior horns *

- leads into cavity of pharynx

- guards entrance to respiratory tract - contains palatine tonsil - produce antibody against infection

- connects pharynx with cavity of middle ear - supports base of tongue - for origin & insertion of muscles - articulates with tympanic bulla

2. body * E. LARYNX / VOICEBOX 1. thyroid cartilage

- create sound - supports ventral wall of larynx

2. cricoid cartilage 3. arytenoids 4. vocal cords 4.1. true vocal cords 4.2. false vocal cords

- posterior to thyroid cartilage - anterior of dorsal cricoid - on glottis from arytenoids to thyroid cartilage - lateral to true vocal cords, from tips of arytenoids to base of epiglottis - posterior to larynx - sides of trachea - ventral side of trachea - ventral to dorsal aorta, in mediastinum - anterior, middle, posterior (medial & lateral) - anterior, middle, posterior - minute air-cells compose lung

- supports larynx - supports dorsal rim of glottis - create sound

F. TRACHEA / WINDPIPE 1. thyroid gland 2. isthmus * G. ESOPHAGUS H. LUNGS 1. right lung (larger) 2. left lung 3. alveoli * 4. radix / root of the lung * 5. pulmonary ligament * 6. pleural cavity / sac 6.1. parietal pleura 6.2. visceral pleura 7. mediastinal septum * 7.1. mediastinum 7.2. caval fold * 7.3. postcaval vein * I. HEART

- transports oxygen to lungs - secretes T3 & T4 - connects caudal end of lobes of thyroid gland - passageway of bolus to stomach - provide oxygen to blood

- exchange of CO2 & O2 - connects lung & dorsal thoracic wall - contains lungs

1. pericardial sac or parietal pericardium 1.1. parietal pericardium 1.2. visceral pericardium * 2. parietal pleura of mediastinal septum * 3. thymus gland

- two on lateral thoracic region - lines inside of pleural cavity - fused to surface of lung - partition from heart to median ventral line - space b/n two walls of mediastinal septum - dorsally directed fold of mediastinal septum - from liver to heart - median region under sternum - surrounded by 3 layers: visceral, parietal pericardium, parietal pleura of mediastinal septum - attached to heart only at anterior end - surface of heart - outermost layer that surrounds heart - fused to pericardial sac - ine median ventral line anterior to heart - derived from entodermal lining of gill pouch - arches from heart to left to diaphragm - outside pleura, in mediastinum Origin: ribs, sternum, vertebrae Insertion: central tendon Penetrations: esophagus, aorta, postcaval vein - posterior to diaphragm - median & lateral (2 lobules) - median & lateral - b/n liver & stomach, b/n 2 layers of lesser omentum - imbedded in right median lobe

- supports postcaval vein

- pumps blood

- incloses heart

- produce T-cells

4. dorsal aorta

J. DIAPHRAGM (only mammals)

- separates thoracic and abdominal cavity, controls breathing

K. LIVER (5 lobes accdg to Hyman) 1. right lobe 2. left lobe 3. caudate lobe L. GALLBLADDER (in cystic

- produces bile, detox, protein synthesis

- stores bile

fossa) M. STOMACH 1. cardiac end (cardia) gastroesophageal/cardiac sphincter 2. fundus 3. body 4. pyloric end (pylorus) pyloric sphincter 5. greater curvature (original dorsal surface) 6. lesser curvature (original ventral surface) 7. rugae (folds) * N. SPLEEN O. SMALL INTESTINE 1. duodenum 2. jejunum (largest portion) 3. ileum 4. villi (projections) 5. ileocolic valve P. PEYER'S PATCHES (LYMPH NODULES) Q. PANCREAS R. CAECUM (no vermiform appendix in cat) S. LARGE INTESTINE / COLON 1. ascending 2. transverse (right to left) 3. descending T. RECTUM U. ANUS V. CAVITIES, LIGAMENTS & MESENTERIES 1. peritoneum (peritoneal cavity) * 1.1. parietal peritoneum * 1.2. visceral peritoneum (serosa) * 2. mesenteries / ligaments 2.1. dorsal mesentery (mammals) 2.1.1. mesentery proper (small intestine) 2.2. ventral mesentery (liver, urinary bladder) 3. mesogaster 4. greater omentum 4.1. lesser peritoneal sac * 5. lesser omentum / gastrohepatoduodenal ligament 5.1. gastrohepatic ligament 5.2. hepatoduodenal ligament 5.3. foramen epiploicum *

