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Introduction to Industrial Ethernet

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Contents Page Industrial automation levels, horizontal ................................................................................... 2 Industrial automation levels, vertical ....................................................................................... 3 Uniform bus system for all levels .............................................................................................. 4 Industrial environment........................................................................................................................ 5 Industrial Ethernet (IE) ................................................................................................................. 6 ISO 7 layer model, part 1 ................................................................................................. 7 ISO 7 layer model, part 2 ................................................................................................. 8 Development timeline ...................................................................................................................... 9 Industrial Ethernet basic layout, previously ................................................................................. 10 Example of Ethernet configuration, 2006 ................................................................................... 11 Classification of different types of Ethernet ...................................................................................... 12 Ethernet variants, Ethernet naming conventions............................................................................... 13 Thick Ethernet 10Base5 ......................................................................................................... 14 Thin Ethernet 10Base2 .......................................................................................................... 15 Twisted-pair Ethernet 10BaseT ............................................................................................... 16 Fiber-optic Ethernet 10BaseF ................................................................................................... 17 Fast Ethernet 100BaseT ......................................................................................................... 18 Gigabit Ethernet 1000BaseX .................................................................................................. 19 Access methods are ....... ............................................................................................................. 20 CSMA/CD access method, bus structure .................................................................................. 21 CSMA/CD access method, process flow ................................................................................ 22 CSMA/CD access method, collision domain .............................................................................. 23 CSMA/CD access method, real-time response ............................................................................. 24 The hub, multiport repeater .......................................................................................................... 25 The switch ................................................................................................................... 26 Hub compared to switch ........................................................................................................ 27 Shared LAN compared to switched LAN ................................................................................ 28 Switching technology, part 2 ......................................................................................................... 29 Switching network: Spanning tree ................................................................................................. 30 Network components in the OSI model: Repeater, hub/bridge, switch............................................... 31 Network components in the OSI model: Router and gateway................................................................32
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Industrial automation levels, horizontal

Data management level

Managing Archiving Visualizing

Control level

Open-loop control Closed-loop control

Field level

Measuring Positioning Switching

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Industrial automation levels Industrial automation encompasses many segments. The tasks of these segments and the flow of information between them can be described using a simplified level model. Components within one level communicate over bus systems that are customized and optimized for the functional requirements of that level.

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Industrial automation levels, vertical

Data management level

Managing Archiving Visualizing

Control level

Open-loop control Closed-loop control

Field level

Measuring Positioning Switching


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Vertical communication There also needs to be vertical communication between the levels. Production specifications are passed down to the lower levels. Conversely, process-related information from the lower levels is verified and archived at the management level. However, optimal flow of information is ensured only if the networks of the individual levels work together in an optimal manner.

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Uniform bus system for all levels


Internet

Data management level

Control level

Field level

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Uniform bus system across all levels A largely uniform bus system is required to ensure optimal data flow across levels. The Ethernet version previously used in a commercial (office) environment with the CP/IP protocol forms the basis for this type of data integration. The automation network can be seamlessly linked to the company network and the INTERNET.

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Industrial environment

Electrical and magnetic interference (EMC)

Vibrations

Large temperature ranges


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Corrosive atmospheres
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Industrial environment Ethernet-based networking technology was developed for communication in the commercial sector. However, for installations used in the industrial rather than the office environment, additional considerations must be taken into account.

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Industrial Ethernet (IE)

High temperature compatibility of network components EMC immunity through special shielding and the use of fiber-optic conductors Industrial Ethernet

Rugged mechanics and industry-standard cables and connections Increased availability through redundant network structures

Compliance with real-time requirements through appropriate network segmentation and the use of switching technology

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Industrial Ethernet Through the use of special network components, Industrial Ethernet takes the strict requirements of production/the process environment into account. However, interaction with conventional Ethernet components is also ensured.

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ISO 7 layer model, part 1


7: Application layer This layer encompasses the applicationspecific services of the various communication applications. These include basic services and protocols such as FTP file transfer, e-mail, virtual terminals, etc.

6: Presentation layer This layer ensures the independence of the different data formats used.

5: Session layer This layer organizes the dialog between the communicating partners.

