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Amos

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Baylor Handbook on the Hebrew Bible
General Editor
W. Dennis Tucker Jr.
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Amos
A Handbook on the Hebrew Text
Duane A. Garrett
Baylor University Press
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2008byBaylorUniversityPress,Waco,Texas76798
All Rights Reserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedin
aretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,
mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutthepriorpermis-
sioninwritingofBaylorUniversityPress.
Cover DesignbyPamelaPoll
Cover photographbyBruceandKennethZuckerman,WestSemiticResearch,
incollaborationwiththeancientBiblicalManuscriptCenter.CourtesyRus-
sinaNationalLibrary(Saltykov-Shchedrin).
LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData
Garrett,DuaneA.
Amos:ahandbookontheHebrewtext/DuaneA.Garrett.
p.cm.--(BaylorhandbookontheHebrewBibleseries)
Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.
ISBN978-1-932792-69-0(pbk.)
1.Bible.O.T.Amos--Criticism,Textual.2.Bible.O.T.Amos--Language,
style.3.Hebrewlanguage--Grammar.I.Title.
BS1585.52.G372008
224'.8044--dc22
2008010617
PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacid-freepaperwithaminimum
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TABlE of ConTEnTs
v
Introduction 1
Amos1 13
Amos2 47
Amos3 77
Amos4 104
Amos5 129
Amos6 177
Amos7 204
Amos8 229
Amos9 256
Glossary 292
Bibliography 295
IndexofModernAuthors 301
SubjectIndex 303
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1
InTroDuCTIon
ThebookofAmos,thesuperscripttellsus,wascomposedbyAmos
of Tekoa in the mid-eighth century B.C. Although from Judah,
Amosdirectedhismessageagainstthearistocraticandpriestlyupper-
classesofSamariaandBethel.Israelatthistime,duringthereignof
JeroboamII,wasinthemidstofamisleadingperiodofprosperityand
militarypower.Deceivedbytheiraffluenceandterritorialexpansion,
theIsraelitessupposedthatGodwasontheirsideandthatthegood
timeswouldneverend.Crueltytothepoor,religiousarrogance,and
anunboundedsenseofconfidenceinthemightoftheirfortifications
characterizedtheupperechelonsofsociety.Theycouldnotimagine
that their cities were only decades away from total destruction, and
they counted Amos a charlatan and blasphemer for his predictions
of their imminent demise. The book of Amos is a carefully crafted
indictment against Israel, an apologia for Amos claims to the pro-
phetic office, and a prediction of calamity for Israel followed by a
final,eschatologicalsalvation.
The focus of this commentary is the Hebrew text of Amos. Dis-
cussions of the books social and historical background, of insights
gainedfromarchaeology,andofitstheologyaresecondaryandpur-
posefully kept to a minimum. In addition, this commentary works
from the received Masoretic Text of Amos and makes no effort to
includeanexhaustiverecordoftextualvariants,ofversionalreadings,
andofconjecturalemendationsproposedbybiblicalscholars.Discus-
sionsoftext-criticalissuesthereforewillappearonlywheneitherthe
obscurityofthereceivedtextorsomeotherconsiderationsrequireit.
ThiscommentaryisintendedprimarilyforthestudentofHebrewand
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2 Amos
theBibletranslator,butitshouldbehelpfulalsoforanyteachersof
theBiblewhobelievethatwrestlingwiththeoriginallanguageofthe
texttobevaluable.
redaction and structure of the Book of Amos
IncurrentOTstudies,thequestionofthestructureofAmosisclosely
linkedtothequestionofitsredactionhistory,asscholarsseektoshow
both what was the original form of the book and how it evolved. A
famous example of this method is the commentary by H. W. Wolff
which,onthebasisofaform-criticalanalysis,arguesthatAmoswent
throughsixredactionalstages(Wolff1977,10613).ButDirkRott-
zoll argues that it went through no less than twelve stages of redac-
tion(Rottzoll1996,28590)!AmorerecentexampleisWood(2002),
which argues that the book was originally seven poems written and
performedbytheprophetasapoetictragedy.Woodassertsthatasec-
ondeditionoftheprophetsbookwasproducedbyanexilicauthorwho
insertedarunningcommentaryontheoriginalwork,therebynotonly
greatlyexpandingandreorderingtheoriginalbutalsotransformingit
intoacomedy(bygivingitaredemptive,happyending).Thisrevised
version,thepresentbookofAmos,isintenparts.Woodstheory,like
othersofitskind,isattimesforcedandisnotpersuasive.Nevertheless,
somemayfindthetendivisionsthatWoodproposesasthestructure
of Amos helpful. Similarly, but with very different results, one sees
structuralanalysismixedinwithaproposedredactionhistoryinPark
(2001).Theresultsofredaction-criticalstudiesareinfactexceedingly
diverse.Thereisnoconsensus(seeMller2003,Reconstructingand
InterpretingAmossLiteraryPrehistoryforasurveyofrecentredac-
tion-criticalanalyses;seealsoMller2003,A Prophet in Debate,which
arguesonthebasisofarhetorical-criticalanalysisthatthetextofAmos
did not have an extensive redaction history). In my view, redaction-
criticalapproachesareneithercompellingnorheuristicallyvaluable.
Although certain divisions of Amos are obvious in even a casual
readingofthetext(e.g.,thattheeightoraclesagainstthenationsin
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Introduction 3
1:32:16constituteasingledivision),manyaspectsofthestructureare
obscureanddebated,andreaderswillfindanabundanceofproposals
inthescholarlyliterature.Forexample,OConnell(1996)arguesthat,
followingthepatternofsevennationsplusIsraelin1:32:16,Amos
uses an N +1 pattern throughout (where N is some stereotypi-
cal number such as 3 or 7, and the additional item is some element
of surprise, such as adding Israel to the list of condemned nations).
OConnell does not, however, convincingly demonstrate that this
patterngovernsthewholebook.Boyle(1971)saysthat3:14:13isa
covenant lawsuit, but this, too, is unpersuasive. Koch (1974) argues
that the hymn fragments in Amos 4:13; 5:8; 9:5-6 are redactional
butthattheydemarcatedivisionsofthebook.Noble(1995)saysthat
Amosisinthreeparts(1:23:8;3:96:14;7:19:15).Heclaimsthat
themiddlesectionisachiasmus,buthemustrelocateordeleteseveral
versestomakeitwork.EverymajorcommentaryonAmos,moreover,
has its own presentation of the structure of the book. While there
aresomeareasofagreement(again,that1:32:16belongstogether),
itwouldbeamistaketospeakofanythinglikeastandardview.The
readershouldconsultthecommentariesforvariousalternativestothe
structuresuggestedhere.
ThestartingpointfortheoutlineofAmosproposedinthiscom-
mentaryisLimburg(1987),wherehestatesthattherearefiftydivine
speechformulas(suchas ,saysYHWH,and ,
theoracleofYHWH)inAmos.Theseare,hesays,distributedas
follows:oneat1:12,fourteenin1:32:16,andseveneachin3:115;
4:113; 5:16:14; 7:18:3; and 8:49:15. Thus there are seven divi-
sionsinthebook.Limburgpointsoutthatthenumberseven(orseven
plusone)isveryimportantinAmos.Therearesevenaccusednations
plusIsraelin1:32:16,forexample,andthecallforjusticein5:21-24
listsseventhingthatYHWHhates:feasts,solemnassemblies,burnt
offerings, cereal offerings, peace offerings, noise of songs and melo-
diesofharps.

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4 Amos
AsremarkableasLimburgsanalysisis,thereareaspectsofitthat
are not satisfying. For example, 1:2 has no divine speech formula
( has no explicit subject and is not a divine speech formula),
andthereforethereareforty-nine,notfifty,suchformulas.Thisisnot
really a problem, however. The whole of 1:2 is about divine speech
andservestointroducethisasthemotifthatgovernsthebook.Lim-
burgcounts3:1twice,apparentlyonthestrengthofitshaving
and , but he does not count 3:8, which has
.But shouldnotbecountedseparately(itisjoinedto
;seeMiller1995onquotativeframes),butcertainly
shouldbecounted.Also,Limburggiveslittleattentiontoshow-
ingthatthestructureofAmosactuallydoesfallintothesevengroups
hementions.If,forexample,onecannotshowthat8:49:15belongs
together as a single division, there is no reason to count this as one
passagethathassevenspeechformulas.
Slightly modifying Limburgs presentation, one can see how the
various formulas are used. After 1:2 sets forth divine speech as the
governing motif of the book, the divine speech formulas all occur
ingroupsoffourteenorseveninthesixlargedivisionsindicatedby
Limburg.Withtwoexceptions,everymajordivisioninAmosisintro-
duced with a plural imperative of . These exceptions are 1:3
2:16,whichisaseriesoforacles,eachbegunwith ,and
thevisionreportsectionat7:18:3,whichisintroducedbyahiphilof
.Thus,thesevendivisionsofAmosafterthesuperscript(1:1)and
thepoeticproclamationofYHWHmakinghisvoiceheard(1:2),are
asfollows(theopeningwordsofeachdivisionareinparentheses):
I. 1:32:16( )
II. 3:115( )
III.4:113( )
IV. 5:16:14( )
V. 7:18:3( )
VI.8:49:15( )
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Introduction 5
I. II. III. IV. V. VI.
1:3^
3:1 4:3 5:3^* 7:3 8:9*
1:5
1:6^
3:8* 4:5* 5:4^ 7:6* 8:11*
1:8*
1:9^
3:10 4:6 5:16^+ 7:8
&
9:7
1:11^
1:13^
3:11^* 4:8 5:17 7:15
&
9:8
1:15
2:1^
3:12^ 4:9 5:27+ 7:17^ 9:12
2:3
2:4^
3:13* 4:10 6:8+ 8:2
&
9:13
2:6^
2:11
3:15 4:11 6:14+ 8:3* 9:15++
2:16
KeytoDivineSpeechFormulasinAmos

plaintext
plainwithcaret
plainwithasterisk
plainwithplussign
plainwithtwoplussigns
plainwithampersand

bold
boldwithasterisk

italics
italicswithasterisk
italicswithplussign

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6 Amos
Thetableaboveanditsaccompanyingkeyshowswhatformulasare
usedinwhatverses.Thetableisinsixcolumnscorrespondingtothe
sixmajordivisionsofAmos.
From this alone one can see certain revealing patterns. As men-
tionedabove,1:32:16hasfourteendivinespeechformulas.Amosfive
timesbeginsandendseachoftheseeightoracleswithadivinespeech
formula. If he had consistently done this for all these oracles, there
would of course be sixteen. But he skips the second formula at Tyre
(1:9-10), Edom (1:11-12) and Judah (2:4-5), and he adds a third for-
mulaforIsraelat2:11.Thus,thetextseemstodeliberatelyaimathav-
ingfourteenformulas.Moreinterestingly,everymajordivisionexcept
forthelastendswithatleastone formula(seethebottomrowof
thetable).Theformulaat9:15,whichuniquelyis ,
saysYHWHyourGod,seemsdeliberatelysetattheendoftheres-
torationprophecy(9:11-15)toreassureIsraelthatYHWHwillagain
be their God. Note, however, that every other formula of 8:49:15,
thelastdivisionofthebook,isa formula,whichcorrespondsto
thefactthateveryotherdivisionendswitha formula.Itisalso
noteworthythatjustasthe formulasdominatethelastdivisionof
thebook,8:49:15,soalsoin4:1-13everyformulaisofthe kind.
This suggests that the book is in two parts, 1:34:13 and 5:19:15,
andthisissupportedbytheoverallstructureofthebook,asdescribed
below.Bycontrast, typeformulasaremorecommoninallother
divisionsofthebook.Thedivision7:18:3ismorenarrativeinnature,
and the formula , with the wayyiqtol verb, occurs twice
there.Themostexalted,pleonasticformulas(
and )alloccurin5:16:14,andthetwofor-
mulaswith botharein3:1-15.Theredoesnotappeartobeany
patterntotheusageof intheformulasexceptthatitappearsin
everymajordivision.
This commentary will attempt to demonstrate that each division
describedabovehasinternalcoherenceandstructure(fordiscussions
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Introduction 7
of each divisions structure, see the introductions to the major divi-
sions).Inaddition,thereisaninternallogictothearrangementofthe
sixmajordivisions,withachiasticstructure,asfollows:
A. 1:32:16 Judgment on the nations, with the unexpected
inclusionofIsrael.
B. 3:1-15FirstdefenseofAmospropheticofficeagainstthose
whoassertthathehasnorighttoprophesyagainstIsrael
C. 4:1-13 First major accusation against the materialistic
andreligiousarroganceoftheIsraelites.
C. 5:16:14Secondmajoraccusationagainstthematerialis-
ticandreligiousarroganceoftheIsraelites.
B.7:18:3 Second defense of Amos prophetic office against
thosewhoassertthathehasnorighttoprophesyagainst
Israel
A. 8:49:15FinalaccusationandverdictagainstIsrael,withthe
unexpectedrevivalofIsraelandinclusionofthenationsin
Israelsglory.
Conventions of this Commentary
Throughoutthecommentary,theHebrewtextofAmosappearswith
full cantillation marks (accents, or ). When a Hebrew word
is discussed, it is written without the cantillation marks, and cita-
tionsofpassagesoutsideofAmosgenerallylackcantillationmarks.
Whenverbsareparsed,thetraditionalstemnamesareused(qal,piel,
etc.). Conjugations, however, are named with the terminology that
has become increasingly more the standard in Hebrew studies, as
follows:
qatal =perfect( )
yiqtol =imperfect( )
wayyiqtol =imperfectwithvavconsecutive( )
weqatal =perfectwithsimpleconjunction( )
weyiqtol =imperfectwithsimpleconjunction( )

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8 Amos
Althoughonemightdebatewhetherqatal andweqatal shouldbecon-
sideredtobeseparateconjugations,inthesyntaxofthelanguage,each
ofthefiveformslistedabovehasadistinctivesetoffunctions.There-
fore, one cannot treat the qatal and the weqatal simply as the same
verbalform;theformerisgenerallyperfectiveinaspectandindicative
inmood,andittypicallydealswithpast,present,orgnomicactions.
Thelatterisgenerallyimperfectiveandmaybesubjunctiveorvolitive,
anditoftenisusedforafutureindicativeoranapodosis.Similarly,
oneshouldneverregardtheweqatal asthesameasawayyiqtol,orfail
totakenoteoftherelativelyrarepresenceofaweyiqtol inAmos(itis
usedseventimes).
AmajorissueinAmosisdistinguishingprosefrompoetry.Inthis
commentary,Hebrewthatisreckonedtobeproseisprintedaswhole
verses in paragraph form. After this, the prose text is analyzed on
a clause-by-clause basis, and each clause is individually printed in a
smallertypeface.Thisisdonebecause,inmyestimation,theclause
istheideallevelatwhichtoapproachtheanalysisofHebrewprose.
Withintheclause,onecanseehoweachconstituentandmorpheme
functions at the clause level, and at a higher level, one can describe
howeachclausefunctionsinthediscourse.
Colometry(orstichometry)isthedivisionofapoemintoitsindi-
viduallines.Thecolometryofapoembeingfundamentaltoitsanaly-
sis, every poetic section of Amos is set forth on a line-by-line basis.
Thebasisforthelinedivisionsusedherearetwo-fold.First,themajor
disjunctive marks of the cantillation system are taken into account
(seeHoop2000).Inthemajorityofcases,linebreaksoccuratthesil-
luq,theathnach,andthezaqeph qaton,withsomebreaksoccurringat
thepashta,revia,ortifha.Asageneralrule,whenadisjunctiveaccent
serves to mark a line break, it will have a weaker disjunctive accent
withinitsdomain.Asisdonehere,namesofaccentsaregiveninital-
icsinasimplifiedtransliteration.Insituationswherethelinedivisions
donot,inmyview,coincidewiththemajordisjunctiveaccents,some
commentsaremadeinthediscussionofthattext.
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Introduction 9
Second, in determining the colometry of a poem, the line con-
straints as described in OConnor (1980) and refined in Holladay
(1999) are taken into account. These constraints state that in any
Hebrewlineofpoetry,theremustbe:
From 0 to 3 clause predicators.Alinemayhavenopredicator,
butitshouldhavenomorethanthree.Aclausepredicator
maybeafiniteverb,aninfinitiveabsolutethatfunctionsas
a finite verb, an infinitive construct phrase functioning as
a finite verb (e.g., an infinitive construct that has a suffix
functioning as the subject of the action), a participle func-
tioningasaperiphrasticfiniteverb,andtheparticles and
.OConnoralsocountsthevocativeasapredicator,andI
havefollowedthatrule.
From 1 to 4 constituents. A constituent is a word or phrase
thatfillsonegrammaticalslot.Exampleswouldbeasubject,
apredicate,oraprepositionalphrase.Althoughithasmore
thanoneword,aconstructchainfunctioningasasubjector
vocative,forexample,isasingleconstituent.
From 2 to 5 units.Aunitisbasicallyaword,butsmallpar-
ticles such as or or prepositions such as do not
countasunits.Onemaydebatewhatdoesordoesnotcount
asaunit.Itreat asanon-unit,andonlycount asa
unitifitisabsolute.
Asanexample,wehavethefollowinglineinAmos1:9:

Because they handed over a full-scale exile to Edom.
Here,weseethatthelineendswiththedisjunctivezaqeph qaton.
There is 1 predicator, . This infinitive construct is reck-
onedtobeapredicatorbecauseitworkslikeafiniteverb,takingthe

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10 Amos
suffix as its subject. There are also 3 constituents and 4 units. The
constituentsaretheinfinitiveconstructphrase ,thedirect
object , and the prepositional phrase . The units
are , , ,and .Thepreposition doesnot
countasaunit(andnosuffixorprefixcountsasaunit).Thepresence
orabsenceofmaqqephisirrelevant.
Neither the cantillation marks nor the line constraints should be
regarded as inviolable; occasionally this commentary will point out
lines that, in my opinion, violate one or both of these (e.g., a line
endingwithaconjunctiveaccent,oralinewithonlyoneunit).Nev-
ertheless, in the overwhelming number of instances, lines both end
withanormalfinalaccentandalsoconformtothelineconstraints.
Inmyview,otherapproachestoHebrewcolometry(suchascounting
stresses, words, or syllables) produce no meaningful results and are
notvalid.
Inthediscussionofthecontentofapoem,eachlineisanalyzedsep-
arately.First,everylineisdescribedintermsofwhataccentmarksthe
endofthelineandintermsoftheaforementionedpoeticconstraints.
Then,eachconstituentofthelineisanalyzedseparately.
Sometimesthiscommentarywillspeakofdevicesthatoccurinthe
poems.Theseinclude:
Gapping (alsocalleddouble-duty),inwhichawordinone
linealsogovernsormodifiesanadjacentline.Forexample,
theverb inlineBdof1:5alsogovernslineBe.
Dependence, in which a line is grammatically incomplete
anddependsuponeitherthepreviousorfollowingline.For
example,in1:3,linesAaandAcbothdependonlineAb.
Semantic matching,inwhichawordorphraseinonelineis
synonymousornearlysynonymouswithawordinanadja-
centline.Seelinebof1:2.
Semantic parallelism,inwhichonelinemore-or-lesshasthe
samemeaningasanadjacentline.Seelinesaandbin1:2.It
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Introduction 11
iswidelyunderstoodtoday,afterKugel(1981),thatthelines
rarelysimplyrepeatthesameidea;usuallythesecondlinein
somewayadvancesorinsomewaymodifiesthethoughtof
thefirst.
Syntactic parallelism, in which two adjacent lines have the
samegrammaticalstructure,asinlinescanddin1:2.
Having broken down a poem into its lines, the lines need to be
grouped into meaningful collections. Unfortunately, there is little
consistency in the use of terms such as stanza and verse. This com-
mentaryadoptsthefollowingconventions.Atthehighestlevelisthe
poem.Apoemismadeupofoneormorestanzas,andeachstanzais
madeupofoneormorestrophes,andeachstropheismadeofoneor
morelines.Thetermverseisusedinthiscommentaryexclusively
forthenumberedversesoftheMT.Inotherwords,verseisnotused
todescribepoeticstructurebuttolocateatextinthebook.Asingle
majordivisionofAmosmayhaveseveralpoemsofvaryinglengthas
wellaspassagesinprose.
To aid in the discussions, poetic lines are tagged according to
stanza (uppercase Roman letters), strophe (Arabic numerals), and
line(lowercaseRomanletters).Forexample,lineA3bwouldbethe
firststanza(A),thethirdstrophe(3),andthesecondline(b)
ofthatstrophe.
Ifapoemhasonlyonestanza,orifastanzahasonlyonestro-
phe,thatsinglestanzaorstrophewillnotbedesignatedbyletteror
number.Forexample,line2cwouldrefertothethirdline(c)inthe
secondstrophe(2)inapoemwithonlyonestanza.
Ifapoemhasonlyonestanzaandonlyonestrophe,eachlineof
thepoemisdesignatedonlywithalowercaseRomanletter(e.g.,line
c).
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1:1-2: Profle of Introduction
Theopeningofthebook,thiscontainsaprosesuperscript(1:1)and
a poem of one strophe (1:2). The superscript gives the name of the
booksauthoraswellasthenameoftheauthorscity.Italsostatesthe
timeofcompositionbymeansofthreesynchronisms:withthenames
of the reigning kings of Judah and of Israel and with a significant
event,amajorearthquake).Thepoemdeclaresthemajorthemeofthe
book,thatYHWHhasspokeninangerandthereforethathisprophet
mustproclaimGodsmessageofdoom.
1
The words of Amos, who was from the shepherds of Tekoa, which
he received by vision concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah, the king of
Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, the king of Israel, two
years before the earthquake.
2
And he said,
YHWH will roar from Zion,
And he will give his voice from Jerusalem;
And the pastures of the shepherds will dry up
And the top of Carmel will wither.
1:1: Superscript
The book opens with a standard prophetic superscript naming the
authorwiththedateofhisprophecycorrelatedtocontemporaryIsra-
eliteandJudeankings.
A HAnDBook on THE HEBrEW TExT of Amos
13
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Prose Clause:
Titleofbook;aconstructchain.
Prose Clause:
Relativeclauseinappositionto .Aftertherelativepronoun
, the verb is a qal qatal 3 m s of . is a prepo-
sitionalphrasewith (withoramong),but (shepherd)is
foundonlyhereandin2Kings3:4,whereweread,
(AndMesha,thekingofMoab,wasasheep-breeder).Itis
relatedto (speckled),atermusedforsheepinGenesis30:32-
33, 35, 39; 31:8, 10, 12, and its meaning is not in any real doubt.
Also,fromUgarit,UT6(IAb)VI,55hasthetitlerb nqdm,chiefof
theshepherds.Anumberofscholars,onthebasisofitsbeingused
todescribeaking,believethatAmoswasawell-to-dosheepbreeder
andnotanimpoverishedshepherd(seeHasel1991,3540,forfurther
discussion). isaprepositionalphrase( )withapropernoun.
The Tekoa mentioned here is almost universally assumed to be the
smallvillageofJudahlocatedabouttwelvemilessouthofJerusalem,
although Rosenbaum (1990, 2940) argues (not convincingly) that
Amos was from the north and, following the medieval rabbi David
Kimchi,suggeststhatTekoamayhavebeeninthetribeofAsher.
Prose Clause:


Relativeclause(headedby )inappositionto .Theverb
oftheclauseis ,aqalqatal 3ms.Itisoddtospeakofwords
that he saw, but in this case means to receive a message via
a revelatory vision. In the preposition may be either
1:1
14 Amos1:1
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concerning (Ruth 2:4) or against (Judg 9:18). Three temporal
phrasesthatlocateAmosministryhistoricallyfollow:
. A prepositional phrase with
attached to the construct plural of , with the proper noun
servingastheabsolute. isinappositionto .Although
Amos message is primarily against Israel, the king of Judah as a
chronologicalindicatorprecedes mentionofthe kingofIsrael.This
suggests that Amos considered the Davidic king to have a superior
claimtolegitimacy.
.Theconjunctioncoor-
dinatesthisconstructchainwith .Again,wehaveacon-
structchainwithapropernoun.Thetwoconstructchains
and areinappositionto .
.Thedualof (year)withtheprep-
ositionalphrase isusedadverbiallyforatemporalphrase.
The earthquake ( ) was evidently of such severity that it was
rememberedforyearsthereaftersimplyastheearthquake.Itishere
mentioned not only for chronological purposes but also as an allu-
siontotheophanyandthedayoftheLord,asinIsaiah29:6,From
YHWHofhostsyouwillbepunishedwiththunderandearthquake.
...Seealso Ezekiel3:12.StatingthatAmosgave hismessagetwo
years before the earthquake, it is as though the text were claiming
that the earthquake were a vindication of Amos claim that the day
ofYHWHwasabouttobreakoutagainstIsrael.Thechronological
precision,thatitwastwoyearsbeforetheearthquake,suggeststhat
Amosgaveallofhispropheciesinthespaceofafairlyshorttime.