- dorsal and to the left of liver - region of junction b/n stomach & esophagus - saclike bulge left of cardia - remainder of stomach - region of junction b/n stomach & small intestine - larger, convex posterior surface of stomach - shorter, slightly concave anterior surface of stomach - ridges in wall of stomach - left border of stomach, inclosed on ventral wall of greater omentum - posterior to liver - bound to liver by hepatoduodenal ligament

- storage of food for digestion

- to increase surface area - stores & filters blood - final stage of digestion, absorption

- in wall of small intestine - junction of large & small intestine - thick oval spots on surface of intestine - in mesoduodenum, extends to dorsal wall of greater omentum - projection at junction b/n small & large intestine

- immune surveillance of intestinal lumen - secrete insulin, glucagon, pancreatic juice - prevents reflux into ileum - passageway for feces

- sigmoid colon - terminal portion of descending colon

- membrane that lines peritoneal cavity - inside of body wall - surface of viscera - double-walled membrane from body wall to viscera - part of dorsal mesentery - supports the remainder of small intestine

6. gastrosplenic / gastrolienal

- from dorsal wall to stomach - covers intestine ventrally - cavity b/n two layers of folded mesogaster - from lesser curvature of stomach to posterior surface of liver - from lesser curvature to liver - from liver to first part of small intestine - dorsal to hepatic portal vein, posterior to its branches to right lateral lobe of liver - greater omentum b/n spleen &

- entrance into cavity of omentum

ligament * 7. gastrocolic ligament * 8. falciform ligament * 9. coronary ligament (liver to diaphragm) * 10. mesoduodenum 11. duodenorenal ligament W. DUCTS 1. common bile duct (cystic + hepatic) 1.1. cystic duct 1.2. hepatic ducts

stomach - b/n mesogaster & mesentery of intestine - b/n median lobes of liver to median ventral line - anteriorly & dorsally continuous w/ falciform - part of dorsal mesentery - from duodenum to right kidney

- attaches liver to central tendon of diaphragm - supports duodenum - attaches duodenum to right kidney

- in hepatoduodenal ligament passes to intestine - from gallbladder - from lobes of liver - from right lateral lobe is large 2. pancreatic duct (two: principal - joins common bile duct to & accessory) duodenum 3. ampulla of Vater (surrounded by - swollen chamber where bile & sphincter of Oddi) pancreatic ducts unite ** hepatic portal vein - to the right & dorsal to bile duct, in hepatoduodenal ligament ** mesocolon - fused to mesogaster EXCRETORY SYSTEM NAME A. KIDNEY (mammals are metanephroi) (right anterior to left) 1. hilus 2. renal sinus 3. renal pelvis 4. renal papilla 5. cortex (renal corpuscles & convoluted tubules) 6. medulla (collecting tubules, loop of Henle) 7. renal pyramid (1) (collecting tubule + renal papilla) B. URETER (METANEPHRIC DUCTS) C. URINARY BLADDER 1. apex / vertex 2. fundus 3. median ligament (median umbilical fold in human) 4. lateral ligament 5. rectovesical pouch (male) 6. vesicouterine pouch (female) D. URETHRA (neck of bladder)

- mesentery of colon

DESCRIPTION/LOCATION - dorsal wall of peritoneal cavity (retroperitoneal) - concave part of kidney - cavity w/in hilus - expanded beginning of ureter - kidney substance into pelvis - peripheral part of kidney - central part of kidney - w/in renal medulla - dorsal to horns of uterus (female) - dorsal to ductus deferens (male) - posterior end of peritoneal cavity, ventral to rectum & uterus (female) - free anterior end of urinary bladder - posterior part of urinary bladder - from ventral surface of urinary bladder to median ventral line - sides near exit of bladder from peritoneal cavity - b/n urinary bladder & rectum - b/n urinary bladder & uterus - narrow stalk continuous to fundus