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ISO 7 layer model The tasks and functions performed by communication systems are varied and complex. This is why ISO developed the OSI reference model. This 7-layer architecture specifies which protocols and services can be implemented in the individual layers. 7: Application layer This layer encompasses the application-specific services of the various communication pplications. These include basic services and protocols such as FTP file transfer, e-mail, virtual terminals, etc. 6: Presentation layer This layer ensures the independence of the different data formats used. During sending, the data to be transferred is converted to a uniform intermediate format so that it can be interpreted correctly by the connected computers. When the data is received, the intermediate format is converted to the format required by the individual computers. 5: Session layer This layer organizes dialog between the communicating partners. It establishes, maintains and clears the connection and synchronizes the flow of data between the application processes.

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ISO 7 layer model, part 2


4: Transport layer This layer is primarily concerned with ensuring that data actually arrives at its destination. 3: Network layer This layer is responsible for transferring data packets between the source and destination. This includes routing, addressing of other networks and data flow control.

2: Data link layer This layer transfers bits between two systems. This includes controlling access to the transmission medium (access method), as well as detection and elimination/signaling of transmission errors.

1: Physical layer This layer is responsible for the correct transmission of individual bits over the physical channel. The main activities involved here are the encoding of signals and specification of the transmission medium and transmission devices.

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4: Transport layer This layer is primarily concerned with ensuring that data actually arrives at its destination. It is able to trigger data retransmission if data were lost.

3: Network layer This layer is responsible for transferring data packets between the source and destination. This includes routing, addressing of other networks and data flow control. 2: Data link layer This layer transfers bits between two systems. This includes controlling access to the transmission medium (access method), as well as detection and elimination/signaling of transmission errors. 1: Physical layer This layer is responsible for correct transmission of individual bits over the physical channel. The main activities involved here are the encoding of signals and specification of the transmission medium and transmission devices.

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Development timeline

Industrial Ethernet bus system SINEC H1

Optical Industrial Ethernet SINEC H1FO

OLM/ELM Twisted-pair cabling/FOC Web server

Fast Ethernet switches FC cabling MOBIC WLAN

GIGABIT Modular switches Industrial security Real-time Ethernet fieldbus/PROFINET IWLAN Rapid roaming

1985

1989

1996
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2000

2005
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History 1985 1991 1993 1994 1994 1995 1996 1998 1998 1999: 1999 2000 2001 2001 2003 Ethernet in industrial applications for SIMATIC and PC/PG PROFIBUS products for SIMATIC S5 and PC/PG Fiber-optic cables for PROFIBUS AS-Interface for SIMATIC and PC/PG Flexible fiber-optic-cable networks for PROFIBUS by means of OLM Industrial twisted pair cables for Ethernet Flexible FOC/ITP networks for Ethernet via optical/electrical link module FastConnect cable system for PROFIBUS Internet technology used in automation: Market launch of the first IT CPs for SIMATIC S7 Switching technology and high-speed redundancy for Industrial Ethernet via OSM/ORM Fast Ethernet for SIMATIC and PC/PG FastConnect cable system for Industrial Ethernet First industrial WebPad on the market: MOBIC T8 Mobile Industrial Communicator PROFINET: Distributed and open automation solutions based on Industrial Ethernet Industrial wireless LAN in the industrial environment

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Industrial Ethernet basic layout, previously

Triaxial cable

Star coupler KYDE Fiber-optic cable

Fan-out unit

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Technical data Standard Access method Transmission rate Transmission medium Max. no. of nodes Ethernet to IEEE 802.3/ISO 8802.3 or Ethernet Blue Book CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection) 10/100 Mbit/s Electrical: Double-shielded coaxial cable, industrial twisted pair Optical: Over 1,000 Fiber-optic cable (glass)

Approx. network range Electrical: 1.5 km Optical: Topology Automation level 4.5 km, 150 km, or 1300 km if switches are used

Line, tree, star, redundant ring Management and cell levels

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Example of Ethernet configuration, 2006


MES level
Computer Production master computer
Service computer

Data server Firewall

Office network
Workstation computer Server

HMI

Automation cells

Automation network

Service computer

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Classification of different types of Ethernet