Aprosequotationformulaforthepoeticstanzainlinesad.Itlacks
explicit reference to the deity, and therefore is not a divine speech
formula even though God is obviously the speaker. is a qal
wayyiqtol 3msof.
1:2
Amos1:1-2 15
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1:2: Introductory Proclamation
Fourlines(a-d)inonestrophe.Lineaissyntacticallyandsemantically
paralleltob(linea=X+yiqtol,andlineb= +X+yiqtol),withgap-
pingof inlineb.Linecissyntacticallyandsemanticallyparallel
tod(bothareweqatal clauses).Theweqatal clausesindicatethatthe
actionofc-disconsecutivetothatofa-b.




Line a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Thesubject;thefirstwordoftheprophecyisYHWH.
. Thewordorderin mightsuggestthat
couldbetakenwith asanappellation,YHWHofZion,andas
asingleconstituent.Againstthis,however,isthedisjunctivepashta in
andtheconjunctivemunah in .Assuch,theprepositional
phrase adverbiallymodifiestheverb andisnotboundto
thenoun .
. Qalyiqtol 3msof.TheX+yiqtol pattern(thefact
thattheyiqtol isnon-initial)suggeststhattheverbisindicativeand
notmodal.Itmaybefutureorpresentiterative.
Line b:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,3constituents,and3units.
. Theconjunctionindicatesclause-levelcoordination
withlinea.Theabsenceofanexplicitsubjectisgappingofthesubject,
anditconfirmsthattheprepositionalphraseisboundtotheverb,and
soaffirmstheimplicationoftheaccentsin .
. Qalyiqtol 3msof.
a
b
c
d
16 Amos1:2
Garrett Amos final.indd 16 6/6/08 2:24:25 PM
. Nounwith3mssuffix.Thephrase semantically
matches .
Line c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.Thislineissequentialtolines
ab.
. Qalweqatal 3cpof.Thisis II,todryup
andnot I,tomourn.SeeHALOT.
. Feminine plural noun from , a green
meadow,inaconstructchainwith .
Line d:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.Thislinehassyntacticparallelism
withandamplifieslinec.
. Qalweqatal 3msof.Becauseoftheparallelstructure
oflinescd,theactionofthisweqatal isnotsequentialtothatofthe
previousline.
. A construct chain. The gentle, and usually
green,slopesofMt.Carmelprovideaspecificexample,afterlinec,of
apasturelandthatisparched.
1:32:16: oracles against the nations
This,thefirstmajordivisionofAmos,isaseriesofeightpoems,each
oneanoracleofjudgmentagainstanation(1:3-5,Damascus[Syria];
1:6-8,Gaza[Philistia];1:9-10,Tyre[Phoenicia];1:11-12,Edom;1:13-
15,Ammon;2:1-3,Moab;2:4-5,Judah;2:6-16,Israel).Somesuggest
thatAmosisgeographicallyencirclingIsrael,movingfromnortheast
(Damascus), to southwest (Philistia), to northwest (Tyre), to south-
east(Edom),tothetransjordanstates(AmmonandMoab),toJudah,
and finally to Israel. Others suggest that he bases his rhetoric on
ethnicity,beginningethnicallydistantorunrelatedpeoples(Arame-
ans, Philistines, and Phoenicians), moving to closely related nations
(Edom, Ammon, and Moab) and finally to Judah, who were of the
samepeopleasthenorthernIsraelites,beforeaddressingIsraelitself.
Amos1:22:16 17
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Itisclear,however,thatAmosisrhetoricallyentrappingtheIsraelites
bybeginningwithGentilestatesandprogressivelymovingcloseruntil
hereachesthemainobjectofhisdenunciations,Israelanditscapital
city,Samaria.Steinmann(1992)arguesthatotherpatternsareevident
in the order of the poems. For example, the first three are directed
againstcity-states,thenextthreearedirectedagainstpeoples,andthe
lasttwoaredirectedagainstthecovenantnations.
OnemayassumethattheinclusionofIsraelamongthecondemned
nationsisintendedtobeunexpectedandthereforerhetoricallyeffec-
tive. There are several indicators of this. First of all, Israel is placed
last, after a condemnation of seven states, and the audience might
haveassumedthattheoracleswerefinishedatseven.Second,incon-
demningGentilenations,Amoswasprobablyplayingtheroleofthe
optimisticprophetwhopredictsonlysalvationforIsraelbutdisaster
foritsenemies;thepeoplemaywellhaveexpectedaprophettocon-
demnforeignnations(Barton1980,5).Third,bybeginningwitha
condemnationofSamariasancientrivalDamascus,Amoslulledhis
audienceintothinkingthatthiswouldbeajingoisticmessage.
Formally,thefollowingcharacteristicsareevidentinthefirstseven
poems (i.e., in all but the Israel poem). Each is in two stanzas, an
accusation(oneortwostrophes)andapredictionofjudgment(always
one strophe). The accusation stanza always begins with a standard
three-line formula in which each line begins with (or ). The
judgment stanza always begins with the formula . . .
(andIwillsendfire...anditwillconsume...),although
thejudgmentonAmmonat1:14distinctivelybeginswith
(andIwillkindlefire)insteadof .Thejudgmentstanza
canbeexpandedtosevenlines,oritmayconsistofonlythetwo-line
formulaheadedby .
Three patterns are found among the first seven poems. In the
oracles on Damascus (1:3-5), Gaza (1:6-8), Ammon (1:13-15), and
Moab(2:1-3),theaccusationisasinglestropheofthreeorfourlines,
andthejudgmentisasinglestropheofsevenlinesdominatedbythe
weqatal verb.IntheoraclesonEdom(1:11-12)andJudah(2:4-5),the
18 Amos1:32:16
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accusation is in two strophes, the first strophe being four lines (the
firstthreeheadedbythestandard )andthesecondstrophebeing
a bicolon headed by a wayyiqtol verb. The judgment stanza in these
twopoemsisminimal,consistingofonlythebicolonheadedbythe
formula.Thethirdpatternandtheshortestpoemisthe
judgment on Tyre (1:9-10). It has a four-line accusation stanza and
the minimal two-line judgment formula. Except for the fourth line
ofthefirststanza,theTyreoraclehasonlytheminimalfeaturesfor
theseoracles.
Anotherfeatureofthefirstsevenoraclesisconcatenation,inwhich
oneormoreelementsinoneoraclearerepeatedinthenext.Forexam-
ple,thestructureandmuchofthecontentofDamascusoracle(1:3-5)
arerepeatedintheGaza(Philistine)oracle(1:6-8).Both,forexample,
speakofGodremovingtheonewhosits(onthethrone)andwhoholds
the scepter ( and ; 1:5 and 1:8). In the Philistine
oracle, God sends fire on the wall of Gaza (1:7); in the next oracle,
GodsendsfireonthewallofTyre(1:10).Tyrein1:9iscriticizedfor
notrememberingthecovenantofbrothers,whereasEdomin1:11pur-
suedhisbrotherwithasword.Edomin1:11slaughtered (which
heremeanshischildbearers;seediscussionbelow),whereasAmmon
in1:13cutopenthepregnantwomenofGilead.Ammonwillgointo
exile ,amidthebattle-cry(1:14),andMoabwillbedefeated
,amidthebattle-cry,withthesoundofthesho-
far.In2:2,GodsaysthathewillsendfireonMoab(theregion),and
itwillconsumeKerioth(theprincipalcity).In2:5,Godwillsendfire
on Judah (the region), and it will consume Jerusalem (the principal
city).Forfurtherdiscussionandelaboration,seePaul(1971).
3
Thus says YHWH:
Because of three rebellions of Damascus,
And because of four, I will not revoke it;
Because they threshed Gilead with the iron sledges.
4
And I will send fire on the house of Hazael,
And it will consume the citadels of Ben-hadad;
Amos1:32:16 19
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5
And I will shatter the gate-bar of Damascus,
And I will cut off the seated (ruler) from the Valley of Aven
And the one who holds a scepter from Beth-eden,
And the people of Syria will go into exile to Kir.
Says YHWH.
6
Thus says YHWH:
Because of three rebellions of Gaza,
And because of four, I will not revoke it;
Because they carried off a full-scale exile to hand them over to Edom.
7
And I will send fire on the wall of Gaza,
And it will consume its citadels;
8
And I will cut off the seated (ruler) from Ashdod
And the one who holds a scepter from Ashkelon,
And I will send back my hand against Ekron,
And what remains of the Philistines will perish.
Says the Lord YHWH.
9
Thus says YHWH:
Because of three rebellions of Tyre,
And because of four, I will not revoke it;
Because they handed over a full-scale exile to Edom
And did not remember a fraternal covenant.
10
And I will send fire on the wall of Tyre,
And it will consume its citadels.
11
Thus says YHWH:
Because of three rebellions of Edom,
And because of four, I will not revoke it;
Because he pursued his brother with the sword
And was exterminating their child-bearers.
And his rage tore on and on
While his wrath remained ever vigilant.
12
And I will send fire on Teman,
And it will consume the citadels of Bozrah.
20 Amos1:32:16
Garrett Amos final.indd 20 6/6/08 2:24:27 PM
13
Thus says YHWH:
Because of three rebellions of the Ammonites,
And because of four, I will not revoke it;
Because they split open the pregnant women of Gilead
In order to enlarge their territory.
14
And I will kindle a fire on the wall of Rabbah,
And it will consume its citadels
With a war-signal, on a day of battle,
With a wind-storm, on a day of tempest.
15
And their king will go into exile
He and his princes together.
Says YHWH.
2:1
Thus says YHWH:
Because of three rebellions of the Moab,
And because of four, I will not revoke it;
Because they burned the bones of the king of Edom to lime.
2
And I will send a fire upon Moab,
And it will consume the citadels of Kerioth
And Moab shall perish with clamor,
With a war-signalwith a blast of a shofar.
3
And I will cut off a judge from the midst of it,
And I will kill its princes with him.
Says YHWH.
4
Thus says YHWH:
Because of three rebellions of the Judah,
And because of four, I will not revoke it;
Because they rejected the Torah of YHWH,
And they did not keep his statutes,
5
And their lies led them astray
(Lies) which their fathers followed.
And I will send a fire upon Judah,
And it will consume the citadels of Jerusalem.
Amos1:32:16 21
Garrett Amos final.indd 21 6/6/08 2:24:27 PM
6
Thus says YHWH:
Because of three rebellions of the Israel,
And because of four, I will not revoke it;
Because they sell a righteous man because of silver
And an impoverished man because of a pair of sandals;
7
They are people who sniff at the dust of the earth after the heads of
the poor
And stretch out the way of the weak.
And a man and his father go to the same girl
In order to profane my holy name,
8
And on garments taken in pledge they stretch out
Alongside every altar,
And they drink wine taken from people by fines
At the house of their God.
9
But I destroyed the Amorite before you
Whose height was like the height of cedars,
And he was as strong as oaks;
And I destroyed his fruit above
And his roots below.
10
And I brought you up from the land of Egypt,
And I took you through the wilderness for forty years
To possess the land of the Amorite.
11
And I raised up some of your sons as prophets
And some of your young men as Nazirites.
Is not this in fact the case, Sons of Israel?
The oracle of YHWH.
12
And you made the Nazirites drink wine,
And you prohibited the prophets, saying:
Never prophesy!
13
Look! I am weighed down under you,
Just as a cart is weighed down
One that is full of sheaves.
22 Amos1:32:16
Garrett Amos final.indd 22 6/6/08 2:24:27 PM
14
And retreat shall escape the swift:
A strong man will not rally his strength,
And a warrior will not save his life,
15
And one who bends a bow will not stand,
And one swift on his feet will not save (his life),
And one riding a horse will not save his life,
16
And one mighty of heart among warriors
Will flee naked on that day.
The oracle of YHWH.
1:3-5: First Oracle (Damascus)
After the prose heading ( ), the poem has two stan-
zas.Thefirststanza(1:3)givesthereasonsGodwilljudgeDamascus
(threelines)inwhicheachlineisheadedbythepreposition .The
second stanza (1:4-5) gives the punishment (seven lines), in which
eachlineisheadedbyaweqatal verb,exceptforlineBe,wherethereis
gappingwiththeverb inlineBddoingdouble-duty,andline
Bg,whichistheconcluding .

Prose Clause:Aprosedivinespeechformulaforthefollowingoracle.
isaqalqatal3ms withtheparticle,and isthe
subjectoftheverb.
1:3b:First Stanza. Threelines.Eachisheadedby or .



Line Aa:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qatonandtheconstraintsare:
0predicators,1constituent,and3units.Thislineisgrammatically
dependenton inthefollowingline.
1:3a
1:3b Aa
Ab
Ac
Amos1:3 23
Garrett Amos final.indd 23 6/6/08 2:24:28 PM
. Aprepositionalphrase. isreg-
ularly used in these oracles to indicate the reason God is bringing
downjudgment,anditshouldbetranslatedbecause.
isaconstructchainboundtothenumber .Damascuswasthe
dominantcityofSyria,northofIsrael. ,crimeoractofrebel-
lion,indicatesthatYHWHisthelegitimatesovereignovereventhis
Gentilestate.
Line Ab: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. There is gapping with the previous line, the
phrase beingunderstoodhere.Thesignificanceofthe
formula for three . . . for four in Amos is debated. In Proverbs,
theN...N+1formulagenerallyindicatesthatthelatternumberis
thespecificnumberofexamplesthattheteacherwillenumerate.For
example,Proverbs6:16says,TherearesixthingsthattheLordhates,
seventhatareanabominationtohim,andverses17-19goontolist
sevensins.ThisisnotthecaseinAmos,whereforDamascushecites
only one specific sin. The for three . . . for four therefore could
simplymean,forseveral.Itisnoteworthy,however,that3+4=7,
and this is an important number for Amos. The oracles against the
nationsspecify6GentilestatesplusJudah,thecovenantpeople,for
sevenoraclesofjudgment(thefactthatIsraelistheeighthnationis
significant,asdiscussedbelow).Asiswellknown,thenumberseven
generallysignifiescompletion.Thus,thepointofforthree ...for
fourisprobablythatDamascushasreachedthemaximumallowed
numberoftransgressions. Thatis,thecupof their iniquities isfull.
AmosthereforeassertsthatthenumberofDamascussinshasreached
thecriticalpoint,demandingdivinejudgment,butheonlyspecifies
oneparticularsin.
. Negatedhiphilyiqtol 1csof with3mssuf-
fix.Itmarkstheapodosisofabecause...thereforeconstruction,
inwhichtheprotasislinesaremarkedby .Theverbsignifiesto
causetoturnbackbuthere,inajudicialcontext,meanstorevoke.
24 Amos1:3
Garrett Amos final.indd 24 6/6/08 2:24:28 PM
Thethingnotrevoked(indicatedbythesuffix)istheimpliedpunish-
ment.Forasummaryofalternativeinterpretationsof ,see
Barton(1980,18).
Line Ac:Thecolon-markerissilluqandtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and4units.Thislineisgrammaticallydepen-
dentonthepreviousline.
. Qalinfiniteconstructof with3mpsuffixand
preposition .Theverbmeanstotrampleorthresh.Theprepo-
sitionresumestheexplanatoryorcausalsequenceoftheprotasis.
. A prepositional phrase ( ) in con-
struct with the noun . The preposition is instrumental.
Sledgeswereheavywoodenplatformsstuddedwithnailsorspikeson
thebottom.Drawnbyoxen,farmersusedsuchtoolstothreshgrain.
The image is a metaphor of harsh military conquest, ripping apart
peopleandcommunitiesjustasasledgeripsapartwheat.Thismeta-
phor for military subjugation also appears in Akkadian texts from
Tiglath-pileserIandEsarhaddon(Barton1980,19).
. The direct object. Gilead, east of the Jordan,
was disputed territory that was at times held by Israel and at times
by Damascus. The Omride kings of Israel fought a series of battles
againstDamascusinanattempttomaintaincontrolofGilead.The
conquest alluded to here may be that carried out by Hazael (2 Kgs
10:32-33).SeeBarton(1980,2631)forasurveyofthehistoryofthe
conflictbetweenDamascusandIsrael.
1:4-5: Second Stanza. Sevenlines.Eachlineisheadedbyaweqa-
tal exceptwherethereisgapping(lineBe)andinthefinalline.The
sevenlinesofdivinejudgmentcorrespondtotheseven(3+4)sinsof
Damascusin1:3.



1:4
1:5
Ba
Bb
Bc
Amos1:4-5 25
Garrett Amos final.indd 25 6/6/08 2:24:28 PM




Line Ba: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Pielweqatal 1csof.Theweqatal issignificant
fortworeasons.First,itcontinuestheapodosisbegunby .
Second, this and all subsequent weqatal forms constitute the main-
lineframeworkofananticipatory(futuretense)narration.Fivespe-
cificcalamitiesarepredictedforDamascus,asrepresentedbythefive
weqatal verbsinlinesBa,Bb,Bc,Bd-e,andBf.
. Thedirectobject.Firehereconnotesthedestructionofthe
city.
. Aprepositionalphrase( )inconstructwith
thepropernoun .Thepreposition islocative,butitalsoindi-
cates the secondary object. Hazael, like Ben-hadad, was apparently
a throne-name; the history of Damascus is difficult to reconstruct
becausemanykingsareidentifiedbythesamename(itappearsthat
at least three different kings of Damascus are called Ben-hadad in
the Bible). The famous Hazael of the Bible (2 Kgs 812; latter part
oftheninthcentury)wasascourgetoIsrael,inflictingseveredefeats
uponthem,althoughIsraelrecoveredafterhisdeath.Thehouseof
Hazael refers to the dynastic succession of rulers over Damascus.
Notallmembersoftherulinglinewererelated;Hazaelhimselfwas
a usurper. But the entire lineof Damascus kings,the text says,will
cometoanend.
Line Bb:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 3fsof.Thesubjectisthefireoflinea.
Bd
Be
Bf
Bg
26 Amos1:4-5
Garrett Amos final.indd 26 6/6/08 2:24:29 PM
. The direct object, a construct chain. The
destruction of the citadels of a city in Amos is formulaic for the
destructionofthatcityandfortheendofthatstate.Theword
may mean palace, but it is also construed as fortified, suggesting
that an English term such as citadel is appropriate. It could refer
totheacropolisaroundwhichmostancientcitieswerebuilt,asthat
positionwasmosteasilydefendedandwouldalsooftenbetheloca-
tionforapalaceortemple. istheotherthronenameusedin
Damascus;itisaHebrewversionoftheAramaicBir-Hadad,sonof
(thegod)Hadad.HazaelandBen-hadadformamerismindicating
thattherewillbenomoreArameankingsofDamascus.
Line Bc:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and3units.Despitetheversenumber-
ing,thiscontinuesthestrophebeguninv.4.
. Qalweqatal 1csof.Thiscontinuesthemainline
predictionbeguninthepreviouslines.
. Thedirectobject.ThebarofDamascus,bysyn-
ecdoche, represents the gate of the city, which in turn represents its
defenses.Thepointisthatallofthecitysdefenseswillfail.
Line Bd: The colon-marker is zaqeph qaton and the constraints
are:1predicator,3constituents,and3units( isregardedas
apropernameandthereforeas1unit).
. Hiphilweqatal 1csof.
. Qalparticiplemsof,thiscouldmean,inhabitant
andrefertoallthecitizens.However,itispairedwiththeonewho
holdsascepterinlinee(semanticmatching)andthereforeitrefersto
apersonwhosits(uponathrone);thatis,totheking.
. Aprepositionalphrasewith .Thelocationofthe
ValleyofAvenisunknown,butthetitleisprobablyacacophemism
(atermofdisparagement)ratherthantheactualnameofaplace,asit
meansvalleyofiniquity.Itprobablyreferstothevalleyareanorthof
GalileebetweentheLebanonandAnti-Lebanonmountains.
Amos1:4-5 27
Garrett Amos final.indd 27 6/6/08 2:24:29 PM
Line Be: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 0
predicators, 3 constituents, and 3 units. There is gapping, in that
thislineisgovernedby fromlined.Takingintoaccountthe
gapping,linesdandesyntacticallyparalleloneanother,eachhaving
aparticipleorparticipialphrase( and )followedby
aprepositionalphraseinwhichatwo-wordpropernameisgoverned
by .ThegappinghereindicatesthattherulerfromtheValleyof
Aven and of the scepter-holder from Beth-eden are conceptually a
single person. Probably the ruler of each place is one and the same
man,thekingofDamascus.
. Qalactiveparticiplemsof withconjunction.The
participleissubstantival.
. Thedirectobjectof .
. Aprepositionalphrasewith .Beth-edenisknown
asBit Adini inAssyriantextsandwaslocatedontheEuphratesRiver
about 200 miles northeast of Damascus. With the Valley of Aven,
apparentlyinthesouthwest,thisindicatesthatthekingsofDamascus
will lose power over all of their territory, from the southwest to the
northeast.
Line Bf:Thecolon-markeristifha.Theconstraintsare:1predica-
tor,3constituents,and4units.If weretreatedaspartof
this line, there would be too many constituents and units. Several
times in Amos a tifha will mark a line break before a divine speech
formula.
.Qalweqatal 3cpof.Thisisthelastinaseriesoffive
mainlinepredictionsmarkedbytheweqatal.
. Aconstructchainservingasthesubject.Amosfore-
seesamassdeportationoftheArameanpeople.
. Apropername,Kir,withadirective.Kirslocationis
notcertain,butIsaiah22:6suggeststhatitwasintheareaofElam,
east of southern Mesopotamia. Amos 9:7 indicates that this is the
original homeland of the Arameans, and that text asserts that God
broughtuptheArameansinanexodusfromKir.Now,hesays,their
28 Amos1:4-5
Garrett Amos final.indd 28 6/6/08 2:24:30 PM
exoduswillbereversed.SeeAmos2:10,wheretheimplicationisthat
IsraelsexodusfromEgyptwillalsobereversed.
Line Bg:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalqatal 3msof.Thedivinespeechformulater-
minatesthepoem.
. Thesubject.
1:6-8: Second Oracle (Gaza)
Aftertheproseheading( ),thepoemhastwostanzas,
eachasinglestrophe.Thispoemisstructurallyidenticalto1:3-5.The
firststanza(1:6)givesthereasonsGodwilljudgeGazaandthePhilis-
tinesinthreelines,witheachheadedbythepreposition .Thesec-
ond(1:7-8)givesthepunishmentinsevenlines,witheachlineheaded
by a weqatal verb, except for line Bd, where there is gapping with
theverb inlineBcdoingdouble-duty,andlineBg,whichis
theconcluding .Scholarshavenotedthatthisoracle
includes every city of the Philistine pentapolis except Gath (Gaza,
Ashdod,Ashkelon,andEkronareallmentioned).ItappearsthatGath
wasrelativelyinsignificantbythetimeofAmos.Thelastknownking
ofGathwasAchish(mentionedin1Kgs2:39-40,fromtheearlypart
ofSolomonsreign),andGathisabsentincuneiformsourcesfromthis
time(forfurtherinformation,seediscussionat6:2).