FUNCTION - filter waste & excess sodium

- carries urine to bladder - temporary storage of urine

- transports urine from bladder to external

note: collecting tubulues, pelvis, ureter - outgrowths from mesonephric duct FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM NAME DESCRIPTION/LOCATION A. OVARIES - sides of peritoneal cavity at anterior end of coils of uterus 1. Graafian follicles * - clear vesicles in ovaries 2. corpora lutea * - hard lumps in ovary of pregnant

FUNCTION - stores egg - contains egg or ovum - follicles from w/c eggs of

3. mesovarium * 4. mesosalpinx * B. MULLERIAN DUCTS / OVIDUCTS 1. uterine / fallopian tube 2. ostium -> fimbriae (fringed border of ostium) C. UTERUS / WOMB -> bipartite type (cat) 1. horns -> mesometrium (mesentery of horn of uterus) 2. body 3. broad ligament (mesovarium, mesosalpinx, mesometrium) * 4. round ligament * D. CERVIX * E. VAGINA F. CLITORIS (2 CAVERNOUS BODIES) G. UROGENITAL CANAL / SINUS * H. GLANS I. ANAL GLANDS / SACS *

- extends to kidney, continuous w/ ligament of uterus - mesentery of oviducts - ducts of ovaries - uppermost portion of oviducts - opening on lateral side of ovary - horn + body - tube on sides of posterior peritoneal cavity - in median line, dorsal to bladder where 2 horns unite

pregnancy are discharged - suspends ovary - partly incloses ovary - secrete oviductal fluid

- accepts fertilized ovum, where fetus forms & develops

- from beginning of uterus or horn posteriorly to body wall - lower end of uterus, projects into vagina by a fold - posterior to and continuous w/ - passageway where babies are body of uterus delivered & accepts penis - homologous to penis - attached by ligament to ischium & pubic symphysis - common tube where urethra unites w/ vagina - free posterior end of clitoris - sides of rectum close to anus

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM NAME DESCRIPTION/LOCATION A. TESTES (2) - lodged inside scrotum (2 compartments) 1. vaginal sac * - cavity of scrotum, part of peritoneal cavity 2. tunica vaginalis * - surface of testes, lines vaginal sac 3. mesorchium * - b/n testes & wall of vaginal sac 4. gubernaculum * - continuous w/ mesorchium - homologous to round ligament of uterus 5. epididymis (head, body, tail)* - head: anterior end of testis *Head derived from mesonephros - body: dorsal surface of testis - tail: where gubernaculum attach 6. ductus deferens - dorsal surface of testis - forms epididymidal duct B. SPERMATIC CORD - passes through inguinal canal (ended by 2 inguinal rings: external & internal) C. UROGENITAL SINUS / - common tube formed by 2 ductus CANAL* deferens D. PROSTATE GLAND - surrounds the junction b/n 2 ductus deferens E. BULBOURETHRAL / - small swelling in urogenital canal COWPER'S GLAND posterior to prostate gland F. UROGENITAL OPENING * - tip of glans of penis G. PENIS - terminal of urogenital canal 1. glans of penis (spines) - pointed projection of penis 2. corpora cavernosa / cavernous - 2 cylindrical bodies in penis bodies *

FUNCTION - produce sperm

- attaches posterior end of testis to posterior scrotal wall - head: receives invisible efferent ductules from testis

- contains ductus deferens, blood vessel & nerves

- secrete alkaline fluid - excrete pre-ejaculate

- intromittent organ

3. cavernous urethra 4. prepuce 5. crura of penis

- urogenital canal in corpora cavernosa, dorsal side of penis - fold of skin around glans of penis - diverged corpora cavernosa at anterior end of penis, attached to ischium

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