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Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

Abteilung Erdl-, Erdgasgewinnung und Erdgasversorgung

Project Assignment By International Drillers

Huzaif Memon, Gohul Dhanarasu, Faissal Boulakhrif Roy Radido Okech, And Muhammad Shahzad,

Stuck Drill Pipe Phenomenon Solid Buildup

Prof. Dr. Catalin Teodoriu Advanced Drilling Technology WS 2012/2013

Institute of Petroleum Engineering Clausthal University of Technology 28/01/2013

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Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION PROBLEM DESCRIPTION OBJECTIVES LITERATURE REVIEW 4 4 6 6 9 9 9 10 10 11 15 19 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 3 3 4 3

3.1 PIPE STICKING 3.1.1 COMMON STUCK PIPE SCENARIOS 3.2 MECHANICAL PIPE STICKING 3.2.1 DRILLED CUTTINGS 4 PROJECT OVERVIEW

4.1 CUTTINGS TRANSPORT IN DEVIATED WELLS. 4.1.1 EFFECT OF MAJOR DRILLING PARAMETERS ON CUTTING TRANSPORT 4.2 PROJECT COMPONENTS 4.2.1 DIMENSIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS 4.2.2 DRAWING AND DESIGN 4.2.3 CONSTRUCTION 4.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 4.2 SAFETY MEASURES 5 5.1 5.2 6 6.1 6.2 7 DISCUSSION THE CAUSES OF INADEQUATE CLEANING OF CUTTINGS FROM THE HOLE THE MAJOR WARNING SIGNS AND INDICATIONS OF CUTTINGS SETTLING CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS PREVENTIVE MEASURES TO MINIMIZE THE POSSIBILITY OF SETTLED CUTTINGS RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES

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2.1

Introduction
Problem Description

It is almost certain that problems will occur while drilling a well, even in very carefully planned wells. For example, in areas in which similar drilling practices are used, hole problems may have been reported where no such problems existed previously because formations are non-homogeneous. Therefore, two wells close to each other may have totally different geological conditions. In well planning, the key to achieving objectives successfully is to design drilling programs on the basis of anticipation of potential hole problems rather than on caution and containment. Drilling problems can be very costly. The most prevalent drilling problems include pipe sticking, lost circulation, hole deviation, pipe failures, borehole instability, mud contamination, formation damage, hole cleaning, H2S-bearing formation and shallow gas, and, equipment and personnel-related problems. Understanding and anticipating drilling problems, understanding their causes, and planning solutions are necessary for overall-well-cost control and for successfully reaching the target zone. This project addresses the problem of drilling pipe differential sticking, due to solid buildups in the wellbore, possible solutions, and preventive measures. 2.2 Objectives To design and construct a model wellbore and drilling system. To demonstrate the solid buildup phenomenon using the model wellbore system. To discuss possible solutions and preventive measures.

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3.1

Literature Review
Pipe Sticking

During drilling operations, a pipe is considered stuck if it cannot be freed and pulled out of the hole without damaging the pipe and without exceeding the drilling rigs maximum allowed hook load. Stuck pipe is one of the more common and serious drilling problems. It can range in severity from minor inconvenience, which can increase costs slightly, to major complications, which can have significantly negative results, such as loss of the drill string or complete loss of the well. A large percentage of stuck pipe instances eventually result in having to sidetrack around the stuck pipe called a fish and re-drill the interval. Stuck pipe prevention and remedy are dependent on the cause of the problem. Therefore, to avoid stuck pipe and correct it efficiently, it is important to understand the various causes and symptoms so that proper preventive measures and treatments can be taken. If the pipe becomes stuck, every effort should be made to free it quickly. The probability of freeing stuck pipe successfully diminishes rapidly with time. Early identification of the most likely cause of a sticking problem is crucial, since each cause must be remedied with different measures. An improper reaction to a sticking problem could easily make it worse. An evaluation of the events leading up to the stuck pipe occurrence frequently indicates the most probable cause and can lead to the proper corrective measures. 3.1.1 Common Stuck Pipe Scenarios