See1:3.
1:6b: First Stanza. Three lines. Each is headed by matching
or .



1:6a
1:6b Aa
Ab
Ac
Amos1:6-8 29
Garrett Amos final.indd 29 6/6/08 2:24:30 PM
Line Aa:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0 predicators, 1 constituent, and 3 units. This line is dependent on
thefollowingline.
. Gazaismentionedhereastherepre-
sentativecityofthePhilistineseitherbecauseitisthesouthernmost
Philistinecity(andthusisattheextremesoutheastcornerofAmos
mapofcondemnednations,oppositeDamascus),orbecauseitwasthe
mostpowerfulofthecity-states,orbecauseitsplacealongthecoastal
trade-route made it an important junction in the slave trade (Paul
1991,56).BythelateeighthcenturyGazawasunderthedomination
of Assyria. Gaza gave tribute to Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria (ruled
745727)accordingtoanAssyrianbuildinginscription(ANET 282).
Thereafter rulers of Gaza were tributary vassals of Assyria and are
mentioned as such in texts connected with Sennacherib (704681),
Esar-haddon (680669) and Ashurbanipal (668633); see ANET
288,291,294.
Line Ab: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Prepositionalphrasewith usedcausally.
. Negatedhiphilyiqtol 1csof with3mssuf-
fix.
Line Ac:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator( ),4constituents,and5units.
. Hiphilinfinitiveconstructwith3mpsuffixwith
usedcausally.
. The direct object. The word is a cognate
accusative with . The word is adjectival, giving the
meaningacompleteexile.Itmayrefertoraidingvillagesandtaking
theirentirepopulationsascaptivestosellintoslavery.
. Hiphilinfinitiveconstructof with .Itisherea
complementto .On,see1:9.
30 Amos1:6
Garrett Amos final.indd 30 6/6/08 2:24:31 PM
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,whichmayberegardedas
bothdirectionalandasadativeofadvantage.Edomismentionedhere
andin1:9astherecipientofalargenumberofpersonskidnappedfor
slavery.Edomapparentlyeitherservedasamiddlemanfortransport-
ingslavestoArabiaoritselfusedtheslavesinitscoppermines.
1:7-8: Second Stanza. Sevenlines.Theinitialweqatal verbsconsti-
tuteamainlineseriesoffutureevents.Fourlinesendwithreferences
to names of Philistine cities (Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, and Ekron),
one line (Bb) ends with (her [Gazas] citadels), and one
line (Bf ) ends with (the remainder of the Philis-
tines).Inshort,thefirstfivelineseachdescribethedestructionofa
Philistinelocation,andthesixthbroadlystatesthatallPhilistiawill
bedestroyed.







Line Ba: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Piel weqatal 1 c s from . As in 1:4, the weqatal
forms here continue the apodosis and give a mainline sequence of
futureevents.
. Thedirectobject.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .ThreetimesYHWH
sendsfireonthe (wall)ofacity(1:7,10,14). isadefen-
1:7
1:8
Ba
Bb
Bc
Bd
Be
Bf
Bg
Amos1:7-8 31
Garrett Amos final.indd 31 6/6/08 2:24:31 PM
sivewallaroundacity,building,orvineyard.Themoregeneralterm
forawallis (Hammershaimb1970,31),and isaninternal,
structuralwall(seeAmos5:19).
Line Bb:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalweqatal 3fsfrom.
. Directobjectwith3fssuffix(antecedentis ).
Line Bc:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Hiphilweqatal 1csof.
. Qalparticiplemsof.Asin1:5thiswordrepresents
theruler,onewhositsonathrone,andnotanordinaryinhabitant.
Itismatchedby inBd.
. Prepositional phrase with . The eighth-century
cityofAshdodsufferedtwoconflagrations.Itwassubduedinaround
760byUzziah(2Chr26:6)andthenin712bytheAssyrianSargon
II (721705 B.C.). It is thereafter mentioned as a tributary state of
Assyria(seeANET 288,291,294).
Line Bd: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 0
predicators,2constituents,and3units.Thereisgappingoftheverb
inlineBc.
. Aqalactiveparticiplemsof withconjunc-
tionandinconstructwith ,anobjectivegenitive.Theparticiple
issubstantival.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .Ashkelonwaslocated
ontheMediterraneancoastbetweenGazatothesouthandAshdod
tothenorth.Tiglath-pileserIIItwiceconfrontedAshkelon,amember
ofananti-AssyriancoalitionledbyDamascus,whilecampaigningin
theLevant.SeeABD,Ashkelon.
Line Be:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.
32 Amos1:7-8
Garrett Amos final.indd 32 6/6/08 2:24:31 PM
. Hiphil weqatal 1 c s of . The verb, with the
direct object and the preposition , means, I will send back
myhandagainst(seeIsa1:25).ElsewhereinAmos12,thehiphilof
meanstorevokeajudgment.
. Thedirectobject.
. Prepositional phrase with . Ekron was located
more toward the interior and further from the coast, making it a
border city between Judah and Philistia. Currently identified at Tel
Miqne, it, too, came under Assyrian domination in the late eighth
century. In his campaign of 701, Sennacherib assaulted Ekron and
killed its leading citizens, impaling them about the city wall; see
ANET 28788).
Line Bf:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 3cpof.Thisfinalweqatal completes
themainlineseriesandindicatesthecompleteendofPhilistinecivi-
lization.
. Thisconstructchain,theremainderofthe
Philistines,acknowledgesthattherewereotherPhilistinecitiesand
villages, including what remained of Gath. The point is that all of
Philistiawillbesweptaway.
Line Bg:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalqatal 3msof.
. Subject.Theadditionof (literallymylords
butusedfrequentlyasanhonorificforYHWHandsimplytranslated
as lord), over against the shorter in 1:5, illustrates the
kindofminorvariationAmosfrequentlyemploys.
1:9-10: Tird Oracle (Tyre)
Aftertheproseheading( ),thepoemhastwostanzas.
Thefirststanza(1:9)givesthereasonsGodwilljudgeTyreandthe
Amos1:7-8 33
Garrett Amos final.indd 33 6/6/08 2:24:32 PM
Phoenicians.Thesecond(1:10),inatruncatedfashion,describesthe
calamitiesthatwillbefallTyre.Theabbreviatedjudgmentclausedoes
notindicatethatTyrewillexperiencealessseveretrauma.Although
Amosemploysrepetitionthroughouthisfirsttwochapters,heavoids
the tedium of structuring every poem in exactly the same manner.
Asdescribedabove,onlytwoelementsarerepeatedverbatiminevery
poem. First, every poem employs the same opening in three lines.
Second,inthepronouncementofjudgment,everyoracleexceptthat
onIsraelhasthetwolines... and... .Theoracle
onTyreisuniqueinthatithasonlytheserequisitefivelinesplusone
additionalline,Ad.

Prose Clause: See1:3.
1:9b: First Stanza. Fourlines.Eachisheadedby or ,except
thatthefourthline(Ad)isheadedby .Thislineisexposition
onAc,indicatingtheespeciallyheinousnatureofthisactofkidnap-
pingpeopleforslavery.




Line Aa:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0 predicators, 1 constituent, and 3 units. This line is dependent on
thefollowingline.
. Tyre was the dominant Phoenician
cityintheeighthcentury,Sidonatthistimebeinginvassalstatusto
Tyre(Paul1991,59).
1:9a
1:9b Aa
Ab
Ac
Ad
34 Amos1:9
Garrett Amos final.indd 34 6/6/08 2:24:32 PM
Line Ab: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Prepositionalphrasewith usedcausally.
. Negatedhiphilyiqtol 1csof with3mssuf-
fix.
Line Ac:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare
1 predicator, 3 constituents, and 4 units. This line is the concaten-
ouslinktoasimilaraccusationleveledagainstGazain1:6,butasis
common in Amos, there is minor variation in the wording (see line
Acin1:6).
. Hiphilinfinitiveconstructof with3mpsuf-
fixandacausalpreposition .Theinfinitivehereservesasapredi-
cator;bycontrast,in1:6, isthepredicatorand isits
complement. But the meaning of both lines is essentially the same.
intheqalmeanstoshutbutinthehiphil itmeanstohand
(arefugee)overtoapursuerorenemy.TheusageinDeuteronomy
23:16(E15)isparticularlyapropos.
. The direct object. The adjective (whole,
complete)suggeststhatanentirecommunitywasseizedandcarried
offintoslavery.
. Prepositional phrase with . As in 1:6, Edom is the
recipientofthecapturedslaves.Itisperhapsnoteworthythatplaces
fromwhichtheseslavesweretakenisnotindicatedinthetext.One
mightassumethattheyaresnatchedfromIsraelorJudah,butthetext
doesnotsaythis.Theimportantpointisthatthesenationsengagedin
thecrimeofseizingpeoplestosellasslaves.Whetherornotthepeople
theyseizedwereIsraeliteissecondary.
Line Ad:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator, 2 constituents, and 3 units. Within the accusation stanzas of
theoraclesofthispoem,thelinesheadedby mayberegardedas
mainline elements of the protasis, listing the principal reasons that
Godsjudgmentiscoming.This +qatal clause,asisnormallythe
Amos1:9 35
Garrett Amos final.indd 35 6/6/08 2:24:33 PM
case,isoffline,anditherecommentsontheaccusation.Inthiscase,
the act of attacking villages and taking people to sell into slavery is
madeallthemoreheinousbythefactthatthepeoplestheyattacked
weretreaty-alliesandthusshouldhavebeenundertheirprotection.
. Negatedqalqatal 3cpof.Theterm isused
forremembering(i.e.,forabidingbythetermsof )acovenant,asin
Genesis9:15andExodus2:24.
. A construct chain serving as the direct object.
The covenant alluded to here may be the treaty relations between
IsraelandTyre.SuchatreatywasmadebetweenDavidandHiramof
Tyre(2Sam5:11),anditwasmaintainedunderSolomonandHiram
(1Kgs5:1-12).TherewasalsoamarriageallianceinvolvingAhabof
IsraelandJezebeldaughterofEthbaalofSidon(1Kgs16:31).Again,
however, the lack of specificity is important. The crime of Tyre is
notthattheyactedagainstIsrael,butthattheykidnappedpeoplefor
slaveryandviolatedtreatiesinordertodoso.Brothers( )isin
theancientNearEastatechnicaltermfortreatypartners(see1Kgs
9:13).SeePriest(1965).
1:10: Second Stanza. Twolines.Bothareheadedbyweqatal verbs,
indicatingthatthisstropheistheapodosis.Asdescribedabove,these
twolinesconstitutetheminimalconfigurationforajudgmentstanza
inthefirstsevenpoems.


Line Ba: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Pielweqatal 1csfrom.
. Thedirectobject.
. Prepositionalphrasewith onaconstructchain.
1:10 Ba
Bb
36 Amos1:9-10
Garrett Amos final.indd 36 6/6/08 2:24:33 PM
The destruction of Tyre represents the end of Phoenician indepen-
denceandofitshegemonyoverthenorthernLevant.
Line Bb:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalweqatal 3fsfrom (thesubjectis ).
. The direct object. The 3 f s suffix has Tyre as its
antecedent;citiesareconstruedasfeminine.
1:11-12: Fourth Oracle (Edom)
After the prose , the poem has two stanzas, the first
havingtwostrophesandthesecondhavingone.

See1:3.
1:11b-c: First Stanza. Twostrophes.Thefirstisastandardaccusa-
tion strophe, but the second is conjoined to it with a wayyiqtol and
givesasecondaryaccusation.
1:11b: First Strophe.4lines.Eachisheadedby or ,except
thatthelastline(1d)isheadedbytheweqatal .




Line A1a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0 predicators, 1 constituent, and 3 units. This line is dependent on
thefollowingline.
1:11a
1:11b A1a
A1b
A1c
A1d
Amos1:10-11 37
Garrett Amos final.indd 37 6/6/08 2:24:33 PM
. Edom, located south of the Dead
Sea,wasanationwhosepeopleweremostcloselyrelatedtotheIsrael-
itesbutwhooftenweretheirmostbitterenemies.Edomismentioned
fourtimesinthesepoems,twiceastherecipientofslaves(1:6,9),once
asthevictimofacrime(2:1),andhere,whereEdomistheobjectof
divinejudgment.
Line A1b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Prepositionalphrasewith usedcausally.
. Negatedhiphilyiqtol 1csof with3mssuf-
fix.Asusual,itmarkstheapodosis.
Line A1c: The colon-marker is pashta and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.Theuseofpashta attheendof
alineisunusual,butfortworeasonsthislineshouldterminatehere.
First,if wereaddedtothisthelinewouldbetoolong
(fiveconstituents).Second,theparallelism,with corresponding
to andwith correspondingto ,suggeststhat
isaseparateline.
. Qal infinitive construct of with 3 m s suffix
andpreposition usedcausally.Thisservesasthepredicatorofthis
line.
. Prepositionalphrasewithinstrumental .Theswordis
metonymyformilitaryaction.
. Thedirectobject.Asin1:9,brothercouldhererepre-
sentatreatypartner,butinthiscaseitprobablyrepresentstheracial
kinship between Edom and Judah, their neighbors to the north.
Again,thefactthatJudahisnotexplicitlynamedindicatesthatitis
thenatureofthecrime,notthefactthatJudahwasthevictim,that
is the focus. Because of the condemnation of Edom in the book of
Obadiah,setapparentlyatthetimeoftheexile,somesuggestthatthis
oracleisalaterinsertioncondemningEdomfortheroleitplayeddur-
ingthefallofJerusalemtoNebuchadnezzarII(in586).Thisconclu-
38 Amos1:11
Garrett Amos final.indd 38 6/6/08 2:24:34 PM
sionisunnecessary.Therewerenodoubtmanyincursionsandbattles
alongtheborderofEdomandJudahthroughouttheirlonghistory,
andAmosprobablyhadanincidentinmindthatwehavenospecific
knowledgeof.Thisappearstohavebeenanespeciallyviciousattack,
however;itwasanattempttocarryoutapolicyofgenocideagainst
Judah.
Line A1d:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Pielweqatal 3msof.Theverbmeanstodestroy,
ruin, or exterminate. The use of the weqatal for the past tense is
unusual and demands attention. Amos 12 has a large number of
weqatal verbs,butalmostallrepresentamainlinefuturetenseexposi-
tion,asiscommon.Normallyaconjoinedpasttenseactionisexpressed
withthewayyiqtol,buttheuseofthewayyiqtol herewouldsuggesta
separate,sequentialaction.Theweqatal suggeststwothings.First,as
mentioned above, the action of this line (A1d) is simultaneouswith
thatofthepreviousline,A1c.Second,theactionisimperfective(and
he was exterminating) and not perfective (and he exterminated).
Thelatterwouldberepresentedbythewayyiqtol.
. Theword isusedabstractlyforcompassionor
pity,andthusmostversionstakethislineashedestroyedhispity,
understanding that to mean that he showed no compassion. How-
ever,asShalomPaulstates,suchaninterpretationisamakeshiftone
andistotallyunattested(Paul1991,64).Variousinterpretationsfor
herehavebeenproposed,includingtheunconvincingnotion
that it refers to treaty partners (see Fishbane 1970 and 1972; Coote
1971;Barr1985).Itismorelikelyherethat (womb)isusedby
metonymyforwomenespeciallyintheircapacityaschild-bearers.
SimilarusageappearsinJudges5:30:


Amos1:11 39
Garrett Amos final.indd 39 6/6/08 2:24:34 PM
Wont they find [and] divide plunder?
A womb, two wombs, for the head of each warrior?
Here,thesexuallanguageisquitegraphic.Womentakeninplun-
deraredescribedaswombsforthehead(i.e.,forthesexualorgan)
of each soldier. In Amos, the women are similarly the victims of
enemysoldiers,andagaintheyarebymetonymyreferredtoas
becauseitistheirsexualcapacitythatisinview.InAmos,however,
thewomenarerepresentedaschildbearersandarenotobjectsofrape
butofslaughter,becauseEdomsobjectiveisgenocide.Theterm
inUgariticalsocanmeanwoman,asitisusedinparallelwithbtlt,
virgin(CTA 6:ii:2627;citedinPaul1991,65).Inaddition,thecon-
catenationpatterndescribedforthispoemindicatesthattheslaughter
ofwomenisinview,sincetheprincipalcrimeoftheAmmonitesin
1:13isthattheycutopenpregnantwomen.Ontheotherhand,the
factthat meanscompassionisnotlostonAmos.Makinga
wordplayonthetwosensesofthewordaschild-bearersandcom-
passion,hespeaksofhowtheEdomitesgavefullexpressiontotheir
rageinthenextstrophe(2a-2b).Theantecedentofthe3mssuffixon
isbrotherinthepreviousline.Asbrotheracollectiverefer-
encetothepeopleofJudah,thesuffixcanbetranslatedastheir.
1:11c: Second Strophe. Two lines. The lines are plainly parallel
( with ,and with ),andconstituteabicolon.The
initialwayyiqtol isusedhereandin2:4tointroduceasecondaryaccu-
sation.


Line A2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalwayyiqtol 3msof.Inprosenarrativethewayy-
iqtol typicallygivesthemainlinestructureforahistoricalsequenceof
1:11c A2a
A2b
40 Amos1:11
Garrett Amos final.indd 40 6/6/08 2:24:35 PM
events.Thistext,however,althoughpasttense,isnotstrictlyanar-
rative but an accusation. The wayyiqtol is not temporally sequential
butitissecondary,beinganadditionalaccusation.Theverb (to
tear)isoftenemendedto (toguard)onthegroundsthatitisa
betterparallelto inline2b,andalsobecauseoftheusageinJer-
emiah3:5, (Willheguard[hisanger]
forever?Willhekeep[it]continually?).Thisemendationisappealing
andmaybecorrect,butonecanmaintaintheMTasitstands.
. The noun means lasting time or future, and the
idiom meanspermanently.
. Itisnotcertainwhetherthisistobeconstruedasthesub-
jectorobjectoftheverb,butsincehetorehiswrathisunclearand
actually suggests that he destroyed his wrath (i.e., brought it to an
end),itismorelikethatthat isthesubject,hiswrathtore.
Line A2b: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Aswith ,itisunclearwhetherthiswordisthesub-
jectorobjectoftheverb.Theparallelwiththepreviousline,however,
suggeststhatitisthesubject.
. Asitstands,thisappearstobeaQalqatal 3mswith
3 f s suffix, but without the normal mappiq (such forms are rare
but attested; see GKC 58g). If this is correct, the suffix must be a
resumptivepronounreferringbacktothedirectobject .This
construction(hisrage,hekepther)isquitepeculiar,andsomesim-
plyemendtheverbto ,droppingthesuffix.Analternativeisto
repointtheverbasasimpleQalqatal 3fs, ,aminoremenda-
tionthatleavestheconsonantaltextintact.Sounderstood, is
thesubjectratherthantheobjectoftheverb.Adifficultyhereisthat
thisrequirestaking inanintransitivesense,astocontinueor
remainvigilant,althoughitalmostalwaysistransitive,toguardor
keepsomething.Itispossiblethatwehaveanintransitiveusagein2
Samuel11:16,wheretheinfinitiveconstructof seemstomean
to keep watch or maintain vigilance (even there, however, there
Amos1:11 41
Garrett Amos final.indd 41 6/6/08 2:24:35 PM
isanindirectobject).Nevertheless,itappearsthatreading as
aqatal 3fsusedintransitivelywith asthesubjectisthebest
option.Theuseofthe +[X]+qatal patternafterthewayyiqtol here
indicatesthatthetwolinesdescribeasingleaction.Twolinesheaded
bywayyiqtol verbswouldsuggesttwoseparate,sequentialactions.
. Thismeansdurationand,asanadverb,endlessly.
1:12: Second Stanza. Two lines. This is the standard judgment
stanzainitsshortestform.


Line Ba: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Pielweqatal 1csfrom.
. Thedirectobject.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .Temanwasthenameofthe
regionofnorthEdom.
Line Bb:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 3fsfrom.
. Aconstructchainandthedirectobject.Boz-
rahwasthechiefcityofEdom;itwasaboutthirtymilessoutheastof
theDeadSea.
1:13-15: Fifth Oracle (Ammon)
After the heading ( ), the poem has two stanzas. The
structureofthispoemisthussimilartotheoraclesonDamascus(1:3-
5)andPhilistia(1:6-8).

1:12 Ba
Bb
1:13a
42 Amos1:11-13
Garrett Amos final.indd 42 6/6/08 2:24:36 PM
See1:3.
1:13b: First Stanza. ItgivesthereasonsGodwilljudgeAmmonin
fourlines,inwhicheachlineisheadedbythepreposition except
forlineAd,whichisapurposeclausedependentonlineAc.




Line Aa:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0 predicators, 1 constituent, and 3 units. This line is dependent on
thefollowingline.
. This indictment uniquely has
sonsofAmmon,thenameofthepeople,ratherthanthenameof
a territory (such as Moab) or leading city (such as Tyre), as the
designationfortheaccusedstate.
Line Ab: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Prepositionalphrasewith usedcausally.
. Negatedhiphilyiqtol 1csof with3mssuf-
fix.
Line Ac:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Thepreposition iscausal; isaQalinfini-
tive construct of , with a 3 m p suffix serving as the subject of
theaction.
. Aconstructchainasdirectobject;theadjective
(pregnant)isherefpandusedsubstantively.Thisisthesecond
time Gilead is mentioned as the object of aggression (see 1:3). This
1:13b Aa
Ab
Ac
Ad
Amos1:13 43
Garrett Amos final.indd 43 6/6/08 2:24:36 PM
atrocity,rippingopenpregnantwomen,issequentialtotheslaughter
ofchildbearers(1:11)intheconcatenousstructureofthepoem.
Line Ad:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units(taking asaunit).
. Apurposeclausewith ,ahiphilinfinitive
constructof (enlarge).
. The direct object. The Ammonites desired more
Lebensraum;togainthistheywerewilling,asweretheEdomites,to
slaughterpregnantorchildbearingwomen.
1:14-15: Second Stanza. Thisisanotherseven-linedescriptionof
punishment. Lines Ba, Bb, and Be are each headed by the standard
weqatal verb.LinesBcandBdareprepositionalphrasesdependenton
Bb.LineBfhasgapping,with inlineBegoverningbothlines.
LineBgisthestandardconcluding .