Ethernet IEEE standard Data rate Duration of one bit Slot time (cable action period) Length of collision domain Access methods Largest data packet Smallest data packet Length of address field Topology Supported media 802.3 10 Mbit/s 0.1 microsecond After 512 bits; 2,000 m CSMA/CD 1,518 bytes 64 bytes 48 bits Star, tree, line Coaxial: 10 Base5 Twisted pair:10 BaseT Fiber optic: 10 Base-FL
Bus coupler (transceiver) Optical link module, electrical link module, active star coupler, mini UYDE, MINI OTDE

Fast Ethernet 802.3u 100 Mbit/s 0.01 microsecond After 512 bits; 200 m CSMA/CD 1,518 bytes 64 bytes 48 bits Star, tree, line Twisted pair: 10 BaseT Fiber optic: 10 Base-FL OSM, ESM

Gigabit Ethernet 802.3z 1,000 Mbit/s 0.001 microsecond After 4,096 bits; 20 m CSMA/CD 1,518 bytes 64 bytes 48 bits Star, tree, line Twisted pair: 10 BaseT Fiber optic: 10 Base-FL SCALANCE

Network components

Max. length of a TP path Max. length of a fiber-opticcable path

100 m Multimode: 300 m

100 m Multimode: 3,000 m Single mode: 26 km

100 m Multimode: 3,000 m Single mode: 26 km

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IEEE standard 802.3 The international Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) defined the first Ethernet standard, 10BASE5, in 1985. This standard, which was based on a coaxial cable transmission medium, laid the foundations for the first Industrial Ethernet. This network, which went under the name SINEC H1 and was improved by the introduction of a triaxial cable for the industrial environment, has been used successfully in process and production automation for many years. Since the very beginning, both the IEEE standard and the SIMATIC NET product range have constantly been updated with the latest technologies, which further improve the flexibility and performance capability of Ethernet networks. This includes the introduction of transmission via fiber-optic and twisted-pair cables and the tenfold increase of the transmission rate by means of Fast Ethernet. All versions are based on baseband transmission and the CSMA/CD access method. Baseband transmission technology Ethernet to IEEE 802.3 uses baseband transmission technology. This means that data is transferred to the transmission medium (e.g., connecting cable) unmodulated, in a pulse shape. The transmission medium forms a single transmission channel, which must share its capacity with the connected data terminals. All connected data terminals receive the data transmitted via the medium at the same time. Only one data terminal may send data at any one time. If several data terminals send data at the same time, this will lead to data collision on the transmission medium. The data signals of the senders concerned will destroy one another. Transmission rights need to be assigned in order to regulate access to the shared transmission medium by the data terminals. The IEEE 802.3 standard regulates access in accordance with the CSMA/CD method.
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Ethernet variants, Ethernet naming conventions


Standard 10 Mbit/s systems 10Base5 Coaxial cable (3/8 inch) Transmission medium

10Base2

Coaxial cable (3/16 inch)

10BaseT

Fiber-optic cable

100 Mbit/s systems 100BaseT Fiber-optic/Twisted pair

1,000 Mbit/s systems 1000BaseX Fiber-optic/Twisted pair

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Ethernet naming conventions Standard IEEE 802.3 defines several Ethernet versions, whose main differences lie in their transmission rates and the cabling technology they use. The naming conventions shown were laid down in order to distinguish between the different versions. Data rate in Mbit/s This field indicates the applicable data rate in Mbit/s. It can range from 10 Mbit/s to 10,000 Mbit/s. The original data rate of 3 Mbit/s and the 1 Mbit/s version are no longer used. Transmission method Base (baseband) In a baseband, digital signals are fed directly into the cable as pulses, i.e., the signals are transported unmodulated (10Base5). Broad (broadband) In a broadband system, multiple carrier frequencies are used and the signal to be transmitted is modulated up to these carrier frequencies. This enables multiple messages to be transmitted simultaneously and independently (10Broad36). Max. length/Cable type The data in this field can have different meanings. It can be used to specify the maximum cable length per segment, in 100 m (10Base5 = 500 m). It can also indicate the cable type. The name 10BaseT is used for twisted pair cables and 10BaseF is used for fiber-optic cables.

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Thick Ethernet 10Base5

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Thick Ethernet 10Base5 The figure above shows the original cabling of an Ethernet network segment. In this bus structure, the Ethernet coaxial cable is routed via every station and every station is connected via a short connecting cable.