Stuck pipe can often be freed. However, it is critical first to determine why the pipe is stuck. Some of the most common stuck pipe situations, with the most common ways to free it, are as follows: 1. Pipe sticks while tripping into the hole before the bit reaches the casing shoe. If it is possible to circulate, the casing probably has collapsed. If it is not possible to circulate, and the mud is cement-contaminated or contains a high lime concentration, the pipe is probably stuck in cement or contaminated mud. 2. Pipe sticks while tripping into the hole (pipe moving) with the bit and BHA below the casing shoe. It is impossible to rotate the pipe. If stuck off bottom, and the BHA has been lengthened or stiffened, the string probably has been wedged into a dogleg. Circulation should be possible, but may be restricted.
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If the pipe is stuck close to bottom, it may be jammed into an undergauge hole or dogleg. Circulation should be possible, but may be restricted.

If it is not possible to circulate, pipe is stuck in fill or if the mud has been contaminated with cement, the mud or cement probably has set up.

3. If the pipe sticks while making a connection or taking a survey. If the pipe can be rotated with restricted circulation, it is an indication of rocks, cement blocks or junk in the hole. If the pipe cannot be rotated with full circulation, it is probably differentially stuck.

4. The pipe sticks when circulating kill mud during a well-control operation while the pipe was not being worked or rotated. It is probably differentially stuck. 5. The pipe sticks while picking up or tripping, and it is still possible to rotate, circulate and move the pipe a limited amount. It is probably junk in the hole. 6. The pipe sticks suddenly while pulling out of the hole on a trip and cannot be worked up or down, with full circulation, and usually can be rotated. It is probably key seated.

In general, pipe becomes stuck either mechanically or differentially. Differential pressure pipe sticking and mechanical pipe sticking are addressed below. Mechanical sticking is caused by a physical obstruction or restriction. Differential sticking is caused by differential pressure forces from an overbalanced mud column acting on the drill string against a filter cake deposited on a permeable formation. Mechanical sticking usually occurs when the drill string is moving. It also is indicated by obstructed circulation. Occasionally, however, a limited amount of up/down mobility or rotary freedom is evident, even when the pipe is mechanically stuck. Differential sticking usually occurs while the pipe is stationary, such as when connections are being made or when a survey is being taken. It is indicated by full circulation and no up/down mobility or rotary freedom other than pipe stretch and torque. Mechanically stuck pipe can be grouped into two major categories: 1. Hole pack-off and bridges. 2. Wellbore geometry interferences.

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Pack-offs and bridges are caused by: Settled cuttings Shale instability Unconsolidated formations Cement or junk in the hole

Wellbore geometry interferences are caused by: Key seats Undergauge hole Stiff drilling assembly Mobile formations Ledges and doglegs Casing failures 3.2 Mechanical Pipe Sticking

The causes of mechanical pipe sticking are inadequate removal of drilled cuttings from the annulus; borehole instabilities, such as hole caving, sloughing, or collapse; plastic shale or salt sections squeezing (creeping); and key seating. 3.2.1 Drilled Cuttings

Excessive drilled-cuttings accumulation in the annular space caused by improper cleaning of the hole can cause mechanical pipe sticking, particularly in directional-well drilling. The settling of a large amount of suspended cuttings to the bottom when the pump is shut down or the downward sliding of a stationary-formed cuttings bed on the low side of a directional well can pack a bottom hole assembly (BHA), which causes pipe sticking. In directional-well drilling, a stationary cuttings bed may form on the low side of the borehole. If this condition exists while tripping out, it is very likely that pipe sticking will occur. This is why it is a common field practice to circulate bottom up several times with the drill bit off bottom to flush out any cuttings bed that may be present before making a trip. Increases in torque/drag and sometimes in circulating drill pipe pressure are indications of large accumulations of cuttings in the annulus and of potential pipe-sticking problems.