Line Ba:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Hiphilweqatal 1csfrom.Thisrootisunusualin
thatinallofitsinflectedforms(Qal,Niphal,andHiphil),itfollows
themorphologyoftheI- root(suchas),inwhichthefirstradical
assimilates to and doubles the second. This is the only place in the
firstsevenoracleswherethejudgmentstanzabeginswith
1:14 Ba
Bb
Bc
Bd
Be
Bf
Bg
1:15
44 Amos1:13-15
Garrett Amos final.indd 44 6/6/08 2:24:37 PM
insteadof .Weprobablyshouldnotmaketoomuchof
thisvariation;throughouttheoracles,Amosusesformulasandrepeti-
tionwithoutrigidlyadheringtofixedpatterns.
. Thedirectobject.
. A construct chain with preposition . Rabbah
was located at the site of the modern capital of Jordan, Amman. In
HellenistictimesitwascalledPhiladelphia.IntheIronAge,itwasthe
capitalcityoftheAmmonites.
Line Bb: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalweqatal 3fsfrom.
. Directobjectwith3fssuffixwhoseantecedentis
.
Line Bc:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0predicators,2constituents,and3units.Thislinerelatestothepre-
viouslineadverbially,describingcircumstances.
. Prepositional phrase with for attendant circum-
stances.
. Prepositionalphraseonaconstructchainwith
. Asyndeton (lack of conjunction) here indicates that this phrase
and areunderstoodtobeinapposition,simultaneous,and
descriptiveofasingleevent.
Line Bd:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,2constituents,and3units.Thislinegrammaticallymatches
thepreviousbutisnotsemanticallyequivalent,althoughitmetaphor-
icallytreatsthesamecircumstances.
. Prepositionalphrasewith,hereusedforattendantcir-
cumstances.
. Prepositionalphraseonaconstructchainwith ,
usedtemporally.Asyndetonagainindicatesthatthisphraseand
areunderstoodtobeinapposition,simultaneous,anddescriptiveofa
Amos1:14-15 45
Garrett Amos final.indd 45 6/6/08 2:24:37 PM
singleevent.Thestormorwhirlwindismetaphoricalforthechaosand
destructiveness of battle, thus suggesting a metaphorical rather than
literalsemanticunitywiththepreviousline.
Line Be: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 3msof.
. The subject, with a 3 m p suffix. Several Greek
recensions read Mti_o here, and thus some believe that this word
should be read as Milcom, god of the Ammonites. However, the
subsequent line and also the tendency of Amos to speak of sending
rulersintoexile(1:5,8)indicatethatthisreferstothekingandnot
tothegod.Theremaybe,however,awordplayonMilcominAmos
useoftheterm insteadofthetermformonarchsthatheuses
above, .
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,usedheretodescribeatten-
dantcircumstancesasacomplementto.
Line Bf:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:0predica-
tors,1constituent,and3units.Theuseoftifha foracolon-markeris
unusual,butseveraltimesintheseoraclesaweakdisjunctiveprecedes
a formula of divine speech, which should be regarded as a separate
line.Thelinehasgapping,with inthepreviouslinegoverning
thislinealso.
. Thesubjectoftheverb issecondarily
expandedtoincludethekingshighofficials.Thisisthusacompound
subjectandthereforeasingleconstituent.Rhetorically,thissuggests
thatnooneinleadershipwillescape.
Line Bg:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and2units.Anotherdivinespeechformula.
. Qalqatal 3msof.
. Thesubject.
46 Amos1:14-15
Garrett Amos final.indd 46 6/6/08 2:24:38 PM
2:1-3: Sixth Oracle (Moab)
Aftertheheading( ),thispoemhastwostanzas.The
firststanza(2:1)givesthereasonsGodwilljudgeMoab(threelines)
inwhicheachlineisheadedbythepreposition .Thesecond(2:2-3)
givesthepunishment(sevenlines),inwhicheachlineisheadedbya
weqatal verb,exceptforlineBd,wherethereisgappingwiththeverb
inlineBcdoingdouble-duty,lineBf,whichistiedtolineBeby
achiasticstructure,andlineBg,whichistheconcluding .
Thestructureofthispoemisavariationonthepatternfoundwith
Damascus (1:3-5), Philistia (1:6-8) and Ammon (1:13-15). Barton
(1980, 3335) has a good survey of possible historical backgrounds
forthewarfarealludedtointhisoracle,butheconcludesthatitisnot
possibletoknowwithcertaintywhatincidentAmosherealludesto.

See1:3.
2:1b: First Stanza. Three lines. Each is headed by causal or
.



Line Aa:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0 predicators, 1 constituent, and 3 units. This line is dependent on
lineAb.
. Moab,locatedeastoftheJordanand
northofEdom,isaccusedofviolencetowarditssouthernneighbor.
Line Ab: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
2:1b Aa
Ab
Ac
2:1a
Amos2:13 47
Garrett Amos final.indd 47 6/6/08 2:24:38 PM
. Prepositionalphrasewith usedcausally.
. Negatedhiphilyiqtol 1csof with3mssuf-
fix.
Line Ac: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and5units.
. Thepreposition iscausal; isaQalinfini-
tiveconstructof with3mpsuffixservingasthesubjectofthe
action.
. Aconstructchainservingasdirectobject.
ItisnoteworthythatEdomisthevictimofMoabsatrocity,indicating
thatitisthenatureofthecrimeitselfandnottheidentityofthevic-
timthatisAmosconcern.Inotherwords,nationsarenotcondemned
simplyforbeingopposedtoIsrael.
. Prepositional phrase with and definite article serving
as a complement to the verb. The significance of burning bones to
lime ( ) is disputed. There is no evidence supporting an alterna-
tivetranslationfor oranemendation.Somesuggestthatburn-
ingbonestolimeissimplydisregardforhumandignity,butofitself
thisoffenseseemsratherpaltrycomparedtothecrimesattributedto
theothernations.Otherssuggestthatthisisareligiousactandthat
burningtheboneswasmeanttopreventthedeceasedfromattaining
resurrection(Stuart1987,314).Thereis,however,noevidencefrom
Iron Age Levantine states of a widespread belief that the bones had
tobepreservedinordertoinsurearesurrection(indeed,wehaveno
reason to believe that people in either Moab or Edom believed in a
resurrectionatall).Reverenceforthebonesofthedeadisnotafeature
ofIronAgeburialsitesintheLevant.ItisbesttofollowtheTargum
Jonathan onAmosinitsassertionthatthebodywasburnedtolime
in order to make plaster for the walls of a room. That, after all, is
whatlimeiswasusedfor.Wemaysuggestspecificallythatthelime
was used to whitewash the throne room of the king of Moab. Such
apracticewouldbeanalogoustotheAssyrianpracticeofdecorating
the walls of their palace rooms with scenes depicting their victories
48 Amos2:1
Garrett Amos final.indd 48 6/6/08 2:24:38 PM
over their enemies and even of displaying proudly Assyrian atroci-
tiesagainsttheirenemies.ThenorthpalaceatNineveh,forexample,
hasareliefshowingAshurbanipalandhistroopssackinganElamite
city.MoresignificantforbiblicalscholarsaretheLachishreliefsfrom
SennacheribspalaceatNineveh,showingnotonlyhistakingofthe
citybuttheAssyriansimpalingoftheirprisoners.Moabsburningof
bonestolimecouldberegardedassimilargruesomecelebrationof
their own violence on the walls of their palace. It thus implied that
theyhadbecomeinhumanintheirviciousness.
2:2-3: Second Stanza. Sevenlinesinonestrophe,followingwith
minorvariationthestructureofthejudgmentstanzasagainstDamas-
cus,Gaza,andtheAmmonites.







Line Ba:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Pielweqatal 1csfrom.
. Thedirectobject.
. Here,fireissaidtobesentagainsttheregionornation,
Moab,insteadofagainstthecapitalcity.Butthenextlinementions
thecityKerioth.
Line Bb: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.
2:2
2:3
Ba
Bb
Bc
Bd
Be
Bf
Bg
Amos2:1-3 49
Garrett Amos final.indd 49 6/6/08 2:24:39 PM
. Qalweqatal 3fsfrom.
. A construct chain used as a direct object.
KeriothwasoneoftheprincipalcitiesofMoab,anditismentionedin
Jeremiah48:24aswellasinline13oftheMeshaStele(alsoknownas
theMoabiteStone),whereitissaidtohavebeenthesiteofatemple
toChemosh,theprincipaldeityofMoab.
Line Bc:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 3msof.
. Prepositionalphrasewith usedadverbiallyforatten-
dant circumstances. (from II; Isa 17:12). The word
describesaloudnoise,oftenonemadebyacrowdofpeople(Isa5:14;
13:4;24:8;Hos10:14;Ps74:23),butalsothenoiseoftheocean(Isa
17:13;Ps65:8[E7]).Herethesourceofthenoiseisnotdisclosed,but
it probably includes the burning of the city, the lamentation of the
inhabitants,andthewar-criesandbattlesignalsoftheattackers.
. Thesubject.Remarkably,anentirenationwilldie.
Line Bd:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators, 2 constituents, and 3 units. This line is structurally identical
tolineBcinthepreviouspoem(1:14),withwhichitisaconcatenous
link.
. Prepositional phrase with for attendant circum-
stances(adverbialof inthepreviousline).
. Prepositionalphrasewith onaconstructchain.
Thisphrasecouldbestrictlyappositionalwith ,identifying
thenoiseofbattleasashofar,butitisprobablycitedasanexampleof
oneofthenoisesofbattle.
Line Be: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Hiphilweqatal 1csof.
. Thedirectobject.Forthesakeofassonancewith ,
50 Amos2:2-3
Garrett Amos final.indd 50 6/6/08 2:24:39 PM
Amosemploys ratherthantermshehasusedpreviously,such
as . As is common, connotes a ruler rather than simply
someonewhojudgesinlegalproceedings.
. Prepositionalphrasewith andthe3fssuffix.The
antecedenttothefemininesuffixistheimplied ,theland
ofMoab.
Line Bf:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.
. Adirectobjectconstructchainwith3fssuffix.
refers to a high official; the older translation prince is misleading
sincea isnotnecessarilyroyalty.
. Qal yiqtol 1 c s of . The sequence weqatal with a
direct object in line Be followed by a direct object with yiqtol in Bf
implies that the slaying of the judge ( ) and all the officials
( ) are not sequential but are conceptually part of a single
event.Thereisaninversionhere,withlineBehavingaverb,object,
andprepositionalphrasewhilelineBfhastheobject,thentheverb,
andthenaprepositionalphrase.
. Prepositionalphrasewith anda3mssuffix;theante-
cedentis .
Line Bg:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and2units.Thisisanotherdivinespeechfor-
mula.
. Qalqatal 3msof.
. Thesubject.
2:4-5: Seventh Oracle (Judah)
This poem, with minor variation, follows the pattern of the Edom
oracle(1:11-12).
2:4a
Amos2:3-4 51
Garrett Amos final.indd 51 6/6/08 2:24:40 PM
See1:3.
2:4b: First Stanza. Twostrophes.Thefirstisastandardaccusation
strophewithlinesheadedby ,butthesecondisconjoinedtoitwith
awayyiqtol andgivesasecondaryaccusation.
2:4b: First Strophe.Fourlines.Eachlineisheadedby or
exceptforthefourth,line1d,whichisboundtoline1cbyachiastic
structure.




Line A1a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0 predicators, 1 constituent, and 3 units. This line is dependent on
thefollowingline.
. TheaccusationsagainstJudahare
not general crimes against humanity, as was the case in the accusa-
tionsagainsttheGentiles,butconcerncovenantviolations.
Line A1b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Prepositionalphrasewith usedcausally.
. Negatedhiphilyiqtol 1csof with3mssuf-
fix.
Line A1c:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalinfinitiveconstructof with3mpsuffix
(theimpliedantecedentisthepeopleofJudah)andthepreposition
usedcausally.Thisinfinitivefunctionsasapredicator.
. Thedirectobject.
2:4b A1a
A1b
A1c
A1d
52 Amos2:4
Garrett Amos final.indd 52 6/6/08 2:24:40 PM
Line A1d:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and2units.Thislineformsachiasmus
withthepreviousline.
. Directobjectwith3mssuffixandconjunction;itparal-
lels ,andtheantecedenttothesuffixis .
. Negatedqalqatal 3cpof.
2:4c: Second Strophe.2lines.AsintheEdomoracle,thisstrophe,
headedbyawayyiqtol,constitutesasecondaryaccusation.


Line A2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Hiphil wayyiqtol 3 m p of with a 3 m p suffix
referring to the people of Judah. The wayyiqtol is here logically sec-
ondarytothepreviousaccusationbutitisnottemporallysequential.
ItisbothasecondaryaccusationandanexampleofhowJudahwent
aboutabandoningthelawofYHWH.
. Thesubject;ithasa3mpsuffix.Thenoun (lie)
hereprobablyreferstoidols.
Line A2b: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. . . . A relative clause whose antecedent is
.Therelative isboundtotheresumptive3mppronoun
suffixin .Literally,whichtheirfatherswentafterthem,it
means,afterwhichtheirfatherswent.Relativeclausesconstitutea
specialproblemindelineatingtheconstituentsofalineaccordingto
the constraints, since elements of the relative, as here, may come at
thebeginningandendoftheclause,withotherconstituentsinserted
betweenthetwoparts.
2:4c A2a
A2b
Amos2:4 53
Garrett Amos final.indd 53 6/6/08 2:24:41 PM
. Qal qatal 3 c p of (walk). The verb here con-
notes believing in something and engaging in the practices associ-
atedwithit.
. Thesubject;ithasa3mpsuffixwhoseantecedentis
theimpliedpeopleofJudah.
2:5: Second Stanza. Two lines. This is the standard judgment
stanzainitsshortestform.


Line Ba: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Pielweqatal 1csfrom.
. Thedirectobject.
. AsintheoracleagainstMoab,fireisheresentagainst
thenation,Judah,insteadofagainstthecapitalcity;butasin2:2,the
nextlinementionstheprincipalcityofthenation,Jerusalem.
Line Bb:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 3fsfrom.
. Apartfrom1:2,thisistheonlymentionof
JerusaleminAmos(although6:1referstoZion).Strikingly,1:2rep-
resentsJerusalemastheabodeofYHWH,theplacefromwhichhe
roars,whereasthisversedescribesfirefromYHWHconsumingthe
citadelsofJerusalem.
2:6-16: Eighth Oracle (Jerusalem)
Theeighthstanzadramaticallybreaksfromthepatternsetinthefirst
seven. After the normal prose heading ( ), it has four
stanzasandatotalofeightstrophes.Onlythefirstthreelinesofthe
2:5 Ba
Bb
54 Amos2:4-5
Garrett Amos final.indd 54 6/6/08 2:24:41 PM
firststrophehavethestandardpatternofaccusationsheadedbythe
preposition .Also,thestandardjudgmentbicolonusedintheseven
priororacles(with ,etc.)isnotemployedintheeighth.
Thereisalargeaccusationstanzaintwostrophes,followedbyastanza
describinginfourstrophesGodshistoricalactsofgracetoIsraeland
their response. This is followed by a metaphorical description of
YHWHsgrief(thethirdstanza[asinglestrophe]),andconcludedby
alengthyportrayaloftheIsraelitearmyroutedinbattle(thefourth
stanza[asinglestrophe]).

See1:3.
2:6-8: First Stanza. Thisisformedfromtwostrophesofsixlines
each.
2:6b-7a: First Strophe. Six lines (A1a-f ). Each of the first three
linesisheadedbythenormal or .Onemighttreattheopening
two lines of 2:7 as a separate strophe, but two factors speak against
this.First,theparticiple (thefirstwordof2:7)functionsas
arelativeclausehavingasitsantecedentthepronounsuffixon
from2:6,suggestingthat,despiteappearances,itispartofthesame
strophe.Astheheadofanewstrophe hangsintheairquite
awkwardly.Seealsotheuseof in3:10,whichbeginsaline
but clearly belongs with the preceding strophe. Similar examples of
apluralparticipleusedinthiswayareatAmos3:10;4:1and5:6-7.
Also,aftertheformulaictwolinesthatintroducethestanza(A1a-b)
thefollowingfourlines(A1c-f )areboundbyfournounsdescribing
thevictimsofabuse: (A1c), (A1d), (A1e),and
(A1f ).Thisstrophe,therefore,ismarkedbyhavingtheabuseofthe
poorasitscentralaccusation.


2:6a
2:6b A1a
A1b
Amos2:6-8 55
Garrett Amos final.indd 55 6/6/08 2:24:41 PM




Line A1a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0 predicators, 1 constituent, and 3 units. This line is dependent on
thefollowingline.
. Prepositionalphrasewith used
causally on a construct chain. Amos at last comes to the principal
objectofhisprophecy,Israel.
Line A1b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Prepositionalphrasewith usedcausally.
. Negatedhiphilyiqtol 1csof with3mssuf-
fix.Thisservesastheapodosistothephraseswith .
Line A1c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalinfinitiveconstructof with3mpsuffix
andpreposition usedcausally.
. Thepreposition oftenmarksthepriceofsomething;
seeHALOT definition17.Itcouldalsoexpressthecauseorreason
forsomething(HALOT definition19).
. Thedirectobject.Butinwhatsenseisthepersonrigh-
teous,andhowishesoldforsilver( )?Thereareatleastthree
possibilities.(1)Heissoldintotoslaveryforasetpriceofsilver,and
indicatesthathedoesnotdeservethis.(2)Heissoldintoslavery
becauseheowessomemoney,and againindicatesthathedoes
notdeservethisandthatthepenaltyistooharsh.(3)Heismetaphori-
cally sold out in the law courts when someone bribes the judges for
2:7a
A1c
A1d
A1e
A1f
56 Amos2:6-7
Garrett Amos final.indd 56 6/6/08 2:24:42 PM
anamountofsilver,and indicatesthatheisinnocentorinthe
rightinthecaseatlaw.
Line A1d:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0pred-
icators,2constituents,and3units.Thereisgappinghere,with
inthepreviouslinegoverningbothlines.
. Directobjectwithconjunction.Thisisparallelto
inthepreviousline.Thethreepossibleinterpretationsdescribedabove
for apply here as well, except that stresses the victims
povertyinsteadofhisinnocence.
. Asintheaboveline,thisprepositionalphrase
couldmeanforthepriceofapairofsandalsoronaccountofapair
of sandals. Should sandals be regarded as something of high value
orassomethingthatisverycheap?Clothingcouldbeofhighvalue
becauseoftheintensivelaborrequiredinweavingcloth,anditcould
be used as currency (e.g., Judg 14:13). But sandals are never spoken
ofinthisway,andSirach46:19explicitlytreatssandalsassomething
ofverylittlevalue.Thisshouldruleouttheideathatthispersonwas
soldforthepriceofapairofsandals;whateverhisoppressorthought
ofhim,hewouldwanttogetasmuchmoneyforsellinghimaspos-
sible. It also seems odd that the judges in a court would accept so
smallabribeasapairofsandals,althoughAmoscouldbemakingthe
pointthatthejudgesaresolackinginintegritythattheywillpervert
justiceforeventhecheapestofbribes.Still,theideaofbribingsome-
onewithsandalsseemsveryodd,andifbriberyincourtisthepoint
here,itmaybebettertoemendthetextto,ahidden(bribe),
assuggestedbyseveralscholars(Paul1991,78).Suchanemendation
ispurelyconjectural,however.Therefore,thebestsolutionistoassert
thatthepooraresoldintoslaveryforaverysmalldebtthattheycan-
notpay,suchasforthepriceofapairofsandals.
Line A1e: The colon-marker is zaqeph qaton and the constraints
are:1predicator,3constituents,and5units.Theparticiple
isnotsubstantivalbutservesasapredicatorwithinaparticipialrela-
Amos2:6-7 57
Garrett Amos final.indd 57 6/6/08 2:24:42 PM
tiveclause.Itcouldbetakentobeperiphrasticandtranslatedwith
afiniteverb.
. Qalparticiplempwithdefinitearticle.Thiswordis
afamousconundrum;itmeanstopantorsniff andsoseemsto
make no sense in context. Some interpreters say that the oppressors
aresokeentogetwhattheycanfromthepoorthattheyevensniffat
thedustontheirscalps,butthismakesforsuchabizarremetaphor
thatitcannotpossiblyberight.Anumberofinterpretersemendthe
texttotheroot orsuggestthat hereisaby-formof.
Theytake tomeantrample,andtranslatetheline,thosewho
trampletheheadsofthepoorintothedustoftheearth(Paul1991,
7980). There are three reasons that this is impossible. First, if the
verb means trample, the line literally reads, who trample on the
dustoftheearthattheheadsofthepoor.Thisisaveryawkwardand
unnaturalsentence,anditcannotmeanthattheytrampletheheads
of the poor into the earth. Second, does not mean trample.
TheverbappearsinGenesis3:15(twice),Psalm139:11,andJob9:17.
WhilethefirstoccurrenceoftheverbinGenesis3:15mightbetaken
tomeantrample,thesecondcannotmeanthat,anditisbesttotake
bothinstancestomeantostrike.SoalsoinJob9:17,whereis
usedinparallelto ,andhemultipliesmywounds,itis
besttakentomeantostrike.The inPsalm139:11appearstobe
ahomonymmeaningcoverorhide,butitclearlydoesnotmean
trample.Third,theproposalthat isaby-formof is
notpersuasive.ShalomPauloffersthreeanalogiesforthis(Hos10:14;
2Sam19:5;Zech14:10),buttheseareallqatal orweqatal formsthat
havethe asanorthographicfeature(e.g.,inHos10:14writing
for ) and not as a true by-form, as the m p participle
wouldbe.Therefore, astosniff remainsourbesttranslation
option,asthatmeaningiswellattested(seeHALOT ).
. Prepositional phrase with . What sniffs at
the dust of the earth? The answer is a dog when it is hunting. The
oppressorsaremetaphoricallyrepresentedasapackofhuntingdogs
58 Amos2:6-7
Garrett Amos final.indd 58 6/6/08 2:24:43 PM
seekingtheirprey.IfSamarianaristocratsenjoyedhuntingwithdogs
inthemanneroftheir18thcenturyEnglishcounterparts,thiscould
beadeliberaterecastingoftheirsport.Theyhuntedforpeoplewith
thesamerelishthattheyhuntedforanimals.
. Prepositionalphrasewith onaconstructchain.
Theprepositionmarkstheobjectandcouldbetranslatedasafter.
Thetermheadcanbemetonymyforthewholeperson(seeHALOT
definition5).Itispossiblethatthiscontinuesthehuntingmeta-
phor.Didancienthuntersdisplaytheheadsofanimalstheyhadkilled
astrophies,asmodernhuntersdo?Wedonotknow,butwedoknow
thathumanheadscouldbedisplayedastrophies(1Sam17:54).The
pointhereisnotthattheyliterallyhuntedthepoorandmountedtheir
headsastrophies,butthattheirtreatmentofthepoorwasequallyas
ruthless.
Line A1f: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.Aninclusionstructure,with
the predicating participle as the first word of the line A1e and the
verb asthelastwordoflineA1f,suggeststhatthesetwolinesare
twoaspectsofasingleactionratherthanbeingsequentialorlogically
distinct.
. Aconstructchainanddirectobjectofthefollow-
ingverb.
. Hiphilyiqtol 3mpof.Thetranslationofthisverbis
notoriously difficult, as its meanings include to stretch out, twist,
bend, extend, spread out, steer away from, guide away, deceive, or
divert. Job 24:4, , they turn the poor from the
way,meansthatthepoorareshovedoutoftheroadasasignofno
respectfortheirpersons.ButthisisafalseparalleltoAmos2:7;here,
itisnotthepoorbutthe itselfthatistheobjectoftheverb.Prob-
ably herecombinestheideasofextendanddivertortwist,
andthemeaningisthatthepaththatthepoortakeismadelongand
twisted. This may continue the hunting metaphor; the poor, as the
quarryoftherich,mustfollowanextended,evasiveroutetoescape
Amos2:6-7 59
Garrett Amos final.indd 59 6/6/08 2:24:43 PM
capture. The metaphor suggests that the lives of the poor are filled
withcontinualharassmentanddangerfromtheupperclass.
2:7b-8: Second Strophe. Six lines. This unity of this strophe is
thatitprimarilyfocusesuponreligiousoffenses,althoughitsecond-
arily continues the theme of the oppression of the poor. Lines A2b,
A2d,andA2feachendwithreferencetoreligiousmatters(
[A2b], [A2d],and [A2f ].Furthermore,thesub-
jectof inA2c(2:8)isnotanundefinedtheybutisthefatherand
sonfromlineA2a.Thisfurtherindicatesthattheselinesareasingle
stropheandshouldnotbefurtherdivided.