Coaxial cable (yellow cable) Ethernet 10Base5 uses a 3/8-inch, 50-ohm coaxial cable. Due to emission and attenuation, the maximum length for a cable segment is 500 m. This type of cable is more uncommon today as it is not particularly easy to use. Terminator A coaxial segment must be terminated at each end with 50-ohm terminators. This prevents reflections and associated signal corruption. Controller The Ethernet controller executes the functions of the MAC layer. These include data compilation, the calculation of checksums for sent frames, and the checking of checksums for received frames. The controller is connected to the transceiver by means of the transceiver cable. Transceiver Data terminals are connected to the coaxial cable by means of transceivers, which are also known as MAUs (Medium Attachment Units). There are two different designs, which use a different type of connector. Coaxial cable connector and vampire terminal connection.
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Thin Ethernet 10Base2

Coaxial cable

BNC T fitting

BNC connector

Exterior insulation

Dielectric Dielectric

Ethernet controller Central conductor Shielding Shielding

Ground

50-ohm terminating resistor

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Thin Ethernet 10Base2 This version uses a thin coaxial cable. Although this type of cable does lead to decreased attenuation and is less immune to interference, it is more than adequate for smaller networks. As this version does not cost as much as that using the yellow cable, it is known as Cheapernet.

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Twisted-pair Ethernet 10BaseT

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Twisted-pair Ethernet 10BaseT 10BaseT refers to Ethernet networks based on twisted pair cabling. The bus topology is a star topology. A hub (multiport repeater) forms the central point from which twisted cable pairs lead to the individual stations. These networks are very common and cost-effective. Twisted pair: A twisted pair usually consists of a four-core copper cable twisted in pairs. A distinction is made between shielded (STP) and unshielded (UTP) cables. The maximum transmission length depends on the shielding; however, it must not exceed 100 m. UTP and STP describe the cable's design, but UTP cables are further broken down into categories defining the requirements of the cable and plug-in connector. Cables used for 10BaseT must meet the specifications for category UTP-3 as a minimum. Conventional twisted pair Ethernet cabling uses 8-pin (Western) connectors. There is a wide range of different types of these connectors, such as the new RJ45 plug connector. Hubs are characteristic of networks with star or tree topologies. A hub has numerous ports for connecting stations and other devices. If signals are sent, the hub copies these signals and passes them on to ALL the connected stations.

Cable category:

Plug-in connector:

Hub:

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Fiber-optic Ethernet 10BaseF


Fiber-optic cable

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Fiber-optic Ethernet 10BaseF 10BaseF refers to a series of standards that use fiber-optic cables as a transmission medium. Due to the long-range transmission paths, these systems are often used to connect distant network segments.

Fiber-optic cables

In fiber-optic cables, information is transmitted over thin glass fibers using extremely short light pulses. The cable contains two glass fibers, enabling simultaneous sending and receiving (FD = full duplex).

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Fast Ethernet 100BaseT

Standard

Transmission medium

Max. distance

100BaseTX

2 pairs, category 5 UTP

100 m

100BaseFX

Multi-mode fiber

400 m

100BaseT4

4 pairs, min. category 3 UTP

100 m

100BaseT2

2 pairs, min. category 3 UTP

100 m

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Fast Ethernet

Fast Ethernet is an LAN standard for a transmission rate of 100 Mbit/s. It is a natural expansion of 10BaseT and the two are compatible. New capabilities, such as full duplex, have also been added. There are several versions of 100BaseT, which have different physical layers and, as a result, different transmission media.

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Gigabit Ethernet 1000BaseX


Standard Transmission medium Max. distance

1000BaseTX

4 pairs, category 5 UTP

100 m

1000BaseCX

2 pairs, STP

25 m

1000BaseSX

Multi-mode fiber (short wave)

275 m

1000BaseLX

Mono-mode/Multi-mode fiber (long wave)

5,000/550 m

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Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet technology provides a data transfer rate of 1,000 Mbit/s. This LAN system is also based on the CSMA/CD method, but is uses optimized physical transmission and logical signal encoding. Gigabit Ethernet is compatible with the 802.3 standard and provides seamless integration into existing networks.

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Access methods are .......