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Settled cuttings If cuttings are not removed from the borehole, they accumulate in the well, eventually causing the hole to pack off, often around the Bottom-Hole Assembly (BHA) and sticking the drill string. This problem is encountered often in over gauge sections, where annular velocities are reduced as shown by the calculations below: Calculation of Velocity of cuttings through the wellbore: = / 4 (well bore ID 2 Drill collar OD 2) = / 4 (0.188 2 0.18 2) A = 2.3 x 10 -3 m 2 = / 4 (well bore ID 2 Drill pipe OD 2) = / 4 (0.188 2 0.05 2) A = 0.025 m 2

Area between well bore and Drill collar

Area between well bore and Drill pipe

Velocity through drill collar and well bore = Q = VA 1.27 x 10-3 m3/sec = V x 2.3 x 10 -3 m 2 V = 0.55 m/s Velocity through drill pipe and well bore = Q = VA 1.27 x 10-3 m3/sec = V x 0.025 m 2 V = 0.0508 m/s

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In deviated wells, cuttings will build up on the low side of the hole and may eventually slump down the hole, causing pack off.

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4.1

Project Overview
Cuttings Transport in deviated Wells.

A comprehensive cuttings transport model should allow a complete analysis for the entire well, from surface to the bit. The different mechanisms which dominate within different ranges of wellbore angle should be used to predict:

Cuttings bed heights and annular cuttings concentrations as functions of operating parameters (flow rate and penetration rate)

Wellbore configuration (depth, hole angle, hole size or casing ID, and pipe size) Fluid properties (density and rheology) Cuttings characteristics (density, size, bed porosity, and angle of repose) Pipe eccentricity Rotary speed

4.1.1

Effect of Major Drilling Parameters on cutting transport

The influence of major drilling parameters on cuttings transport in deviated and horizontal wells, are presented as follows: Mud flow rate significant positive effect

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Mud rheology moderate positive or negative effect depending on cuttings size, pipe rotation, hole inclination, and annular eccentricity Hole angle significant negative impact with increase in inclination Mud weight small positive impact to moderate positive effect Mud type Hole size small to no effect for the same annular fluid velocity Rotation Speed Significant positive effect Eccentricity - significant negative effect ROP moderate negative effect Drill bit type unknown influence due to the regrinding of cuttings after they have been generated Cutting size small negative or positive impact depending on several conditions

In this project, the only variable is the hole angle. All other parameters are kept constant. 4.2 4.2.1

Project Components Dimensions and Specifications Wellbore ID: 18.8 cm = 0.188 m Wellbore OD: 20 cm = 0.2 m Length of well bore: 150 cm = 1.5 m

Drill collar OD: 18 cm = 0.18 m Length of Drill collar: 50 cm = 0.5 m

Drill Pipe OD = 5 cm = 0.05 m

Maximum H: 45m Maximum Flow rate: 4600 litre/hour = 1.27 x 10-3 m3/sec

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4.2.2

Drawing and Design

Mud outflow line Annulus Drill pipe

Wellbore Mud tank

Drill collar Mud pump Inclined plate Mud inflow line

3D Model

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Cross-sectional Model

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2D Model

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Isometric Model

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4.2.3

Construction

Annulus

Drill pipe Mud outflow line Mud tank

Drill collar Cuttings samples

Mud pump

Mud inflow line

Completed Model Wellbore System

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Wellbore Drill Pipe

Out flow line

Drill Collar Mud inflow line Mud Tank Inclined lever Pump Inclined base

Wellbore and Drill Pipe

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Mud Tank

Pump
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Lever System

Cuttings Sample
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4.1

Principle of Operation When the pump is turned on, the mud (water in our case), is pumped inside the wellbore from bottom, at a rate of 1.27 x 10-3 m3/sec. The mud lifts the cuttings up the wellbore at a velocity of 0.55 m/s between the well bore and drill collar, and at 0.0508 m/s between the well bore and drill pipe. This abrupt decrease in velocity causes the cuttings to settle down on the top and sides of the drill collar. This phenomenon would cause the drill string to stick in the wellbore during drilling.