Line A2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Acompoundsubject;itsinitialpositionintheline
makesprominentthefactthatthisisanentirelynewsubject,onethe
reader has not seen in this text, and that it introduces a new topic.
Thus,thislinebeginsanewstrophe.Theconjunctionon indi-
catesthatitiscontinuingthepreviousseriesofaccusations.
. Qal yiqtol 3mpof .Theuse of to refer to
sexualunionisodd,butthatisnodoubtthemeaninghere.SeePaul
(1982)andBronznick(1985).Thephrase isoftenusedidi-
omatically for sexual union with a woman (e.g., Gen 16:2; 30:3-4;
38:8;Deut22:13),butitreferstosexualrelationswithawomanwho
ispartofthehousehold(awife,concubine,domesticslave[asinGen
2:7b
2:8
A2a
A2b
A2c
A2d
A2e
A2f
60 Amos2:7-8
Garrett Amos final.indd 60 6/6/08 2:24:43 PM
16:2],orasister-in-lawinfulfillmentoflevirateduties).Thefactthat
isusedhereprobablyindicatesthatthemenaregoingoutsideof
theirhouseholdtoashrinetohavesexualrelationswithawoman.
Foramanandhissontohavesexualrelationswiththesamewoman
violatesthespiritifnottheletterofLev18:8.Theyiqtol hereimplies
thattheactioniscustomaryorrepeated.
. The use of raises questions about the set-
tingofthisoffense. simplymeansgirloryoungwomanand
perhaps servant girl, and thus some argue that both the head of a
householdandhisadultsonareusingoneoftheirdomesticslavegirls
forsexualpurposes.Thisisagainsttheviewthatthewomanhereis
a shrine prostitute. The argument is that if Amos had meant shrine
prostitute,hewouldhaveusedtheword .But / is
actuallyquiterareintheHebrewBible(itoccurseleventimesinnine
verses; three of these occurrences are masculine). It is usually found
in narrative; it appears only once in the Latter Prophets (Hos 4:14,
wherethespecifiedoffenseisthatmenmakesacrificeswith ).
In light of the prominence of religious language in this strophe (as
describedinthestropheprofileabove),itseemsthatthisisaculticact
andnotsimplymentakingadvantageofahouseholdslave.Asstated
above, stronglysuggeststhatthiswomanisnotpartofthe
householdofthefatherandson.Atthesametime,theuseof
issignificant.Theshrineprostituteisherenotportrayedasapowerful
priestesswithcontroloverherowndestiny;sheisalowlywoman,no
doubt a slave who was purchased to perform the duties of a prosti-
tuteforashrine.Thesinismanifoldinnature:(1)itisparticipation
in a fertility cult; (2) it involves father and son having sex with the
samewoman;(3)itinvolvesthebrutaluseofanunfortunateyoung
woman.
Line A2b: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 0
predicators,2constituents,and4units.
. Theverb( )isapielinfinitiveconstruct.While
withaninfinitiveisperhapsrarelyusedforafinalclause(with
Amos2:7-8 61
Garrett Amos final.indd 61 6/6/08 2:24:44 PM
theresultthat;Deuteronomy29:19couldbeanexample),itsusefor
apurposeclause(inorderto)isoverwhelminglymorecommonand
certain. There is no basis for translating this as with the result that
theyprofanemyholyname.Rather,itshouldberendered,inorder
toprofanemyholyname,buttheusageisironic.Theyintendthisas
areligiousactandpersuadethemselvesthatitsanctifiesGodsname,
butinfactitdoestheopposite.Thisfurtherindicatesthatthesexual
actisinthecontextofareligiousrite.
. Thisconstructchain,asiscommon,functions
adjectivally(thenameofmyholinessrepresentingmyholyname).
Inthisironicsetting,thisexpressionisprobablyusedpreciselybecause
theprostitutiontakesplaceatashrine.
Line A2c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator, 2constituents,and3units.Thiscouldbejoinedwith
the following phrase as a single line, but the zaqeph
qaton withitssubordinatepashta suggestsitisafullline.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .The
word isaqalpassiveparticiplempof;theverbimplies
thattheclotheshavebeenseizedfrompoorpeopleforfailuretopaya
debt.Incontext,wherethereissexualactivityatashrine,theideamay
bethatthemendonotwanttofoultheirownclothesbyusingthem
assheetsonwhichtohavesex,andthustheyusethepoormanscloak.
Theaccusationisagainmulti-faceted:itiscultic,sexual,andinvolves
profounddisrespectforpeopleofalowerclass.
. Hiphil yiqtol 3 m p of . The verb is used reflexively
here,tostretch(oneself )out,thatis,tolayoneselfdown.Thisusage
mayhavebeenavulgaridiomforhavingsex(cf.Englishgetlaid).
Whetherthatisthecaseornot,wearenottoassumethattheysimply
laydownandwenttosleepbesideanaltar.Theyiqtol againimplies
thattheactionisfrequent.
Line A2d: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 0
predicators,1constituent,and2units.
62 Amos2:7-8
Garrett Amos final.indd 62 6/6/08 2:24:44 PM
. Thenoun ,side,hereservesinthecon-
struct as a preposition, and it counts as a unit. While it is true that
incubation,sleepingatashrineinhopesofreceivingadreamfrom
agod,isattestedintheancientworld,context(sexualactivityinthe
previouslinesanddrunkennessinthefollowinglines)stronglyindi-
catesthatthisisbacchanalianrevelryatashrine.
Line A2e:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator, 2constituents,and3units.Thiscouldbejoinedwith
the following phrase as a single line, but the zaqeph
qaton withitssubordinatepashta suggestsitisafullline.
. Aconstructchain,inwhich ,aqalpassive
participleof,referstopeopleuponwhomafinancialpenaltyhas
beenimposed,whichtheyhavehadtopayinkind,withwine.The
useofsuchwineindicatesthattherevelersareabletocarryonatno
expensetothemselves,becausethewinewastakenfromothers.
. Qal yiqtol 3 m p. The yiqtol again implies customary
action.
LineA2f:Thecolon-markerissilluqandtheconstraintsare:0pred-
icators,1constituent,and2units.
. A construct chain; the preposition is often
impliedbutnotpresentinpoetry.Theambiguityof (their
Godortheirgods)suggeststhatthemenconsiderthisbehaviorto
beinkeepingwithcovenantfidelitytoYHWHbutthatAmossees
itotherwise.
2:9-12: Second Stanza. Thisisformedfromfourstrophes,thefirst
threedescribingGodsactsofmercytoIsraelandthefourthdescrib-
ingtheirsubversionofGodswork.
2:9: First Strophe. Five lines. The conquest of Canaan is
describedunderthemetaphorofaforest.YHWHfirstdeclaresthat
he destroyed (hiphil of ) the Amorite (B1a), and then a rela-
tiveclausedescribestheAmoritesastree-like(B1b-c).YHWHthen
declares that he destroyed (hiphil of ) them from fruit to root
Amos2:8-9 63
Garrett Amos final.indd 63 6/6/08 2:24:44 PM
(B1d-e).Inshort,twopairsoflines(B1b-candB1d-e)metaphorically
elaborateonB1a.





Line B1a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,4constituents,and4units.
. Thesubject,withaconjunction.
. Hiphilqatal 1csof.Thepattern[ +X+qatal]
isoftencontrastive;here,previousactsbythesubject(andI)con-
trast with the previous behavior of the Israelites described above in
strophesoneandtwo.
. The direct object. The term Amorite is often
usedbroadlyforthepre-Israeliteinhabitantsoftheland.Thechoice
ofthetermAmoriteinsteadofCanaanitehereandin2:10maybe
drivenbyGenesis15:16,theiniquityoftheAmoriteisnotyetcom-
plete.TheimplicationisthattheiniquityofIsrael,likethatofthe
Amoritesbeforethem,wasmovingtowardacriticalpoint.
. Literally from your face, this depicts the inhabit-
antsofthelandbeingdrivenbackfrombeforetheinvadingIsraelites
underJoshua.
Line B1b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0predicators,2constituents,and4units.
. . . . Arelativeclause.The3mssuffixon is
resumptiveoftherelativepronoun;thus,whoseheight.
. Prepositional phrase with comparative on a
constructchain.
2:9 B1a
B1b
B1c
B1d
B1e
64 Amos2:9
Garrett Amos final.indd 64 6/6/08 2:24:45 PM
Line B1c: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 0
predicators,3constituents,and3units.Thisisacopularclause;itis
offlineandaddsaseconddescriptionoftheAmoriteafterlineB1b.
. A predicate adjective. is attested only twice in the
OT (here and Isa 1:31). Its meaning (strong), however, is not in
doubtascognate words are wellattested inother Semitic languages
(see NIDOTTE ). It is striking that in both OT instances the
wordisusedtodescribethestrengthofmenmetaphoricallydescribed
as trees. It may be that in ordinary conversation was used as a
clichdadjectiveforstrongtrees,suchasoaks.
. Thesubject.
. Prepositionalphrasewithcomparative .The is
anoak.
Line B1d:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Hiphil wayyiqtol 1 c s of . This continues the
small historical narrative begun in line B1a of this strophe with
. The wayyiqtol is genuinely sequential. The idea is
that YHWH first cut down the trees and then ensured that they
wouldnevergrowagain,destroyingboththeirseedandtheirroots.
. Directobjectwith3mssuffix.
. Adverbialusage;literally,fromabove.
Line B1e: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 0
predicators,2constituents,and2units.Thereisgapping,with
fromlineB1dgoverningbothlines.
. Direct object with 3 m s suffix. The merism of fruit
androotdescribesthetwopartsofthetreethanmightgerminateor
putforthnewgrowth.ContrastIsaiah6:13,whereafterthetreeof
Judahisdestroyed,astumpremainstosproutagain.
. Adverbial usage; literally, from below and a merism
with .
Amos2:9 65
Garrett Amos final.indd 65 6/6/08 2:24:45 PM
2:10: Second Strophe. Three lines. Two factors suggest that this
shouldberegardedasasecondstropheandnotasacontinuationof
thefirststrophebegunin2:9.First,thefactthatboth2:9and2:10
beginwith followed by a hiphil qatal verb indicates that they
aretobethoughtofasparallelbutseparatestrophes.Second,thereis
chronological inversion, describing the conquest in 2:9 but the exo-
dus in 2:10, which one would not expect if it were a single strophe.
Butwhyisthechronologicalsequenceinverted?Probablyitisbecause
Amoswantstofocusontheconquestratherthantheexodusandwil-
dernesssojourn,althoughthese,too,arebrieflymentionedaspartof
the standard recitation of Israels formative events. Notice that the
reversalofsequenceallowsAmostobeginlineB1awiththeAmorite
frombeforeyouandtoendlineB2cwiththelandoftheAmorite,
creatingininclusionstructureframedbyreferencetotheexpulsionof
theAmorites.TheimplicationisthatIsrael,too,couldbeexpelled.



Line B2a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,4constituents,and5units.
. Paralleltotheuseof in2:9,thisintroducesasec-
ondmini-historicalnarrative.
. Hiphilqatal 1csof.
. Thedirectobject.
. Prepositional phrase with on a construct
chain.
Line B2b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,4constituents,and5units.
. Hiphilwayyiqtol 1csof.Thewayyiqtol issequential
tothepreviousclauseinlineB2a.
2:10 B2a
B2b
B2c
66 Amos2:10
Garrett Amos final.indd 66 6/6/08 2:24:46 PM
. Thedirectobject.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .
. An expression of duration. Numbers over 10
typicallygovernsingularnouns;thenumberstwothroughtentypi-
callygovernpluralnouns.
Line B2c:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0pred-
icators,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalinfinitiveconstructof with ,hereexpressing
purpose.
. Thedirectobject.Theconstructchain
hereisinjuxtapositionto inlineB2a.Refer-
encetotheAmoritesalsoprovidesalsoaninclusionwithamentionof
theAmoritesinlineB1a.
2:11: Third Strophe.Fourlines.Like2:9-10,thisstrophedescribes
YHWHs acts of grace toward Israel. Its subject-matter, however, is
quite different from that of the prior two strophes. Also, it begins
withahiphilwayyiqtol insteadofthe +hiphilqatal patternseen
in2:9-10.ItalsoincludesarhetoricalquestiondemandingthatIsrael
confess the validity of YHWHs claim (line B3c), and it concludes
withanoracleformula(lineB3d).




Line B3a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Hiphil wayyiqtol 1 c s of . The hiphil of here
meanstochoosesomeoneforatask,asinJudges2:16.
2:11 B3a
B3b
B3c
B3d
Amos2:10-11 67
Garrett Amos final.indd 67 6/6/08 2:24:46 PM
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,whichispartitivehere.
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,whichhereindicatesthe
purposeforwhichtheywerechosen.
Line B3b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.Thislinehasgappingwiththe
previousline,theverb governingbothlines.
. Prepositional phrase with , which is partitive
here.
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,whichagainindicatesthe
purpose for which they were chosen. Nazirites are not commonly
mentioned in the Old Testament; the Nazirite vow is described in
Numbers6,andJudges1316describestheNaziritecareerofSam-
son.Whyaretheymentionedhere?ProbablytheNaziritesrepresent
IsraelitesofexceptionaldevotiontoYHWH.Theimplicationisthat
YHWHsentsuchpeopletothemasremindersoftheneedforalife
oftruepiety.TheNaziritewastheclosestthingancientIsraelhadtoa
manunderamonasticvow,althoughtheoneNaziriteweknowwell,
Samson,wasfarfromfulfillingtheidealofconsecrationtoYHWH.
Line B3c:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:2predi-
cators,3constituents,and3units. ishereapropername
andthusasingleunit.If werecountedasaunit,thelinewould
stillbewithintheconstraints,butitprobablyshouldnotbecounted.
Why doesAmos introduce arhetoricalquestionhere? Theprobable
reasonisthattheIsraeliteshadnotsubvertedtheconquestortheexo-
dus narratives and that Amos audience would need no prompting
to confess that these events had been gracious works of God. They
had,however,underminedtheworkoftheNaziritesandprophets,as
thesubsequentaccusationindicates.Beforemovingintotheaccusa-
tion,therefore,AmosfirstdemandsthatIsraelacknowledgethatthe
appearanceofNaziritesandprophetsamongthemwasalsoamerciful
actofGod.
68 Amos2:11
Garrett Amos final.indd 68 6/6/08 2:24:47 PM
. Thenegativeexistential servesasapredicator.
. Thesubject;afemininedemonstrative,thisisaneutrum
thatstandsforprecedingcontent.Here,itsantecedentistheassertion
inlinesB3a-b.
. Aconstructchainusedasavocative.
Line B3d: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 0
predicators,1constituents,and2units.
. Aconstructchain,thisisastandardoracleformula.
Links tying strophe B1 to strophe B2 have already been noted, and
the discussion below describes how strophes B3 and B4 are bound
together. But the oracle formula also has the function of
separatingthethreebenefitsdescribedinstrophesB1,B2andB3from
theresponseofIsraelinstropheB4.
2:12: Fourth Strophe.Threelines.Like2:11,thisstrophebegins
withahiphilwayyiqtol.ItcontendsthattheIsraeliteshavesoughtto
subvertGodsworkbycorruptingorhinderinghisagents,theproph-
ets and Nazirites. Several elements bind this strophe to strophe B3.
Together, they have an inversion structure in that lines B3a-b have
the order prophetsNazirites, whereas lines B4a-b have the order
Naziritesprophets.LineB3abeginswiththehiphilwayyiqtol
(andIraisedup;Godisthesubject)andB4abeginswiththehiphil
wayyiqtol (andyoumade[them]drink;Israelisthesubject).
Also,theoracular ofB3disansweredbythepeoplesrejec-
tionofthepropheticwordinB4c, (neverprophesy).



Line B4a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
2:12 B4a
B4b
B4c
Amos2:11-12 69
Garrett Amos final.indd 69 6/6/08 2:24:47 PM
. Hiphilwayyiqtol 2mpof.
. Thedirectobject.
. Asecondarydirectobject,indicatingthesubstancethatwas
drunk.
Line B4b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .
. Piel qatal 2 m p of . The pattern + may
occurwithaprohibition,asinGenesis2:16-17;28:6;Jeremiah35:6;
Nahum1:14;Esther2:10.AnotherexampleisIsaiah5:6,
,andIwillforbidthecloudsfromsending
rainuponit.Thereareotherpatternswith and thatdonot
involveprohibitions,asin2Samuel14:8, ,andIwill
giveordersconcerningyou.
. Qalinfinitiveconstructof with .
Line B4c:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,1constituent,and1unit.Thisviolatestheconstraintsunless
ishereregardedasaunit.Asdescribedintheintroduction,how-
ever,theconstraintsarenotinviolable.Thislineisreportedspeech.
. Niphalyiqtol 2mpwithnegative.Theuseof
insteadof forthenegationsuggeststhatthisisastandingorder,
neverprophesy.Cp.Exod20:13-15.
2:13: Third Stanza. A single strophe of three lines, this has no
counterpartinthefirstsevenoraclesagainstthenation.Adescription
ofdivineexasperation,itistransitional,movingthereadertowardthe
judgmentstanza(2:14-16).



