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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering.

DVR & Dr. HS MIC COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY (Approved by AICTE, New Delhi and affiliated to J.N.T.U, Kakinada) Kanchikacherla-521180, Andhra Pradesh.ph no: 08678-273535. PRESENTED BY A.BINDU 09H71A0459 III ECE Email id:bindusri8170@gmail.com Mobile no:9493158526 A.CHANDRA SHEKAR 09H71A0460 III ECE Email id:a.chadrasekhar@gmail.com mobile no:7842809675

Introdution :
In radio, multiple-input and multiple-output, or MIMO is the use of multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to improve communication performance. It is one of several forms of smart antenna technology. Note that the terms input and output refer to the radio channel carrying the signal, not to the devices having antennas. MIMO technology has attracted attention in wireless communications, because it offers significant increases in data throughput and link range without additional bandwidth or increased transmit power. It achieves this goal by spreading the same total transmit power over the antennas to achieve an array gain that improves the spectral efficiency (more bits per second per hertz of bandwidth) or to achieve a diversity gain that improves the link reliability

Functions of MIMO
MIMO can be sub-divided into three main categories, precoding, spatial multiplexing or SM, and diversity coding. Precoding : in the narrowest definition. In more general terms, it is considered to be all spatial processing that occurs at the transmitter. In (single-layer) beamforming, the same signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas with appropriate phase weighting such that the signal power is maximized at the receiver input. The benefits of beamforming are to increase the received signal gain. When the receiver has multiple antennas, the transmit beamforming cannot simultaneously maximize the signal level at all of the receive antennas, and precoding with multiple streams is used. Spatial multiplexing : In spatial multiplexing, a high rate signal is split into multiple lower rate streams and each stream is transmitted from a different transmit antenna in the same frequency channel. If these signals arrive at the receiver antenna array with sufficiently different spatial signatures, the receiver can separate these streams into parallel channels. Spatial multiplexing is a very powerful technique for increasing channel capacity at higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Spatial multiplexing can also

be used for simultaneous transmission to multiple receivers, known as space-division multiple access. Diversity Coding : techniques are used when there is no channel knowledge at the transmitter. In diversity methods, a single stream is transmitted, but the signal is coded using techniques called space-time coding. The signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas with full or near orthogonal coding. Diversity coding exploits the independent fading in the multiple antenna links to enhance signal diversity.

Forms of MIMO
Multi-antenna types :

SISO/SIMO/MISO are degenerate cases of MIMO o Multiple-input and single-output (MISO) is a degenerate case when the receiver has a single antenna. o Single-input and multiple-output (SIMO) is a degenerate case when the transmitter has a single antenna. o single-input single-output (SISO) is a radio system where neither the transmitter nor receiver have multiple antenna. and multiple-output)

Multi-user type : MIMO(multiple-input

Antenna Configuration :

Mathematical description :
In MIMO systems, a transmitter sends multiple streams by multiple transmit antennas. The transmit streams go through a matrix channel which consistsnsists of all paths between the transmit antennas at the transmitter and receive antennas at the receiver


Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) :

As the data rate increases in a multipath environment, the interference goes from flat fading to frequency selective (last reflected component arrives after symbol period). This results in heavy degradation Most popular solution to compensate for ISI: equalizers As we move to higher data rates (i.e.> 1 Mbps), equalizer complexity grows to level of complexity where the channel changes before you can compensate for it! Alternate solution: Multi-carrier Modulation (MCM) where channel is broken up into subbands such that the fading over each subchannel becomes flat thus eliminating the problem of ISI

Advantages : High bit rate In this fading, interference, noise are limited Improves reliability Drawback : Occupies more space Conclusions:

MIMO Systems are getting us closer to the 1Gbps landmark. At the same time, they provide reliable communications. Different architectures available for use Developing efficient network protocols for a MIMO PHY layer is an area of open research