Drill Pipe

Mud Flow

The mud attempts to remove the cuttings which are settled on the top and sides of the drill collar.

Mud inflow pipe

Mud circulating the cuttings

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Settled cuttings

Cuttings Settling-Solid Buildup

Drill collar Top

Cuttings settling on top of the drill collar

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Drill String being pulled off bottom to remove stuck cuttings

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4.2

Safety Measures

Do not attempt to disassemble the electric equipment (pump). Equipment must not leak; avoid any fluid spillages on the pump motor. Keep your fingers away from the pump during operation. Do not operate the pump with wet hands. Operate the inclined lever with utmost care. Avoid putting your fingers and hands below the inclined plate. Do not block the pump motors air vents. Handle the cart with care while moving from one place to another knocks and bumps. It is recommended to use hand gloves while operating the apparatus. Eating and drinking is prohibited while operating the apparatus. Keep fire extinguishers close during operation, in case of an electrical fire. Keep a first aid box close in case of any emergency injuries during operation. Do not siphon fluid from the apparatus by use of mouth, use appropriate pipetting tools.
Ensure the apparatus are kept clean at all times.

Many other operations normally carried out in the workshop are potentially dangerous. The greatest care should be taken at all times to ensure your safety and that of others in the workshop.

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5.1

Discussion
The causes of inadequate cleaning of cuttings from the hole Drilling at excessive Rates Of Penetration (ROP) for a given circulation rate. This generates cuttings faster than they can be circulated mechanically from the annulus. Inadequate annular hydraulics. Failure to suspend and carry cuttings to the surface with adequate mud rheology. Highly deviated well paths. High angle wells are more difficult to clean, since the drilled solids tend to fall to the low side of the hole. Beds of cuttings will form, which are not easily removed. Formation sloughing and packing off around the drill string. Not circulating enough to clean the hole before tripping out or making connections. When circulation is interrupted, cuttings may settle around the BHA and pack off, sticking the pipe. Drilling blind (without mud returns) and not adequately sweeping the hole periodically with a viscous mud. Unintentionally drilling without circulation. The major warning signs and indications of cuttings settling Fill on bottom after connections and tripping. Few cuttings returning at the shakers relative to the drill rate and hole size. Increase in torque, drag and pump pressure. Over pull on connections and while tripping out. Increase in Low-Gravity Solids (LGS) and possible mud weight and/or viscosity increases.

5.2

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6
6.1

Conclusions and Recommendations


Preventive measures to minimize the possibility of settled cuttings Maintain proper mud rheology in accordance with hole size, ROP and hole inclination. In near-vertical wells, sweep the hole with high-viscosity mud. In highly deviated wells, sweep with low-viscosity/high-viscosity pills. Always circulate until the sweeps have returned to the surface and the shakers are clean. Use optimized hydraulics compatible with the respective hole size, inclination and ROP. Higher circulation rates always provide improved hole cleaning. Control drilling in high ROP or marginal hole-cleaning situations. Use aggressive drill string rotation for improved hole cleaning. Make a wiper trip after all long motor runs. Use drill string motion (rotate and reciprocate), while circulating at the maximum rate to disturb cuttings beds and reincorporate them into the flow stream. Inadequate hole cleaning causes overloading of the annulus. In highly deviated or horizontal wells, this results in the formation of a cuttings bed on the low side of the borehole.

If the annulus becomes overloaded, attempts to establish circulation must be attempted. In addition, a downward force should be applied gradually until circulation begins. Once circulation is established, the drill string should be rotated to further disturb the cuttings. In low angle holes, a weighted high viscous pill should be used to float out the cuttings. In high angle holes, a low viscous pill should be used to disturb the cuttings bed, followed by weighted pills to carry the cuttings out of the hole. 6.2

Recommendation The project can be modified to include a variable mud pump system, in order to monitor the influence of pump rate on solid buildup.

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References

Petroleum Engineering Handbook, Volume II ( Larry W. Lake) MI Swaco Hand books and Manual PetroWiki petroleumsupport.com sereneenergy.org

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