2:13 Ca
Cb
Cc
70 Amos2:12-13
Garrett Amos final.indd 70 6/6/08 2:24:47 PM
Line Ca: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,4constituents,and4units.
. Thisfamiliarwordoftenintroducesdramaticpronounce-
ments, and sometimes these are statements of despair or complaint.
Forexample,Genesis15:3( )couldbeloosely
translated as, And do you know what? My household slave will be
myheir!
. Theparticiplethatfollowsneedsanexplicitsubjectwhich
ishereprovidedby .
. Hiphilparticiplemsof inaperiphrasticconstruc-
tion.Contrarytoanumberofinterpreters(e.g.,Hayes1988,11819),
itdoesnotmeantopressdown.Itappearstobeusedofawagonwith
themeaning,tomakearut(seeHALOT)andfromthatmeans,to
beweighteddown.Itisintransitive/passive,amiddlevoice,anddoes
nottakeadirectobject,astheusageinthenextlineclearlyshows.
. Prepositional phrase with . This is sometimes
taken to mean in your place (as in Exod 16:29; 2 Sam 2:23; Job
40:12),withtheverb interpretedasholddownorrestrain,
andthus,Iwillrestrainyouinyourplace.Butthispassageisnot
truly analogous to texts where means in (your) place. For
example, Job 40:12 has (and tread down the
wicked in their place), but note that the direct object, , is
explicit.In ,thereisnoindicationthatyouis
thedirectobjectof .Thus, hasitsnormalandfarmore
commonmeaning,underyou.
Line Cb:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Meaning just as, this word subordinates this line to
theprecedinglinetomakeacomparison.
. Hiphilyiqtol 3fsof;theusagehereisclearlymid-
dlevoiceandintransitive.Noteveryhiphilistransitive,andtheverb
cannot have the transitive meaning restrain since the cart is obvi-
Amos2:13 71
Garrett Amos final.indd 71 6/6/08 2:24:48 PM
ouslynotrestraininganything.Takingthisoccurrenceoftheverbas
intransitive buttheoccurrenceinlineCaas transitive (asdoesPaul
1991,9495)ismostimplausible.
. The subject. The definite article represents a class of
objectsandnotaspecificobject.
Line Cc:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,3constituents,and3units.Thislineisadjectival,standingin
appositionto .
. Adjective f s with definite article, in agreement with
itsantecedent .
. Reflexiveuseofthepreposition witha3fssuffix.Literally
filledtoherself,itmeans,filledtothebrim.
. Englishrequiresaprepositionsuchaswithtoindicate
withwhatthecartisfilled,butHebrewdoesnot. referstothe
sheaves,thecutstalksofgrainthathavenotyetbeenthreshed.SeeJer
9:21(E22);Mic4:12.
2:14-16: Fourth Stanza. Ninelines.Inthefirstsevenoracles,every
stanzaconcludeswithasinglejudgmentstrophe.Insomecasesthis
strophehasonlytherequisitetwo-lineformulabegunwith ,
butinothersthereisalengthystrophedominatedbyweqatal verbs.
Here,thetwo-line formulaismissingbutthejudgment
doesbeginwithaweqatal verb(lineDa).Ofcourse,onecoulddivide
thisstanzaintoseveralstrophes,asinthenumberedverses,butthere
arethreereasonsfortakingthisasasinglestrophe.
The first reason is the analogy to the lengthy judgment strophes
against Damascus, Gaza, Ammon, and Moab. One would expect
Israel,theclimaxofthepoem,toalsohavealargejudgmentstrophe.
ThesecondreasonisthatlinesDb-haregrammaticallyboundtoDa.
Aprophetictextcanbindtwolinestogether,indicatingthatthetwo
describeaspectsofasinglefutureevent,byusingthepatternweqatal +
Xinthefirstlineandthepattern +[X]+yiqtol inthesecondline.For
72 Amos2:13-16
Garrett Amos final.indd 72 6/6/08 2:24:48 PM
example,Isaiah3:4reads ,
AndIwillmake(weqatal)boystheirofficials,andbabieswillgovern
(yiqtol)them.Governancebyboysandtoddlersarenottwoseparate,
sequentialevents,butisasingleeventinwhichincompetentrulersare
metaphoricallydescribedintwoterms.Here,asingleweqatal +Xline
isfollowedbysevenlinesinthe +[X]+yiqtol pattern(therearesix
yiqtol verbs,butthesixthyiqtol governsbothlinesDgandDh).This
suggests that the whole of Da-Dh is portrayed as a single military
actioninwhichdifferenttypesofsoldiersarementioned.Bycontrast,
aninitialyiqtol followedbyaseriesofweqatal verbswouldsuggesta
sequentialseriesofdiscreteevents.Notealsothatwehaveaseriesof
five +yiqtol verbsinlinesDb-f;thesixthyiqtol inDg-hbreaksthe
pattern,inthatitlacksthenegative,therebyconcludingthisstrophe.
Thethirdreasonforreadingthisasasinglestropheisthecontentof
2:14-16;everylinedescribesthepanickedsoldiersofadefeatedarmy.
Thesesoldiersaredifferentiatedeitherbytheirmilitaryspecialization
(heavyinfantry,bowmen,lightinfantry,andcavalryinlinesDc-Df )
orbytheirqualitiesassoldiers(physicallytough[Db]orexceptionally
brave[Dg]).Butthewholestrophedescribesasingleactionarouted
armyinflight.TheargumentoflinesDa-Dhisasfollows:
Da: No one in the army, however swift, will find escape. This
includes:
Db:thephysicallytough(adesirablemilitaryquality)
Dc:theheavyinfantry(amilitaryspecialization)
Dd:thebowmen(amilitaryspecialization)
De:thelightinfantry(amilitaryspecialization)
Df:thecavalry(amilitaryspecialization)
Dg-Dh:thecourageous(adesirablemilitaryquality).
TheinclusionstructureoflinesDbandDg-Dhsuggeststhatnomat-
ter how tough or courageous any members of the four specialized
unitsare,theywillallfleeinterror.
Amos2:14-16 73
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Line Da:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 3msof.Theinitialweqatal formally
follows the pattern of the previous seven judgment strophes in the
previousoracles.
. The subject of the verb. Defined as either flight or
placeofrefuge,itprobablysimplymeansretreatorescape,and
theusagehereportraysadefeatedarmythatwillnotbeabletoretreat
ingoodorder,resultinginatotalroutandtheensuingannihilation
ofthatarmy.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .Whyis (hereinpausal
form),theswift,specifiedinthefirstline,onlytoberepeatedinline
De?TheexpressioninDeprobablyrefersspecificallytolightinfan-
tryasaunitofthearmy.HereinDa,swiftindicatesnotaspecific
military specialization but the trait most necessary for the implied
situation,runningawayfromadefeatinbattle.Thepointisthatthe
wholearmywillfleeandthateventhemostswiftamongthemwill
notgetaway.Followingthisinitialsummary,linesDb-Dhdescribes
sixtypesofsoldierswhowillfindnoescape.
2:14
2:15
2:16
Da
Db
Dc
Dd
De
Df
Dg
Dh
Di
74 Amos2:14-16
Garrett Amos final.indd 74 6/6/08 2:24:49 PM
Line Db: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Thesubject.Theadjective isusedsubstantively,and
itmeanshard,strong,orsevere.Itherereferstothemilitaryquality
oftoughness,includingtheabilitytofight,endurepain,andfunction
undersevereduress.
. Pielyiqtol 3mswithnegative.
. The direct object; the noun with 3 m s suffix. Used
with , it can refer to rallying ones strength in the midst of a
militarycrisis(Nah2:1).
Line Dc:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.
. Thesubject.Theword essentiallymeansheroor
warrior, and it can refer to any kind of soldier (2 Chr 14:8). The
term can describe an exceptionally powerful soldier, such as a war-
rior-king(Gen10:8;Isa9:5),anditisalsousedofelitetroops(2Sam
23:9).Itoftenreferstothemainbodyofthearmy(2Sam20:7;2Chr
17:13-14). In the Iron Age, the heavy infantry composed the back-
bone of the army. It was composed of citizens who were prosperous
enough to afford the equipment of a heavy infantryman; typically,
thesesoldierswerefromthelandedyeomanfarmers.Byanalogy,yeo-
manfarmersmadeuptheAthenianhoplitecorpsandthelegionsof
theRomanrepublic(seealsoABD,MilitaryOrganizationinMeso-
potamia).Poorercitizensoftenmadeupthelightinfantry,whoserved
asskirmishersandpeltasts,andthetrulywell-offservedascavalry(as
theycouldaffordhorses).Heavyinfantrystoodinranks,woreheavy
armor,andborethebruntoftheseriousfighting.Inthiscontext,set
oppositethearchers,theswiftoffoot,andthecavalry,the is
probablytheheavyinfantryman.
. Pielyiqtol 3msof withnegative.
. Directobjectwith3mssuffix.
Amos2:14-16 75
Garrett Amos final.indd 75 6/6/08 2:24:49 PM
Line Dd:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qal active participle of (hold) in con-
structwith (anobjectivegenitiverelationship).Theparticipleis
notapredicatorhere.Theholderofthebowis,ofcourse,anarcher.
. Qalyiqtol 3msof withnegative.Theverbhere
connotesholdingonespositioninthefaceofdangerduringbattle.
Line De: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Thesubject.
. Prepositional phrase with . The phrase swift on his
feetofitselfonlyconnotessomeonewhocanrunfast,butinthiscon-
textitisprobablynotthosewhoaregiftedrunnersbutthosewhosetask
inamilitaryformationinvolvesspeed.Thiswouldbethelightinfantry,
whotypicallycarriedwickershields,hurledmissilesattheenemy,and
whowereusedforharassmentandswiftflankingattacksratherthan
forfrontalassaults,whichwouldbethetaskoftheheavyinfantry.
. Piel yiqtol 3 m s of with negative. The direct
object isimplied,asinlinesDcandDf.
Line Df:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and4units.
. The subject, a qal active participle of , used
substantivelyinaconstructchainwith .Thesearethecavalry.
. Pielyiqtol 3msof withnegative.
. Thedirectobject.
Line Dg: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 0
predicators,2constituents,and3units.Thislinedependsonthefol-
lowinglineDh.
. The subject, a construct chain. A man who is
mightyofhisheartisamanofexceptionalcourage,asintheEng-
lishexpression,stoutofheart.
76 Amos2:14-16
Garrett Amos final.indd 76 6/6/08 2:24:50 PM
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,heremeaningamong.
The are again the heavy infantrymen. These men, in heavy
armor,presentingawallofshieldsandstandingshoulder-to-shoulder
inthelineofbattle,wereexpectedtowithstandafrontalchargefrom
theenemy,andthuswerethebravestofthebrave.Thelightinfantry
and archers, by contrast, were not expected to hold their ground in
thismanner.
Line Dh:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and4units.AshappenssometimesinAmos,the
tifha markstheendofalinebeforeanoracleformula.
. Anadjectivewhoseantecedentisthesoldierdescribedas
.Theadjectiveisadverbialhere,describingtheconditionin
whichthesoldierwillflee.Nakedcouldliterallymeanthathehas
lostallofhisclothing,butitatleastreferstohishavingcastawayall
hisheavyarmorandweapons.
. Qalyiqtol 3msof.
. Prepositional phrase with used for a temporal
phrase.
Line Di:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,1constituent,and2units.
. Adivinespeechformula.
3:1-15: Te lion roars
Thisdivisionisinthreeparts,withthreepoems(vv.4-6;9-11;13-15)
eachheadedbyaprosesection(vv.1-3;7-8;12).Eachpoemisasingle
stanzaandthusquiteshort.Thegoverningmetaphorofthisdivision
isthehuntinglion,whoappearsinthefirstbicolonofthefirstpoem
(v.4)andinthesecondandthirdprosesections(vv.8and12).Essen-
tially,3:1-15arguesagainstthemisguidedfaithoftheIsraelites,who
assume that because they are YHWHs people, they are inviolable.
Thisattitudeisimpliedintheclaimofv.2andintheironyofv.12.
Onthebasisofthispresupposition,moreover,theybelievethatAmos
Amos2:14-16 77
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hasnorighttoprophesyashedoes.Thischapterthereforeisalsoan
apologyforAmospropheticministry.Againstthemisguidedfaithof
Israel,Amosargues,(1)thestatusofbeingGodspeopleimpliesthat
they will be judged, v. 2; (2) Israel is no longer walking with God,
v.3;(3)lookingattheevidence,commonsenseshowsthatGodhas
turned against Israel, vv. 4-6; (4) divine compulsion requires Amos
toprophesy,vv.7-8;(5)eventhepaganswouldbeappalledatwhat
happensinSamaria,vv.9-11;and(6)thedeliveranceofIsraelwill
beverydifferentfromwhattheyexpect,v.12.Followingthis,Amos
deliversastandardjudgmentoracleanalogoustothosegivenagainst
thenations(vv.13-15).ForananalysisofAmosasadebatebetween
theprophetandhisopponents,seeMller(2000).Ontherhetoricof
thischapter,seeGitay(1980).
1
Hear this word, which YHWH speaks against you, sons of Israel,
against all the clan that I brought up from the land of Egypt:
2
You only do
I know of all the clans of the land. Therefore I will punish you for all your
iniquities.
3
Will two walk together unless they be agreed?
4
Will the lion roar in the forest
When he has no prey?
Will the maned lion give his voice from his lair
If he has not captured anything?
5
Will a bird swoop down on a trap on the earth
If it has no bait?
Will a trap spring up from the ground
And not catch anything at all?
6
Will a shofar sound in a city
And a people not be terrified?
Will there be disaster in a city
And YHWH has not done it?
7
For the Lord YHWH does not do anything unless he reveals his secret
plan to his servants, the prophets.
8
The lion has roared! Who will not fear?
The Lord YHWH has spoken! Who will not prophesy?
78 Amos3:1-15
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9
Make a proclamation at the citadels of Ashdod
And at the citadels in the land of Egypt!
And say, Gather yourselves upon the hills of Samaria!
And see many outrages in her midst
And oppressive acts within her!
10
And (see that) they do not know how to do what is right
The oracle of YHWH
But treasure up violence and destruction in their citadels.
11
Therefore thus says Lord YHWH:
An enemy, and all around the land!
And he will bring your strength down from you,
And your citadels will be plundered.
12
Thus says YHWH: Just as a shepherd might rescue from a lions
mouth two legs or a piece of an ear, so shall the people of Israel, who sit in
Samaria at the corner of a bed and by a footstool of a couch, be rescued.
13
Hear and give testimony against the house of Jacob
An oracle of Lord YHWH, God of Sabaoth!
14
For in the day that I punish the transgressions of Israel
Then I will punish the altars of Bethel.
And the horns of the altar will be chopped off
And will fall to the earth.
15
And I will strike the winter house in addition to the summer house,
And the ivory houses will be lost,
And many houses will be swept away.
The oracle of YHWH.
3:1-3: Prose Exordium:Thisisasingleproseparagraph.Thecall
tohear(v.1)isfollowedbytwosentencesthatexplainwhyYHWHis
abouttogiveanoracleagainstIsrael(vv.2-3).



Amos3:1-15 79
3:1
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This sentence is governed by an initial imperative and thus is
volitiveinnature.Tworelativeclausesandtwoappositionalphrases
expanduponelementsinthesentence,asdescribedbelow.
Prose Clause: . . .
Theinitialimperative( ,aqalimperativempof)sets
thissentenceasanexhortation.Themainclauseincludes ,the
qal infinitive construct of with preposition , and it is inter-
rupted by a series of parenthetical relative and appositional expres-
sions. isthedirectobject,and isepexegeticalof
and,asisnormal,introducesaquotation.
Prose Clause:
Thisrelativeclausewith has asitsantecedent.
isapielqatal 3msof with servingasthesubject.
isaprepositionalphrasewith ,whichcanmeanconcern-
ingbuthereundoubtedlymeansagainst.Ithasa2mpsuffix.
isavocativeinappositiontothe2mpsuffixon .
Prose Clause:
Prepositionalphrasewith .Itisinappositionto .The
useof ,clan,todesignatethewholenationofIsraelissome-
whatodd,as isoftenunderstoodtobeasub-unitof ,
tribe.ButAmosdesignatesallthenationsofearthas inv.
3,andthushedoesnotseemtohaveanyderogatoryintentindesig-
natingIsraelasa .
Prose Clause:
Arelativeclauseinappositionto .Aftertherelative
comestheverb (hiphilqatal 1csof),andfinally
,aprepositionalphrasewith onaconstructchain.


3:2
80 Amos3:1-2
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This sentence, although lacking any transitional particle such
as , is explanatory, telling the audience why YHWH is speaking
against them. The lack of transition is more forceful because the
sentenceisnotformallysubordinated.Thesecondclause,headedby
,thatiswhy,marksthesentenceasexplanatory.
Prose Clause:
The matrix clause of this sentence, it has the order object-verb,
makingtheobjectthemostprominentfeatureoftheclause.Inaddi-
tiontohavingthefrontposition,thedirectobject hasthepar-
ticle ,only,fixingthereadersattentionontheuniquestatusof
Israel. isaqalqatal 1csof.Theprepositionalphrase
hasapartitive ,indicatingthatIsraelhasbeen
chosenfromamongthenationsofearth.
Prose Clause:
This clause is formally the logical conclusion of the preceding
clause, but it is paradoxical. One would expect that Israels special
status as the people of God would insulate it from judgment, but
that is the very fallacy that Amos is seeking to expose. , liter-
ally upon thus, is idiomatic for that is why or for that reason.
Theverb (qalyiqtol 1csof)hasanenormoussemantic
range, including inspect, visit, muster (troops), take care of,
andpunish.Here,itconnotespunishingIsraelfortheirsins,asin
Exodus32:34;20:5;Jeremiah6:15;etc. aprepositionalphrase
with and2mpsuffix,repeats fromv.1,suggestingthat
thisexplainsGodsspeechagainstIsraelannouncedthere.Thisuseof
(withthepersonpunisheddesignatedby ,andwiththesinfor
whichpunishmentcomesbeingthedirectobject)isquitecommon,as
inNumbers14:18andIsaiah13:11.

Thissentenceisarhetoricalquestionwithaninvertedstructure
ofapodosisbeforeprotasis.Thepresenceofaninversionisindicated
Amos3:2-3 81
3:3
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by inthesecondclause,whichmeansifnotorunless
and marks that clause as the protasis. If it were a declarative state-
mentinsteadofarhetoricalquestion,itwouldread,Unlesstheyare
agreed,twowillnotwalktogether.Inform,thisverseisidenticalto
thebicolaof3:4-6,andthusitisuniversallyassumedthatthisisthe
firstbicolonofapoemofsevenbicola.Therearetworeasonsthatthis
isnotcorrect.First,thereisnothingpoeticaboutthissentence.Itis
of itself a simple rhetorical question; in isolation, there is no reason
anyonewouldregarditaspoetry;itisinfactaproverb.In3:4-6,by
contrast, this rhetorical question pattern is converted into poetry by
virtue of the repeated parallelism, there being three matched pairs.
Second,although3:3servesasalead-inforthepoemof3:4-6,itis
isolatedfromthatpoembyformandcontent.Formally,itlacksasec-
ond,matchingbicolon.OftenAmos,likeotherprophets,willtermi-
natearepeatedpatternwithanelementthatbreaksfromthepattern,
butitisoddtobeginapoemwithanelementthatdoesnotconform
to the pattern. More significantly, the content is completely differ-
ent. Verse 3 speaks of two people walking together, but the bicolon
pairsofvv.4-6allconcernactsofviolententrapment:alioncaptures
its prey, a snare traps a bird, and city is entrapped by an enemy or
YHWH.Verse3looksbacktovv.1-2,explaininghowitisthatIsrael,
YHWHs chosen people, will especially experience his punishment.
Verses4-6lookforwardtovv.7ff.,explainingthatbecauseYHWH
hasspoken,Amosmustprophesyanddestruction mustcome.Rhe-
torically,thestructureofv.3leadsintothepoemofvv.4-6,butitis
notpartofthatpoem.
Prose Clause:
Thisistheapodosisoftherhetoricalquestion. isaqalyiqtol
3mpof withinterrogative.Thesenseof hereisprobably
not walk together in the sense of a casual stroll but go together
in the sense of having a common purpose and destination, and of
lookingupononeanotheraspartnersinametaphoricaljourney.The
subject( )isfollowedbyanadverb( )modifying.
82 Amos3:3
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Prose Clause:
This,asdescribedabove,istheprotasisinarhetoricalquestion.
Thephrase isadverbial,meaningunless.Theverb
isaniphalqatal 3cpof.Thisverbisthecrux oftheverse.Shalom
Paul argues that it here means merely to meet without any over-
tonesofbyplanorbydesign(Paul1991,109).Hearguesthatpeople
often walk together when they have met by chance, and that it is
notcorrecttosaythatpeopleneverwalktogetherexceptbyappoint-
ment. Against this, the Niphal of does signify coming together
atadesignatedplaceandtime(asinNum10:3;14:35;16:11;Ps48:4
[E=5];Neh6:2),andnooccurrenceoftheverbconnotesachance
meeting. Also, as mentioned above, the sense of here is almost
certainly not of two people who accidentally meet and walk in the
samedirectionforafewminutesbeforeparting.Itistruethatthey
have made an appointment is not the best translation for this verb
here,ifbythatoneimaginessomethinganalogoustosynchronizing
appointmentbooksforaplannedmeeting.Inthiscontext,theverb
connotes a metaphorical coming together by design, and thus actu-
ally means that they have come to terms with one another and can
consider themselves to be in a partnership. The point, therefore, is
that two will not be partners if they have not come to terms with
each other. In addition, the verbal root recalls the ,
thetentofmeetingofIsraelswildernesssojourn.Thisistheplace
where YHWH would come together (Niphal of ) with Israel as
theyjourneyedtogether(seeExod25:22;29:42-43;30:6).Theimpli-
cation is that fundamental differences now exist between YHWH
and Israel, such that he can no longer journey with them and must
turnagainstthem.Thus,theversefurtherexplains3:1,thatYHWH
isnowissuinganoracleagainstthem.
3:4-6: first Poem (An Epigram): This is a short epigram (one
stanza)inthreestrophes,witheachstrophecontainingfourlines(con-
sistingoftworhetoricalquestionsoftwolineseach).Everyrhetorical
questionintroducedbyaninterrogativeparticle( in3:4-5and
in3:6),withthefirstlineofeachquestionbeinganapodosisandthe
Amos3:3-6 83
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secondlinebeingaprotasis,asin3:3.Theprotasisisalwaysnegated
(with in1band2b, in1d,and in2d,3b,and3d).Each
rhetoricalquestionisanimplieddeclarative.Theimplieddeclarative
forthefirstquestion(3:4a),forexample,is:Unlessthelionhasprey,
he will not roar, or conversely, Since the lion has roared, he must
haveprey.Sinceeverystrophefollowsthesamepattern,theyarenot
givenseparateintroductionsbelow.
AnepigraminHebrewpoetryisashortwisdompoemtypically
employingasinglepoeticdeviceandgivingseveralexamplesofasin-
glelesson.Proverbs6:16-19,anepigramgivingthethingsGodhates,
illustrates the pattern. Here in Amos, the first strophe concerns the
huntinglion,thesecondstropheconcernstheentrapmentofabird,
and the third concerns calamity in a city. The question-and-answer
motifisinkeepingwiththerootsoftheepigraminwisdomliterature.
Theclimaxofthissequenceisthesixthquestion(3:6b).Thepointis
thatrecentdisastersthathaveovertakenSamaria,suchasdescribedin
4:6-11,areproofthatYHWHisagainstSamaria.Thisinturnforces
YHWHsprophet,Amos,toprophesyagainstSamaria,asindicated
inthefollowingtext,3:7-8.Thefunctionoftheepigramistovindi-
cateAmosclaimsagainstIsrael,arguingthat,givenallthathashap-
pened,itisonlycommonsensethattoconcludethatGodhasturned
againstIsrael.




Line 1a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalyiqtol 3msof withinterrogative.Itmaybe
thatthelionisroaringintheforesttoparalyzeitspreywithfear.
3:4 1a
1b
1c
1d
84 Amos3:4
Garrett Amos final.indd 84 6/6/08 2:24:53 PM
. Thesubject.In3:7andelsewhereintheprophetsYHWH
ismetaphoricallyalion(Amos1:2;Hos5:14).Beginningtheepigram
with this metaphor already suggests that YHWH is roaring with
angerandisabouttokill.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative anddefinitearticle.
The definite article represents forest as a representative example; it
doesnotrefertosomespecificforest.
Line 1b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Thesubject.
. Negativeexistentialparticleservingasthepredicator.
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,hereusedforpossession.
Line 1c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,4constituents,and4units.
. Qalyiqtol 3msof withinterrogative.
. Thesubject.Itisdifficulttoknowwhetherorinwhatway
the isdifferentfromthe ,the ,andthe .Allmean
lion; istraditionallytranslatedasyounglion,butthatmay
wellbeincorrect.AccordingtoNIDOTTE (at ),boththe and
areAfricanlions,butthe isanAsiaticlion.HALOT
suggeststhat isdistinguishablebyhismaneandthuswould
indicateamalelionthathasreachedmaturity.
. Thedirectobject. isusedofYHWHin1:2.
. Prepositional phrase with . A is a dwelling
place,primarilythedenorlairofawildbeast(Nah2:13[E12];Ps
104:22;Job37:8).Itmaybethatthelionheregivesagrowlofsatisfac-
tionfromhisden,havingkilledandeatenprey.
Line 1d:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and2units.
. Adverbial,meaningunless.
. Qalqatal 3msof.Theobject,prey,isimplied.
Amos3:4 85
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Line 2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Qalyiqtol 3fsof withinterrogative.Theverbhere
hasthesenseofswoopdownuponsomethinginordertoeatit.
. Thesubject.
. Prepositional phrase with . The construct
chain referstoatrapthatisonthegroundasopposedto,
forexample,onelocatedinatree.Theimageofthetrapmaysuggest
thatIsraelisentrappingherselfduetohersenselessgreed.
Line 2b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. The subject. The word here clearly does not mean
snare,whichmakesnosenseincontext,butbait.
. Negativeexistentialparticleservingasthepredicator.
.Prepositionalphrasewith ,hereusedforpossession.
Line 2c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalyiqtol 3msof withinterrogative.Theverb
representsatrapspringinguptocatchabird.Themotionofthetrap
()contrastswiththemotionofthebird().
. Thesubject.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .
Line 2d:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,1constituent,and2units.
3:5 2a
2b
2c
2d
86 Amos3:5
Garrett Amos final.indd 86 6/6/08 2:24:54 PM
. Qalinfinitiveabsoluteusedadverbiallywith
negated qal yiqtol 3 m s of . The meaning of a finite verb with
cognateinfinitiveabsolutevariesbycontext.Here,itmeans,andnot
catchanythingatall.