Deterministic Deterministic (can be predicted) (can be predicted)

Stochastic Stochastic (random) (random)

Central Central

Distributed Distributed

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Stochastic access (random) The station wishing to transmit data transfers it to a free channel without first seeking permission to do so. Resolving issues arising from collisions, e.g., if a transmission is repeated following a random delay time - Simple - Fast if there is not much traffic - Delay time fluctuates randomly with no upper limit - CSMA/CD for local networks (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) Deterministic access (can be predicted) An explicit order is defined, in accordance with which stations transmit data to free channels. Stations are permitted to transmit data in a specific order (e.g., cyclically) - The need to seek permission minimizes the delay time - An upper limit can be specified for the delay time, priorities if necessary Important examples: Token method for LAN polling method

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CSMA/CD access method, bus structure

Carrier Sensing (CS): Multiple Access (MA):

All stations continuously listen to the transmission medium. Equal competing access of all stations wishing to send data.

Collision Detection (CD): Listening to the medium during the transmission process, detection of any collisions.

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Ethernet bus structure In conventional Ethernet technology, all stations are attached to the same cable line (linear bus, linear structure). The Ethernet stations are completely independent, they are not synchronized by a higher-level network master (as with PROFIBUS DP ) or by a token that is passed around (as with PROFIBUS). So, the stations compete to access the bus, meaning that access control is needed. Access control Access control is the responsibility of the data link layer (layer 2). This layer has to detect when two or more stations are attempting to send data at the same time. To this end, Ethernet uses the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) access method. Carrier Sensing (CS) All stations continuously listen to the transmission medium. Multiple Access ( MA) Equal competing access of all stations wishing to send data.

Collision Detection (CD) Listening to the medium during the transmission process, detection of any collisions.

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CSMA/CD access method, process flow

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Carrier Sensing (CS) Before sending, a station first listens to the line to determine whether data exchange is already taking place between stations. Points 1 and 2: If the transmission medium is available, the station begins its transmission. However, because other stations can also transmit at the same time (MA), the sender listens to the transmission in order to detect any possible collisions. If transmission takes places with no collisions, station 3 recognizes from the receiver address inside the data packet that it is the intended recipient and accepts the data. All other stations ignore the packet. A certain execution time must be taken into account for all lines. For example, station 2 may erroneously consider the bus to be available because it has not yet received the signal sent by station 1. If station 2 now starts sending, a collision occurs. If a sending station detects a collision, it immediately stops transmission and sends a collision signal (4 to 6 bytes with a special bit pattern). All sending stations then stop transmission, and the line is quiet.

Point 3:

After receiving a collision signal, the stations wishing to send wait a random delay time and then attempt to resend the data. If this new attempt also fails, the delay time becomes longer. After 16 collisions in succession, the access algorithm is aborted and the higher-level software must decide how to proceed. This flowchart again provides an overview of how the CSMA/CD access method works. IK-IESYS SITRAIN training for Ethernet basics Page 22 Automation and Industrial Solutions

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CSMA/CD access method, collision domain

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Collision domain A collision domain is a network area in which collisions may occur between sending stations as a result of the CSMA/CD method. It also includes all Ethernet segments connected to the collision domain over a repeater (signal amplifier).

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CSMA/CD access method, real-time response


Average delay

Network loading

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Real-time response This graph shows that, if CSMA/CD is used and the load on the bus increases, transmission times increase sharply too, as there is a greater risk of collisions. A real-time response can, therefore, not be guaranteed. This means that the network must be appropriately segmented in order to reduce the likelihood of a collision.

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The hub, multiport repeater

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The hub Functionally, the hub is the counterpart of the repeater in a twisted-pair cabled network with a star topology. As it features multiple ports, it is also known as a multiport repeater. Like repeaters, hubs are used as a simple way of increasing the expansion of a network. Hubs work on the physical layer (layer 1) of the OSI model. Their sole function is to work as a distributor. All stations connected to a hub share the entire bandwidth made available via the hub (e.g., 10 Mbit/s or 100 Mbit/s). The connection between the computer and the hub only has access to this bandwidth temporarily. A hub accepts a data packet and sends it to all other ports. This procedure results in all ports being occupied. This technology is not particularly effective, but it does have the advantage that hubs of this type are easy and cheap to manufacture. Two hubs are connected via an uplink port on a device or by means of a crossover cable (the transmission and reception cables are crossed).

Special stackable hubs are also available, which, depending on the make, can be cascaded with connecting cables. The number of possible stations can be increased by connecting several hubs. However, there is a limit to the number of stations which can be connected (repeater rule on previous slide).

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The switch
Collision domain 1

Collision domain 2 Collision domain 3

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The switch The switch is a high-speed packet-switching system used to divide local networks into segments. Like the bridge, the switch operates on layer 2 of the ISO/OSI reference model. Every port of a switch forms a separate network segment with its own collision domain. This enables a switch to not only increase the performance capability of the network as a whole, but also that of each individual segment. Function Within the switch, a particular port is assigned to each MAC address in a routing table. An incoming data packet is transmitted directly to the port of the receiver, based on its destination address. A switch can establish multiple connections simultaneously between pairs of ports, thus considerably decreasing collision overhead.

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Hub compared to switch


Hub Switch

A D G

H E

If A transmits data to B, this data is also forwarded to all the other users connected to the hub. The 10 Mbit/s Ethernet bandwidth is equally available to all nodes, which must share it.

The switch transfers a frame to a certain port, based on its destination address. It also enables multiple connections to be established between ports simultaneously. Every port can access the full Ethernet bandwidth and work in, among others, full-duplex mode.

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General

The individual ports on a switch can send and receive data independently of one another. The ports are interconnected via an internal high-speed bus (backplane). As far as possible, data buffers ensure that data frames are not lost. Packets/frames can be forwarded in a switch in the operating modes below, which differ in terms of their delay times and error compensation:

Cut through

This is a very fast method, which is primarily used by better switches. The switch only looks at the MAC destination address of the received frame, makes a decision as regards forwarding and forwards the frame accordingly. The frame is not checked for errors, in order to save time. Therefore, the switch also forwards damaged frames, which must then be picked up by other layer-2 devices or higher network levels. This is the most basic, but also the slowest switching method, which can be performed by every switch. The switch makes a forwarding decision based on the MAC destination address as usual, then uses the frame to calculate a checksum, which it compares to the CRC value stored at the end of the packet. If there is any discrepancy, the frame is rejected. This ensures that no faulty frames are distributed in the LAN. Store and forward is the only switching method which can be used if the sender and receiver are working at different transmission rates or with duplex modes, or if they are using different transmission media. Bridges and switches communicate via the (rapid) spanning tree algorithm (IEEE 802.3d,w) to prevent data packets looping endlessly within a network. In a meshed system, various connections are temporarily switched to standby mode in order to create a tree topology.

Store and forward

Spanning tree

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Shared LAN compared to switched LAN

Data traffic

Shared LAN
All network nodes share the available bandwidth, e.g., 10 Mbit/s Liable to collisions All frames pass through all segments Repeaters, hubs, optical link modules, etc., require compliance with configuration rules and restrict the maximum range
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Switched LAN
Each individual collision domain has access to the entire bandwidth Local data traffic remains local, so the load is separated Maximum range for each collision domain

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Fragment free

This is faster than Store and Forward, but slower than Cut Through. It is more commonly found on better switches. It checks whether a frame reaches the minimum length of 64 bytes required by the Ethernet standard and then transmits it to the destination port immediately, without carrying out a cyclic redundancy check. Fragments below 64 bytes are usually "debris" created by a collision, which no longer represent a meaningful packet.

Advantages of switches If two network nodes receive data simultaneously there are no collisions (see CSMA/CD), as the switch can internally transfer both transmissions simultaneously via the backplane. If data arrives at an output port faster than it can be forwarded over the network, it is buffered. If possible, flow control is used to prompt the sender(s) to send the data more slowly. If eight computers are connected via an 8-port switch and two computers are both sending data to one another at full speed, so that four full-duplex connections are established, in theory you have eight times the speed you would achieve with a corresponding hub where all the devices would share the maximum bandwidth - 4 * 200 Mbit/s as opposed to 100 Mbit/s. However, two aspects contradict this theoretical calculation: For one thing, the internal processors are not designed to run all ports at full speed and a hub with multiple computers will never reach 100 Mbits either, as the more collisions that occur, the more load the network is subjected to, which in turn restricts the bandwidth. The switch records in a table which station can be reached via which port. During continuous operation, the MAC sender addresses of the forwarded frames are saved. Data is then only forwarded to the port where the receiver is actually located. Packets with unknown MAC destination addresses are treated as broadcasts and forwarded to all ports, with the exception of the source port.