Line 3a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Niphalyiqtol 3msof withinterrogativepar-
ticle .Thechangeofparticleindicatesthatthisisthelaststrophe.
. The subject. The shofar was used for various purposes
(suchastosignaltheonsetofaholyseason),buthereitisanalarm.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .
Line 3b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Thesubject,withconjunction.Thetermherereferstothe
wholepopulationofacity.
. Negated qal yiqtol 3 m p of , to tremble or
befrantic.Althoughformallymerelyanotherexampleintheseries
ofrhetoricalquestionsmakingthepointthatifAistrue,thenBis
true,thisexampleinvokesthejudgmentthatAmoshasalreadypro-
nouncedin2:14-16,thatIsraelwillsuffercalamitousmilitarydefeat.
Line 3c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qal yiqtol 3 f s of with interrogative particle
.
3:6 3a
3b
3c
3d
Amos3:5-6 87
Garrett Amos final.indd 87 6/6/08 2:24:54 PM
. Thesubject.Thisisthefemininesingularoftheadjective
,bad,butitisusedsubstantivelytomeanabadthing.Theway
inwhichsomethingisbadvariesbycontext.Itmaybemoralbad-
ness(wickedness),butoftenitisabadsituation(distress,calamity,
disasteretc.).Ithasthelattersensehere,andmorespecificallyrefers
toacitybeingpillagedbyanenemy.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .
Line 3d:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and2units.
. Thesubject.
. Negatedqalqatal 3msof.Amosdoesnotshy
awayfromtheimplicationsofdivinesovereignty,specificallyfromthe
ideathatifGodisall-powerful,heisultimatelyresponsibleforalthat
happensintheworld.Inthiscase,however,Amosmainconcernis
nottodealwithissuesoftheodicybuttoassertthatrecentcalamities
in Israel (see 4:6-11) are proof that YHWH is acting against Israel.
Thislastquestionisthemainpointoftheentireepigram;theother
questions simply make that point that certain evidence renders cer-
tainconclusionsunavoidable.Inaddition,theviolentnatureofallsix
questionsnaturallysuggeststhatGodhasturnedagainstIsrael.
3:7-8: first Prose Commentary:Thisprosecommentarybothcon-
cludesthefirstpoemandleadsintothesecond,thusservingasatran-
sition.Thefirstsentence(3:7)containstwoclausesinthepatternof
anotherinvertedprotasis-apodosisstatement(i.e.,theapodosiscomes
first).Thisisfollowedin3:8bytwobriefassertions(twowordseach
in Hebrew), each followed by a short, one-clause rhetorical question
introducedby .Aswith3:3,3:8iswidelybelievedtobepoetry,and
it is generally assumed to be the end of the preceding poem (widely
considered to be 3:3-8). Reasons for believing 3:3 to be prose, and
separatefrom3:4-6,aredescribedabove.Here,thereisanenormous
problemconfrontingthosewhowishtoconnect3:8to3:4-6:verse7
isindisputablyprose,andscanningitaspoetrywouldbeforcedand
unpersuasive. But it is highly peculiar to have a poem with a prose
88 Amos3:6
Garrett Amos final.indd 88 6/6/08 2:24:55 PM
sentenceinsertedinsideit.Indeed,thatevidencealoneissufficientto
demonstratethat3:8cannotbepartoftheepigramin3:4-6.H.W.
Wolff avoids this problem by arguing that v. 7 is a later redactional
insertionwithinapoemthatwasoriginally3:36:8(Wolff1977,180
81),butthatonlyremovesthedifficultybypostulatingtheexistenceof
aredactorwhowassoineptthatheinsertedalineofproseinsideofa
poem.Inaddition,thereislittlecompellingevidenceforreadingv.8as
poetry.Itdoescontainparallelism,butparallelismwithinsuchashort
textisscarcelycompelling.Parallelismisneithertheessentialfeature
ofHebrewpoetrynorabsentfromHebrewprose.Thereisnoreason
tothinkthatv.8cannotbeacontinuationoftheproseof3:7,towhich
itisobviouslyconnected.
Verse7commentson3:6b,whichspokeofYHWHacting()
injudgment,andarguesthatYHWHwillnotact()withouttell-
ingtheprophets.Verse8,withitsassertionthatthelionhasroared,
commentsonthebeginningoftheepigram( ;cf.
in3:2).Thus,itiscorrectthat3:7-8refersbackto3:4-6.On
theotherhand,3:7-8alsolooksforwardtothepropheticmessagein
3:9-11.Verse7assertsthatdivinejudgmentisprecededbyprophecy.
In3:8b,iftheversewereonlyaconclusionto3:4-6,wemightexpect
toreadsomethinglike, (YHWHhasacted,
whowillnotbeterrified?).Instead,weread,YHWHhasspoken,
whowillnotprophesy?Thisplainlylooksforwardtotheprophetic
proclamationof3:9-11thatbeginswith ,Makeitheard!


Prose Clause:
Thisistheapodosisofthesentence;theconditionisinthenext
clause,unlesshereveals....Theinversionofthenormalorderfol-
lowsthepatternsetinvv.3-6andheremakestheapodosismoreprom-
inent. ishereexplanatory,meaningbecause. isanegated
Amos3:6-7 89
3:7
Garrett Amos final.indd 89 6/6/08 2:24:55 PM
qalyiqtol3msof,with asthesubject. ,thedirect
object,heremeansathingandwiththenegative,anything.
Prose Clause:
Theprotasis,thisassertsthatpropheticwarningsareanessential
precursor to divine judgment. , unless, gives the condition.
isaqalqatal3msof.Thenoun,thedirectobject,has
a 3 m s suffix. It refers to secret plans or a confidential discussion.
isaprepositionalphrasewith ,heremarkingtheindi-
rectobject. isinappositionto .ItappearsthatAmosis
defendinghispropheticcredentialsinmuchthesamemannerasPaul
defendedhisapostoliccredentials.


Prose Clause:
The fronting of the subject ( ) instead of the verb ( , a
qalqatal 3msof)makesthesubjectmoreprominent.Theqatal
clauseishereisoffline.Itisthesettingorbackgroundinformationfor
thequestionthatfollows.Althoughtheroaringlionobviouslyrelates
to3:4,thefunctionhereisdifferent.Intheformercase,itwasevidence
forthelionscaptureofprey;here,itisasoundthatprovokesterror.
Prose Clause:
Thewordorderhere,interrogative+negative+verb,isfixedinbib-
licalHebrewandinvariable;thus,nothingsignificantisimpliedbyit.
Prose Clause:
Theverb( )isapielqatal 3msof.Theclausestructure
isthesameasin .Theroaringofthelionisthustheana-
logue to divine speech. This suggests that the prophetic message is
itselfterrifying.
Prose Clause:
3:8
90 Amos3:7-8
Garrett Amos final.indd 90 6/6/08 2:24:55 PM
Theverb( )isaniphalyiqtol 3msof.Theclausestruc-
tureisthesameasin .
3:9-11: second Poem: A Prophetic Accusation: This poem, like
3:4-6,isasinglestanzaintwelvelines.Ithasfourstrophes.Inform,
this is an accusation in which witnesses are called in to adjudicate.
Against3:2,thesignificanceofcallinginpagannationsasthejuryis
clear:IsraelisrelyingonherspecialstatusasYHWHschosenpeople
toprotectandvindicateher,butinfactheroffensesaresoextremethat
evenGentilesare(metaphorically)qualifiedtositinjudgmentonher.
3:9a: First Strophe.Twolines,withtheverb governsboth
lines (gapping). The strophe is a call for heralds to go out to pagan
lands and summon them to witness the moral chaos within Israel.
This is a rhetorical device; Amos is not literally sending heralds to
theselands.


Line 1a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Hiphilimperativempof.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .Here,thepreposi-
tionisalocativeatanddoesnotmeanagainst,asitdoesin3:1.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .TheLXXreads
Aooupi o, Assyria, here for Ashdod. The argument in favor of
this reading is that it seems odd to pair the Philistine city with the
greatnationofEgypt;Assyriawouldseemtobeabettercounterpart.
Againstthis,bothAshdod(asarepresentativeofPhilistia)andEgypt
hadalreadybeenmajoroppressorsofIsrael,butAssyriaasofyethad
not.ReferencetoAssyriaisinfactconspicuouslyabsentfromAmos.
Also,itisdifficulttoseehowlaterscribes,afterthefallofSamariato
Assyria,wouldsubstituteAshdodforAssyria.ItmaybethatEgypts
3:9a 1a
1b
Amos3:8-9 91
Garrett Amos final.indd 91 6/6/08 2:24:56 PM
andAshdodshistoryofoppressingIsraelironicallymakesthemexpert
witnesses(Paul1991,115).Snyman(1994)arguesthatAshdodrepre-
sentstheconquestandEgyptrepresentstheexodus.Itisalsopossible
that ishereawordplayon (destruction)in3:10.
Line 1b:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:0
predicators,2constituents,and3units.Thislineemploysbothgap-
ping(withtheverb)andmatching(withtheprepositions).
. Prepositional phrase with . Here again, the
prepositionisalocativeanddoesnotmeanagainst.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .Itmaybe
that isawordplayon in3:10.
3:9b: Second Strophe. Three lines. Instead of a separate divine
speechformula,thereisaone-wordimperative( ,analogousto
inline1a)directedattheimpliedheralds,withtherestofthe
strophebeingthecontentofwhattheheraldsaretosaytothenations.
Theheraldsspeechtothenationsgoesatleastthroughline2c,butit
probablyincludeslines3a-4daswell.



Line 2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
2predicators,3constituents,and4units.
.Qalimperativempof withconjunction.Thesub-
jectistheimpliedheraldswhoaddressthenations.
. Niphal imperative m p of . The subject is the
nations,whoarecommandedtogathertogether.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .Theimagehasa
doublepurpose.Ontheonehanditsuggestsagatheringofarmiesin
campspreparingtolaysiegetoSamaria,butontheotherhand,within
3:9b 2a
2b
2c
92 Amos3:9
Garrett Amos final.indd 92 6/6/08 2:24:56 PM
therhetoricalmetaphor,thenationsareseatedasjurymembersupon
thehills,observingtheevidenceandpreparingtogiveaverdict.
Line 2b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Qalimperativempof withconjunction.
. The direct object. The word implies
panicorturmoil,andagainthereisadoublemeaning.Thepanicisthe
comingpanicofSamariawhenitisundersiege,butitisalsothemoral
turmoilbroughtaboutbywidespreadoppressionwithinthecity.Itis
thelatterthatthenationsaretoobserveandrenderaverdicton.
. Prepositional phrase with (used in a locative sense)
anda3fssuffix(theantecedentisSamaria).Acityisunderstoodto
befeminine.
Line 2c:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,2constituents,and2units.Thereisgapping,with gov-
erningthisline.
. Thedirectobject.Thenoun (actsofoppres-
sion)isfoundonlyhereandinJob35:9.Itisrelatedtotheabstract
noun (extortion,oppression).
. Prepositionalphrasewith (usedinalocativesense)
anda3fssuffix.
3:10: Third Strophe. Threelines.Theselineshaveasinglemain
clause (3a) followed by a divine speech formula (3b) and participial
relativeclause(3c).



Line 3a:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.
Amos3:9-10 93
3:10 3a
3b
3c
Garrett Amos final.indd 93 6/6/08 2:24:57 PM
. Negatedqalqatal 3cpof withconjunction.The
subjectistheIsraelitepeople,andtheconjunctionrelatestothetur-
moilandoppressionthatthenationsarecalledontowitness.Thus,
the implication is that the command for the nations to see what
happensinIsraelgovernsthislinealso.
. Qalinfinitiveconstructof usedasacomplement
to . It is not a predicator. The idiom + infinitive normally
meanstoknowhowtodoathing.
. Thedirectobject. appearstobeanadjectivemean-
ingstraight,butitisroutinelyusedsubstantivelytomeanproper
behaviororuprightness.Thewordoftenhasafeminineform,but
thesingular,ashere,isusedmoreabstractly,whiletheplural,asinIsa
30:10,seemstorefermoreconcretelytorightthings.
Line 3b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 0
predicators,1constituent,and2units.
. Adivinespeechformula.
Line 3c:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and4units.
. Qalactiveparticiplempof withdefinitearti-
cle.Theparticipleservesasarelativeclausewhoseantecedentisthe
impliedsubjectof ,thepeopleofSamaria.AselsewhereinAmos,
thepluralparticipleisjoinedtoafiniteverbinaprecedinglinewithin
thesamestrophe.
. Acompounddirectobjectoftwonounsjoinedby
the conjunction. It may be that , violence, speaks especially
of crimes against persons while , destruction, speaks of crimes
against property and property rights, but both include the idea of
violence.
. Prepositionalphrasewith (usedhereinaloca-
tivesense).
3:11: Fourth Strophe.Fourlines.Thisisajudgmentstrophe,pro-
claimingthepunishmentthatwillcometoIsraelforalltheoutrages
94 Amos3:10
Garrett Amos final.indd 94 6/6/08 2:24:57 PM
that occur within her. The language is reminiscent of the minimal
judgmentstrophesagainstTyre(1:10),Edom(1:12),andJudah(2:5)
inthatitspeaksofdestructioncominguponthecitadels( )of
Samaria.




Line 4a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and4units.Inform,thiscouldbeprose
(as a number of divine speech formulas appear to be), but 3:11 is a
continuation of the poem and this line, therefore, must be scanned
aspoetry.
. Thisreferencesthesinsdescribedinstrophestwoandthree
asthereasonsforthepunishmentdescribedhere.
. Qalqatal 3mswithanadverb.
. Thesubject.
Line 4b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 0
predicators,2constituents,and3units.AsitstandsintheMT,this
line is an exclamation rather than a declarative statement. Thus,
thereisnopredicator,althoughapredicatedsentenceisimplied.An
enemy! And all around the land! implies, There is an enemy all
aroundtheland!
. This noun may mean distress, as in Job 15:24, but it
oftenmeansenemy.Eitherispossiblehere,butline4cimpliesthat
enemyisthemeaninghere.TheLXXhas1u po,Tyre(),which
iscertainlywrong.
. Prepositional phrase with and the con-
junction.Manyemendto ,thepolalyiqtol 3msof,an
3:11 4a
4b
4c
4d
Amos3:10-11 95
Garrett Amos final.indd 95 6/6/08 2:24:57 PM
enemyshallsurroundtheland,onthebasisoftheVulgate(seeBHS
apparatus).ButthefullVulgatereadingistribulabitur et circumietur
terra, the land shall be distressed and surrounded, making it dif-
ficulttoassesswhattheVulgatesVorlage wasandwhetheritactually
supportstheproposedemendation.TheMTisintelligibleandshould
beleftasis.
Line 4c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Hiphilweqatal 3msof.Thesubjectis from4b.
Asinearlierjudgmentstrophes,theweqatal formistheprimaryfinite
verb conjugation employed to describe a series of pending disasters
thatwillcomeasdivinejudgmentonanation.
. Prepositionalphrasewith anda2fssuffix.Theante-
cedentofthesuffixisthecityofSamaria,metaphoricallyawoman.
. Thedirectobjectwitha2fssuffix.
Line 4d:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and2units.
. Niphalweqatal 3cpof.Unlikethepriorjudgmentson
thenations,wherethecitadelswereburneddown,heretheyareplun-
dered.Thisisapropos,consideringthatamajorcrimeoftheIsraelite
leadershipwasaplunderingoftheirownpeople.
. Thedirectobjectwitha2fssuffix.
3:12: Second Prose Commentary: This commentary serves as
a transition between the second and third poems. Looking back, it
comments on 3:11 by describing with the illustration of the lamb
howthoroughthedestructionofSamariawillbe.Lookingforward,it
anticipatesthedescriptionofthearrogantluxuryoftheupperclasses
inSamariain3:14-15.



3:12
96 Amos3:11-12
Garrett Amos final.indd 96 6/6/08 2:24:58 PM
Prose Clause:
Adivinespeechformulawithaqalqatal 3msof andthe
particle.
Prose Clause:

. introduces the first part of a two-part comparison, in
which markstheprotasisandisequivalenttojustasand ,
markingtheapodosis,isequivalenttoevenso. isahiphilyiqtol
3msof.Theyiqtol representspossibleactivityandcouldberen-
deredmightsnatch.However,thisverboftenhastheconnotation
ofdeliverance,anditishereusedironically,asisclearfromtheuseof
inthesecondclauseofthisverse. isthesubject.Thedefi-
nitearticlerepresentsaclassratherthanaspecificexample,andthus
itcouldbetranslatedasashepherdratherthantheshepherd.
isaprepositionalphrasewith ,from,onaconstructchain.
Again,thedefinitearticlerepresentsaclass,andsoitcouldbetrans-
latedasfromalionsmouth.Thephrase is
twodirectobjectsseparatedby,or.Itmeans,twolegsorapiece
ofanear.The isthebonylowerlegofananimal.Thesnatching
ofthelowerlegsorofapieceofearfromalionsmouthisindicative
ofhowthoroughlythelambhasbeendestroyed.Someinterpreterssee
hereanallusiontothelegalrequirementthatahiredshepherdsnatch
apieceofaslainsheepfromabeastsothathemightshowthepieceto
theownerasevidencethatthesheepwasslainbyananimalandthat
the shepherd did not simply lose the sheep (Exod 22:12 [E 13]; see
Paul1991,119).Butevenifsuchalegaltraditionmightexplaintous
whyashepherdwouldgrabapieceofalambfromalionsmouth,we
shouldnotmaketoomuchofthatininterpretingthistext.Thenotion
ofsnatchingbitsofthelambawaytoprovideevidenceexoneratinga
shepherd is never developed in the text. There is no counterpart to
thehiredshepherdinthepassage,andthereisnoreasontosuppose
Amos wants his reader to think that exoneration of the shepherd is
thepointofthepassage.Inshort,focusingonthissupposedcultural
Amos3:12 97
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backgroundtotheshepherdsactiondoesmoretocloudthemeaning
ofthepassagethantoilluminateit.Themainpointoftheimagehere
isthatthesheephasbeenabsolutelydestroyed.
Prose Clause:
Thisistheapodosisofthecomparisonbeguninthepriorclause.
Theparticle markstheapodosiswith ,aniphalyiqtol 3mpof
.Theironyherecounteractsthecasualconfidenceofthepeopleof
Samariathatiftheyareattacked,YHWHwilldeliver()them.
isthesubject.Thephraserepresents theIsraelitenation
and,inthemetaphoroftheprotasis,themainpointisthatthenation
will be utterly destroyed. There is no idea of a remnant here. The
metaphor of snatching a piece of an ear from a lions mouth means
thatthesheepisdead,notthatparthassurvived.
Prose Clause:

Thisisparticipialexpressionusedasarelativeclauseinapposi-
tionto .Theword isaqalactiveparticipleof
mpwiththedefinitearticleusedasarelativeclause;theantecedent
is .
arethreecoordinatedprep-
ositionalphrases,each with anddependenton.Thesewords
arenotoriouslydifficult,butattemptstoresolvethedifficultyofthis
text by cutting the Gordian Knot and emending (e.g., Rabinowitz
1961;Zalcman2002)aretoospeculativetobecompelling.Thefirst
issue is the meaning of with . Shalom Paul vigorously denies
that canbeusedwith tomeanon,andsohearguesthatthe
peoplearenotsittingonbeds.Hethus,likemanyothers,arguesthat
andfollowinghasnorelationshipto butrather
modifies .Thewholesentencethereforemeansthatthosewho
dwell ( ) in ( ) Samaria will be rescued/snatched away
( )with( )piecesofabed.Thatis,theywillberefugeesand
theonlypossessionstheywillbeabletoretrievefromtheruinsoftheir
citywillbepartsoftheirbeds(Paul1991,120).Thisinterpretation
98 Amos3:12
Garrett Amos final.indd 98 6/6/08 2:24:59 PM
isreflectedinanumberofversions,suchastheESV,whichhas,so
shallthepeopleofIsraelwhodwellinSamariaberescued,withthe
cornerofacouchandpartofabed.Thismisunderstandsthetexton
severallevels.
First,itassumesthatthemainpointoftheverseisthatsomeIsra-
eliteswillberescuedfromslaughterandsurviveasrefugees.Tothe
contrary,asarguedabove,thepointoftheanalogyisnotthesurvival
ofsomebuttheutterdestructionofthenation.
Second,itimpliesthatthepiecesoffurniturearesnatchedawayin
amanneranalogoustothesnatchingawayofthepiecesoftheslain
lamb.Tothecontrary,theanalogyisnotbetweenthelegsandearof
thelambandthepiecesofIsraelitefurniture,itisbetweenthelamb
itself and the whole population, the . Again, it does not
assertthatsomerefugeeswillgetawayalivebutthenationasawhole
willbekilled.
Third,itistruethat with normallymeanstoresideorsit
atalocationratherthanonanobject.However,theuseof in
and in may be by attraction to the use
of in .Moreimportantly,wereallyhavelittleideawhatthe
nouns and inthiscontextmeanandwearethusinno
positiontoassertthattheexpression
isimpossible. normallymeanscorneroredge,andthatmay
beitsmeaninghere(Paul[1991,121]suggeststhatitistheheadof
thebed,likeaheadboard,butthatisspeculative). hasbeen
takentomeansomethinglikesheetsorafootstoolinthiscontext
(seeHALOT ;Paul[1991,12122]arguesthatitisthefootof
abed,butthisisalsospeculative).Theimportantpointisthat with
canstillbelocativebutneednotmeantositonacouchorbed.
Itcouldmeantositatthecornerofabedandwithafootstoolof
acouch.
Fourth, the absurdity of this interpretation speaks against it (cf.
Hammershaimb1970,62).Weareaskedtosupposethatrefugeesflee-
ingtheircityasitgoesupinflamesbeforeaninvadingenemywould,
ofallthings,grabaheadboardorsomeotherpartofabedastheone
Amos3:12 99
Garrett Amos final.indd 99 6/6/08 2:24:59 PM
itemtheysnatchfromtheflames.Thisisfar-fetched.Peopleinsuch
asituationmightgrabtheirchildren,gold,orjewels,butwouldnot
burdenthemselveswithbrokenpiecesoffurniture.
Fifth,Amos6:4-7indicatesthatIsraelitesloungingoncouchesand
bedsisexactlywhattheprophethasinmind.
3:13-15: Third Poem: This two-strophe poem (one stanza) pro-
nouncesthedivinejudgmentonIsrael.Thefirststropheintwolines
isacalltolisten,andthesecondineightlinesgivesthedetailsofthe
judgment.
3:13: First Strophe. Two lines. Line 1a is unusual in Amos for
havingtwopredicators,andline1bisanunusuallyfulsomeformula
of divine speech. This is therefore an exaggerated call to listen; its
extravagance is accounted for by the fact that it introduces a major
judgmentspeechinthefollowingstrophe.


Line 1a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are:
2 predicators, 3 constituents, and 4 units (3 units if is
regardedasapropername).
. Qalimperativempof.Theaddresseesarethejury
imaginedtobegatheredfromEgyptandAshdod.
. Hiphilimperativempof.Theverbcanmeaneither
togivetestimonyortoadmonish;thepaganjuryiscalledtoinform
Samaria that the charges that YHWH brings against the city are
just.
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,whichishereadver-
sative(against),onaconstructchain.
Line 1b:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,1constituent,and5units.
. YHWHisheredescribed
3:13 1a
1b
100 Amos3:12-13
Garrett Amos final.indd 100 6/6/08 2:24:59 PM
as the sovereign ( serves as a title) and as God of the heavenly
assembly( isinappositionto).
3:14-15: Second Strophe.Eightlines.Ajudgmentspeech,describ-
ing the punishment due to Israel, it is modeled on the judgment
speeches against Damascus (1:4-5), Gaza (1:7-8), Ammon (1:14-15)
andMoab(2:2-3).Afterline2a,whichintroducesthejudgments,like
thoseoraclesithassevenlines,isdominatedbytheweqatal verb,and
endsinadivinespeechformula.Structurally,thisstropheisinthree
parts: a protasis (line 2a), an apodosis (lines 2b-g), and the divine
speech formula (line 2h). Amos gives three lines to the punishment
upontheshrines(2b-d)andthreelinestopunishmentupontheluxu-
rioushousesoftherich(2e-g).Inthis,heneatlysummarizesthetwo
mainobjectsofGodswrath:areligiouszealwithouttruefearofGod
andthearrogant,oppressivebehaviorofthewealthy.