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Switching technology, part 2


Cut through The switch only looks at the MAC destination address of the received frame, makes a decision as regards forwarding and forwards the frame accordingly. The frame is not checked for errors in order to save time. Therefore, the switch also forwards damaged frames, which must then be picked up by other layer-2 devices. Store and forward This is the most basic, but also the slowest switching method, which can be performed by every switch. The switch makes a forwarding decision based on the MAC destination address as usual, then uses the frame to calculate a checksum, which it compares to the CRC value stored at the end of the packet. If there is any discrepancy, the frame is rejected. This ensures that no faulty frames are distributed in the LAN. Store and Forward is the only switching method which can be used if the sender and receiver are working at different transmission rates or with duplex modes, or if they are using different transmission media. Spanning tree Bridges and switches communicate via the (rapid) spanning tree algorithm (IEEE 802.3d,w) to prevent data packets looping endlessly within a network. In a meshed system, various connections are temporarily switched to standby mode in order to create a tree topology.

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General

The individual ports on a switch can send and receive data independently of one another. The ports are interconnected via an internal high-speed bus (backplane). As far as possible, data buffers ensure that data frames are not lost. Packets/frames can be forwarded in a switch in the operating modes below, which differ in terms of their delay times and error compensation: This is a very fast method, which is primarily used by better switches. The switch only looks at the MAC destination address of the received frame, makes a decision as regards forwarding and forwards the frame accordingly. The frame is not checked for errors, in order to save time. Therefore, the switch also forwards damaged frames, which must then be picked up by other layer-2 devices or higher network levels. This is the most basic, but also the slowest switching method, which can be performed by every switch. The switch makes a forwarding decision based on the MAC destination address as usual, then uses the frame to calculate a checksum, which it compares to the CRC value stored at the end of the packet. If there is any discrepancy, the frame is rejected. This ensures that no faulty frames are distributed in the LAN. Store and Forward is the only switching method which can be used if the sender and receiver are working at different transmission rates or with duplex modes, or if they are using different transmission media. Bridges and switches communicate via the (rapid) spanning tree algorithm (IEEE 802.3d,w) to prevent data packets looping endlessly within a network. In a meshed system, various connections are temporarily switched to standby mode in order to create a tree topology.

Cut through

Store and forward

Spanning tree

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Switching network: Spanning tree

Fiber-optic cable

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Spanning tree In order to prevent data packets from looping in the network, various connections are switched to standby with closed machines so that a tree topology is created. Bridges and switches communicate over the spanning tree protocol (IEEE 802.1d) or the rapid spanning tree protocol (IEEE 802.1w). Their message frames are represented in yellow. Switches of the SCALANCE X400 product range offer the time-optimized variant. In the event of an error, they only require a few seconds to reconfigure new trees.

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Network components in the OSI model: Repeater, hub/bridge, switch


Repeater/hub (star hub)
- "Refreshes" and forwards the incoming signals - Immediately forwards the information to all partners connected to the repeater/hub. - No filtering, load separation or intervention in communication - The use of repeaters/hubs is restricted to a single collision domain.
Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical
Repeater / Hub Physical Physical

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

Bridge/switch
- Connects collision domains. The maximum extension is only limited by the delay of the data packets between two nodes. - Load separation: Data traffic can be spread over different subsegments. - Data traffic is not interrupted if individual stations fail. - Parallel communication
SITRAIN IK-IESYS / Ethernet basics
Application Presentation Session Transport Netw ork Data Link Physical
Bridge / Switch Data Link Physical Data Link Physical

Application Presentation Session Transport Netw ork Data Link Physical

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Network components in the OSI model: Router and gateway


Router
- Decouples networks on the basis of layer 3 addresses (IP addresses) - Controls traffic between networks (routing) - Protocol-independent, offers routing functions and flow control
Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

Application Presentation Session

Router Network Data Link Physical Network Data Link Physical

Transport Network Data Link Physical

Gateway
- A gateway converts services. - Security mechanisms are possible (firewall, proxy). - A gateway comprises hardware and software for connecting different networks, whereby all protocols can be converted (all 7 OSI layers).
Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

Gateway Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical
Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

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IK-IESYS Ethernet basics