Line 2a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and5units.
. Thesubordinatingparticle followedbythe
temporalprepositionalphrase attachedtotheQalinfinitivecon-
structof witha1cssuffix.Thiscreatesatemporalclausewhich
istheprotasisforlines2b-g.
3:14 2a
2b
2c
2d
2e
Amos3:13-15 101
3:15
2f
2g
2h
Garrett Amos final.indd 101 6/6/08 2:25:00 PM
. Aconstructchain,thedirectobjectoftheverb.
. Prepositionalphrasewith anda3mssuffix.Theidiom
tovisit()Xupon( )YmeanstopunishYforX.
Line 2b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 1csof.Theweqatal isbothmarking
anapodosisandindicatingfutureevents.
. Prepositionalphrasewith onacon-
structchain.ThealtarsaresynecdochefortheshrineofBethel,and
thepointisthattheshrinewillcomeunderespeciallyseverepunish-
ment.
Line 2c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Niphalweqatal 3cpof.Theverbmeanstochop
off.
.Thedirectobject.Itisaconstructchain,the
horns of the altar. The horns were the locus of the altars holiness;
theywerewherethebloodofatonementwassmeared.Also,arefugee
wouldseeksanctuarybyclingingtothehornsofanaltar.Thepointis
thatsacrednessofthelocationwouldbedestroyed.
Line 2d:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalweqatal 3cpof.Thesubjectis in
thepreviousline.
. Prepositional phrase with indicating direction. The
imageofthehornsofthealtarfallingintothedirtbespeakstheprofa-
nationofthesite.
Line 2e: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator, 3 constituents, and 5 units. Here, Amos turns from the
destructionofholysitestothedestructionofplacesthatdisplaythe
wealthoftheupperclasses,theirhomes.
102 Amos3:14-15
Garrett Amos final.indd 102 6/6/08 2:25:00 PM
. Hiphilweqatal 1csof.
. Thedirectobject;aconstructchain.
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,whichhereintro-
ducesaseconddirectobjectandmeansinadditionto(seeHALOT
definition6b,c,d).Theexistenceofbothsummerandwinterhomes
for very wealthy people is documented in the Bible (Jer 36:22) and
elsewhere(Paul1991,12526).
Line 2f:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qal weqatal 3 c p of . The verb here means to be
lostorruined.
. Another direct object construct chain. The phrase
of course does not mean that the houses were constructed of ivory
but that they were amply decorated with ivory pieces of art. Many
examplesofsuchpieceshavesurvivedfromSamariaitself(mostofit
fromtheninthcenturyB.C.),butotherpieceshavebeenfoundfrom
latebronzeMegiddoandfromastashofivoryworks(someapparently
takenfromIsrael)fromAssyrianNimrud.
Line 2g:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qal weqatal 3 c p of . The third plural form here,
althoughitimpliesthatsomeunnamedpeoplewillsweepawaythese
houses,isreallyusedimpersonallyandcanbetranslatedasapassive.
. Thedirectobjectwithanadjective.Thiscanbe
translatedasthesubjectofapassiveverb.
Line 2h:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,1constituents,and2units.
. Thedivinespeechformula.
Amos3:14-15 103
Garrett Amos final.indd 103 6/6/08 2:25:01 PM
4:1-13: Cruelty and Hollow religion I
ThisdivisionisthefirstoftwolargeindictmentsagainstIsrael(4:1-
13;5:16:14)thatfocusontheoppressivecrueltyandhollowreligion
ofthepeopleandespeciallyofitsleaders.Amos4:1-13isitselfintwo
majorsections,andeachoftheseareintwoparts.Thefirstsection,
4:15,isapoeticoracleagainstthewomenofSamaria(4:1-3),towhich
anironicbenedictionisadded(4:4-5).Thesecondsection,4:6-13,isa
proserecitationofYHWHsfutileattemptstobringIsraelrepentance
(4:6-12),towhichadoxologyisadded(4:13).Thereligiouslanguage
of vv. 4-5 and 13 binds this division together and makes the point
that Israels sin is fundamentally theological. They wrongly assume
thatanactivereligiouslifeissufficienttoappeaseGod,andtheyfail
tocomprehendthesignificanceofthedivinemajestyandthuswhat
anencounterwithactuallyGodentails.
1
Hear this word,
Cows of Bashan who are on the hill of Samaria,
Who oppress the poor,
Who crush the impoverished,
Who say to their lords,
Bring us something to drink!
2
Lord YHWH has sworn by his holiness:
Behold, days are coming upon you
When you people shall be hoisted up with (meat) hooks,
And the rest of you women (shall be hoisted up) with hooks.
3
And you shall go out by the breaches one after another,
And you shall be cast on the dunghill. <emended text>
The oracle of YHWH.
4
Go to Bethel in order to transgress!
At (go) to Gilgal in order to multiply transgression!
And offer your morning sacrifices
and your three-day tithes!
5
Send up a leavened thanksgiving offering in smoke!
104 Amos4:1-13
Garrett Amos final.indd 104 6/6/08 2:25:01 PM
And proclaim (your) freewill offerings! Make them heard!
For that is what you love to do, sons of Israel.
An oracle of Lord YHWH.
6
And even though I gave you cleanness of teeth in all your cities and
a lack of food in all your locales, yet you have not returned to me. The
oracle of YHWH.
7
And even though I withheld the rain from you while it was still three
months until the harvestalthough I would send rain on a given city,
but on another city I would not send rain; a certain field would get rain,
but a field on which it did not rain would dry up.
8
And two or three cities
would wander to one city to drink water but were not satisfied. Yet you
have not returned to me. The oracle of YHWH.
9
I struck you with blight and rust in abundance; locusts have been eat-
ing your gardens, your vineyards, your fig trees and your olive trees. Yet
you have not returned to me. The oracle of YHWH.
10
I sent against you plagues of the Egyptian sort. I slew your young men
by the sword as your horses were captured, and I raised up the stench of
your army, and that right in your nose! Yet you have not returned to me.
The oracle of YHWH.
11
I overturned some of you in the way God overturned Sodom and
Gomorrah, and you were like a burning stick snatched from a fire. Yet you
have not returned to me. The oracle of YHWH.
12
Therefore, I will continue to do the same to you, Israel! Because I will
do this to you, prepare to meet your God, Israel!
13
For consider:
He fashions mountains and creates the wind!
And he declares to humans what is his grievance!
He makes dawn into darkness,
And treads upon the high places of earth!
His name is YHWH God of Sabaoth!
4:1-5: Te Women of Samaria and an Ironic Benediction
This poem is in two stanzas. The first stanza has two strophes (4:1
and4:2-3),andthesecond,theironicblessing,hasone(4:4-5).
Amos4:1-15 105
Garrett Amos final.indd 105 6/6/08 2:25:01 PM
4:1-3: First Stanza. Thisfollowsthenormalpatternofaccusation
and judgment set in chapters 12. Here, the women of Samaria are
accusedinthefirststrophe(4:1),andtheirjudgmentispronouncedin
thesecond(4:2-3).Thejudgmentstrophe,likethoseagainstDamas-
cus,Gaza,Ammon,andMoab,isinsevenlines.
4:1: First Strophe. Six lines. After the initial call to hear (A1a),
theaddresseesarenamed(A1b)anddescribedinfourrelativeclauses.
The first relative clause (A1b) is introduced by and the other
three (A1c-e) are participles. This strophe is similar to the accusa-
tions against the nations except that these accusations are not gov-
ernedby .ThereischiasticassonancebetweenA1aandA1bwith
and .AllthreelinesinA1c-ebeginwithqal
activeparticiples,andthestrophebeginsandendswithlinesheaded
byimperatives.






Line A1a:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalimperativempof.
. Thedirectobject,adefinitenounwithdemonstra-
tivepronoun.
Line A1b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and5units.Thelinecontainsavocative
(thepredicator)andamodifyingrelativeclause.
4:1 A1a
A1b
A1c
A1d
A1e
A1f
106 Amos4:1-3
Garrett Amos final.indd 106 6/6/08 2:25:02 PM
. A construct chain vocative; Hebrew vocatives
are generally definite, as is the case here (GKC 126e). Bashan was
theareatothenorthoftheYarmukRiver,eastandnortheastofthe
Sea of Galilee; the name always has the definite article in Hebrew.
It had lush pastureland and thus famously raised healthy cattle and
sheep (Deut 32:14; Ezek 39:18). The epithet cows of Bashan here
referstotheupper-classwomenofSamariawho,likethosecows,live
among great abundance. But the term is not necessarily derisive of
itself. Ancient poets regularly employed pastoral imagery to refer to
beautiful women, as Song 4:1 does in describing a womans hair as
likeaflockofgoats.InGreektexts,aregularepithetforHeraisthe
cow-eyed(ooi)goddess.
. Relativepronoun;theantecedentis .
. Prepositional phrase with used as a locative.
The women called cows of Bashan are not actually from Bashan;
theyarefromSamaria.
Line A1c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1 predicator, 2 constituents, and 2 units. The participle serves as a
relativeclauseandaspredicator.
. Qal active participle f p of with the definite
article.Theverbmeanstooppressorfinanciallyexploit.Itsmean-
ing is well-illustrated by the apologia of Samuel in 1 Samuel 12:3:
WhoseoxhaveItaken?OrwhosedonkeyhaveItaken?Orwhom
haveIexploited?( ).
. Thedirectobjectoftheprecedingparticiple.
Line A1d: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.Theparticipleservesasarela-
tiveclauseandaspredicator.
. Qalactiveparticiplefpof withthedefinitearti-
cle. meanstomistreator,inthePiel,tostrikedown,butthe
verbs and regularlyappeartogetherasakindofhendiadys
(see Deut 28:33; Hos 5:11). In 1 Samuel 12:3, after asking
Amos4:1 107
Garrett Amos final.indd 107 6/6/08 2:25:02 PM
,Samuelasks,WhomhaveImistreated?( ).
. Thedirectobjectoftheprecedingparticiple.
Line A1d:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and2units.LinesA1dandA1eshouldnotbe
joinedasasingleline,sincethatwouldcreatealineofthreepredica-
tors and a noun. As a rule, a line with three predicators will have
nothingelse.
. Qal active participle f p of with the definite
article.
. Theindirectobject;thenoun withthe3mp
suffix and the preposition . Because of the masculine suffix, one
mightarguethatthecowsofBashanareactuallymenandthatAmos
isnotspecificallyattackingthewomenofSamaria.ButHebrewisnot
consistent about using the feminine plural pronominal suffixes for
feminineantecedents(cf.Ruth1:8).Thenoun heremustmean
husband(asinGen18:12),becausenootherinterpretationmakes
sense.ThecowsofBashanarethereforewomen.Thenoun is
hereusedforhusbandinsteadofthemorecommon or as
anironiccounterpointtothetitle ,whichisappliedtoYHWH
inlineA2ainthenextstrophe.TheSamarianwomenarrogantlytreat
theirlordsashouseholdslavesandcommandthemtobringdrinks,
butLordYHWHhassworntobringdestructionuponthem.
Line A1e:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:2pred-
icators,2constituents,and2units.
. Hiphilimperativemsof withparagogic.
. Qalweyiqtol 1cpof.Theweyiqtol hereimplies
purpose,sothatwemaydrink.
4:2-3: Second Strophe.LikethejudgmentstropheonDamascus
(1:3-5) and others, it has seven lines and employs weqatal verbs to
describeacomingpunishment.
108 Amos4:1
Garrett Amos final.indd 108 6/6/08 2:25:02 PM







Line A2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Niphalqatal 3msof.
. Thesubject.
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,hereusedinanoathfor-
mulatosignifythatbywhichtheoathistaken. herehasthe3
m s suffix and is probably both representative of Gods character as
thebasisforhisoathandalsometonymyforhiswholebeing;thatis,
Godswearsbyhimself,thesupremelyholybeing.
Line A2b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,4constituents,and4units.
. Theparticle hereindicatesthecontentoftheoath
and indicates that adivine decree is beinggiven, asin Genesis
1:29.
. Thesubject.
. Qal active participle m p of and the predicate of
.
. Prepositional phrase with (against) and a 2 m p
suffix.
Line A2c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
4:2
4:3
A2a
A2b
A2c
A2d
A2e
A2f
A2g
Amos4;2-3 109
Garrett Amos final.indd 109 6/6/08 2:25:03 PM
. Pielweqatal 3msof.Theformisusedimpersonally
andisherevirtuallypassiveinmeaning.Theweqatal istheapodosis
tothepreviousline.Throughgapping,theverbgovernslineA2das
well. The piel literally means to raise up (2 Sam 5:12). It usually
hasapositivemeaning,tosupportorsupply,asin1Kings9:11;
Isaiah63:9;Esther5:11;Ezra1:4.Here,however,theliteralmeaning
ofraiseupismoreprobable.
. Thedirectobject.Themasculinepronounhereaswell
asinlineA2bmayimplythatthejudgmentdescribedherepertainsto
allthepeopleandnottothewomenalone.
. Prepositionalphrasewithinstrumental .Theinterpre-
tationof hereismuchdebated;seethediscussionof inthe
nextline.
Line A2d: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 0
predicators, 2constituents,and3units.Thereisgapping,withthis
linegovernedby inA2c.
. The noun (here with 2 f p suffix) means
end.Fromthat,itcanmeandestinyorfate,orconversely,the
remainderofapreviouslylargergroup.Withasuffix,itoftenmeans
fate,asinNumbers20:25, (andhisfate[moves]
towardruin).SimilarusageappearsinDeuteronomy32:20,29;Isa-
iah41:22;Jeremiah5:31;12:4;Psalm73:17;etc.Ifthatwerethesense
here,thelinewouldmean,Yourfatewillbein ,butthat
is unlikely. The suffixed form of is used also for describing
the slaughtering of what is left of a people (Ezek 23:25 and Amos
9:1). In Proverbs it often refers to the final outcome of an action or
wayoflife(Prov5:4,11;14:12,13;16:25;etc.).TheusageinAmos
8:10( )issimilartotheusageinProverbs,wheretheout-
comeoftheIsraelitefeastingwillbeabitterday.HereinAmos4:2,
itcouldrefertothebacksidesofthemetaphoricalcows(assuggested
inHALOT, ),butonewouldexpecttosee ifthatwere
themeaning.WithinAmos,theclosestanalogytotheusagehereisin
110 Amos4:2-3
Garrett Amos final.indd 110 6/6/08 2:25:03 PM
9:1,whereGodkillstherestofthem( )withasword.This
isprobablythemeaninghere.
. Prepositional phrase with instrumental on
aconstructchain.Thephraseiscommonlytranslatedaswithfish-
hooks,butitisnotclearthatfishhookswerewidelyusedineighth
centuryB.C.IsraelorMesopotamia(fishingwascommonlydoneat
thistimewithnetsorgigs).Wedonotknowwhata isor
howitgotitsname.Although possiblyisrelatedtotheword ,
fish,thisdoesnotmeanthat aretoolsusedinfishing,
whether it be fishhooks, fishing poles, or fish baskets, all of which
have been suggested. In the terminology of a trade, a thing may be
namedforsomesuperficialreason,suchasitsappearance,andnotlit-
erallyaccordingtofunction.Byanalogy,ifatruckdriversaysthathe
begantofishtail,heisnotdescribinganythingthathastodowith
literalfishorfishing.Anenormousrangeofinterpretationshasbeen
appliedtothewords and inA2candA2d(seePaul
1978andPaul1991,13035).Briefly,theyareasfollows:
Interpretation 1: Shields,oralternativelyboats,onwhichthewomen
are carried away. The Aramaic Targum has this interpretation (see
CathcartandGordon1989,82).Thisislexicographicallyandhistori-
callyunlikely.
Interpretation 2: Potsorbasketsinwhichfisharecarriedtomarket
( canmeanapotforcooking).Thismayrepresenteithertaking
thewomenintocaptivity(Paul1991,134)orcartingoffthedeadbod-
ieslikefishinbasketsafteraslaughter(Hayes1988,14041).Neither
ispersuasivebecausethechangeinmetaphoristooabrupt.Uptothis
point,thewomenaremetaphoricallycattle;nothinghaspreparedthe
readerforthinkingofthemasfish.Tosuddenlyintroducethisimage
without telling the reader that the women are like caught fish is a
poeticnon-sequitur,andthereaderisleftwithabewilderingpicture
ofwomen(orcattle!)beingcarriedinpotsandfish-baskets.
Interpretation 3: has been interpreted as ropes, but this is
linguisticallyimplausible(Paul1991,131).
Amos4:2-3 111
Garrett Amos final.indd 111 6/6/08 2:25:04 PM
Interpretation 4: Thorns, probably here meaning hooks, and fish-
hooks( ),whicharehookedintothewomentopullthem
along. This is a common interpretation (e.g., Markert 1977, 106;
Hammershaimb 1970, 66; de Waard and Smalley 1979, 79). Per-
haps the women are literally to be pulled into exile with fishhooks,
orperhapstheyaremetaphoricalcattlebeingpulledwithfishhooks,
Whateverthecase,thisinterpretationhassignificantproblems.First,
itisunlikelythatthepielof (raisehigh,carryaloft)wouldbe
used for pulling cattle (or people). Second, as mentioned above, use
offishhooksappearstohavebeenlittlepracticedintheLevantatthis
time(seePaul1991,13233).Third,ifthewomenarestillthought
of as metaphorical cattle, it would be dangerous to both owner and
beast,andverystrange,totrytopullcattlewithfishhooks.2Kings
19:28doesspeakofleadingawayAssyriawithwhatisoftentranslated
as hooks, but the word there ( ) is more properly taken to be
the nose-rings, such as are used with cattle, rather than as hooks
(cf. Exod 35:22). is never used in parallel with either or
.Itisnotimpossiblethatthetextrepresentsthewomenas
beingledintocaptivitylikecattlewithringsthroughtheirnoses(thus
Kleven 1996), but linguistic support for this interpretation is weak,
andtheverb seemstoruleitout.
Interpretation 5: Thewords and mayrefertofish-
hooks,andthewomenareconceivedofasfishcaughtwithhooks.If
so,itisagainanabruptandunannouncedchangeofmetaphorfrom
cattle to fish. And again, it may be anachronistic to take this as a
metaphorofangling.
Interpretation 6: Itispossiblethat and aretechni-
caltermsusedbyshepherdsandranchersfortoolsoftheirtrade.Ifso,
then and areperhapssomekindofprodsfordriving
cattle.OnthebasisofProverbs22:5,itappearsthat referstosome
kindofspikedobject(inthattextthenounismasculineandmaybe
eitherbriarsorakindofspikedtrap).Here,itmaybebarbedprods.
Themainproblemwiththisinterpretationisthatthepielof is
112 Amos4:2-3
Garrett Amos final.indd 112 6/6/08 2:25:04 PM
anoddverbtousefordrivingcattle(althoughofcoursetherecould
havebeenanidiomaticusageof amongcattlemen).
Interpretation 7: Itispossiblethathooksisthemeaningof
and ifthemetaphorisoneofbutcheredcattle,withthe
meat hanging on hooks (cf. Stuart 1987, 327). This requires taking
and to refer the meat of slaughtered, metaphori-
cal cattle. Given the limitations of our knowledge, interpretation 7
maybethebest.TheAssyrianpracticeofactuallyimpalingpeopleon
hooksgivessomecredibilitytothisview.
Line A2e: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,4constituents,and4units.
. A preposition is implied. Thus, it means (by the)
breaches(thatareinthewalls)afterthecityhasfallen.Hayes(1988,
141)takes heretorefertobloatedcorpsesthatarecarriedoutof
the city. His evidence for this interpretation is weak, however, and
theverb wouldseemtorefertopeoplewholeaveundertheir
ownpower.
. Qalyiqtol 2fpof.
. Thenounishereuseddistributivelytomeaneach.
. Prepositionalphrasewith anda3fssuffix.Literally,
eachwomanbeforeher,itheremeans,onebehindtheother,asin
Joshua6:20.
Line A2f:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and2units.
. Hiphilweqatal 2fpof withparagogic.A
paragogic onaweqatal isoddandmaybeascribalerrorperhaps
dittographyfromthefollowingword.Thehiphil,tothrow,isdiffi-
culttomakesenseofhere.OnthebasisoftheLXX(o oppiq otot),
onemightemendtothehophal ,andyoushallbethrown.
. The meaning of this word is entirely lost to us,
althoughitpossiblyendswithadirective.Itmaybeapropername
(toHarmon,orifrepointedtoread,toHermon,itcouldreferto
Amos4:2-3 113
Garrett Amos final.indd 113 6/6/08 2:25:04 PM
themountainnortheastofDanandrefergenerallytoanexiletothe
north[Wolff1977,207;seealsoWilliams1979]).Itmaybeaproper
name with (such as to the mountain of Remman [LXX: ti
o o po o Ptov],perhapsreferringtoArmenia?).Oritmaybea
commonnoun(such astothecitadel[emending to ]orto
thedung[emendingto ].Itmaybethattheunemendedlineis
anotheridiomfromthevocabularyoftheshepherdandrancher.Allof
theseinterpretationsarehighlyspeculative.Amosdoes,however,tend
torepeathimselfagooddeal,andat8:3 clearlyreferstodead
bodiesbeingcastaway.Thus,onemaysuggestthattheemendationto
isthebestwecando.
Line A2g: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 0
predicators,1constituent,and2units.
. Aconstructchaindivinespeechformula.
4:4-5: Second Stanza. This stanza (one strophe) is an ironic
pilgrimage benediction in eight lines (cf. Dell 1995, 5556). It is
appendedtotheoracleagainstthewomenofSamariaasaparallelto
the doxology of 4:13, which is appended to a prose recitation. This
ironicbenedictiondoesnotdirectlyrelatetothewomenofSamaria
orto theirsin,exceptforthefactthat all thepeopleofSamariaare
guiltyofsupposingthatanactivereligiouslife,herecharacterizedby
regular pilgrimages, vindicates their lives. It may be, however, that
the upper class women were especially zealous about making these
pilgrimages.Amorepositiveillustration oftheidealofthepilgrim-
agefortheIsraelitewomanisfoundinthereligiouslifeofHannah,
motherofSamuel(1Sam1).





4:4
4:5
Ba
Bb
Bc
Bd
Be
114 Amos4:3-5
Garrett Amos final.indd 114 6/6/08 2:25:05 PM



Line Ba:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
2predicators,3constituents,and3units.Whentherearetwoimpera-
tivesinaline,andthesecondhastheconjunction,thesecondimpera-
tiveoftentosomedegreeconnotespurpose.
.Qalimperativempof.
. Apropername,Bethel.Adirectionalparticle,suchas
thepreposition orthedirectional,isoftenomittedinpoetry.
. Qalimperativempof withconjunction.
Line Bb: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.Thereisgappingof from
lineBa.
. A proper name, Gilgal, with definite article. Gilgal is
usuallybutnoalwayswrittenwiththearticle.Alocativemarker,such
asthepreposition orthedirectional,isagainomittedbutimplied.
. Hiphilimperativempof withqalinfinitive
constructof (with )asanauxiliary.Literally,Makeabundant
tosin,thismustberenderedwithsomethinglike,Sinabundantly!
Itisobviouslysarcasm.
Line Bc:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
.Hiphilimperativempof,hereusedforthebring-
ingofasacrifice,withconjunction.
. Prepositional phrase with used for reference, as for
themorning.
. The direct object with a 2 m p suffix. With ,
thismeans,yourmorningsacrifices.A isablood-sacrifice(an
animalofferingratherthanagrainoffering).
Amos4:4-5 115
Bf
Bg
Bh
Garrett Amos final.indd 115 6/6/08 2:25:05 PM
Line Bd:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,2constituents,and3units.Thereisgappingof from
thepreviousline.
. Inparallelwith inlineBc,thisisaref-
erentialuseofthepreposition meaningforathree-dayperiodor
afterthreedays.
. Thedirectobjectwitha2mpsuffix.Inparallel
withlineBcandwith ,thismustmean,yourthree-day
tithes. Perhaps pilgrims were expected to make a tithe gift on the
thirdday(twodaysaftertheirarrivalatashrine).Wehavenoevidence
elsewhereforsuchapractice,butourknowledgeofculticworshipat
theseshrinesisverysparse.Thereisaprovisionforathree-yeartithe
inDeuternomy14:28,butthisisprobablynotmeanthere.
Line Be: The colon-marker is zaqeph qaton and the constraints
are:1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Pielimperativempwithconjunction.Theverbmeansto
sendanofferingupinsmoke,whetheritistheburningofincenseor
ofsomeotheroffering.
. Prepositionalphrasewith usedpartitively.Anoffer-
ingwithleavenedbreadwasforbiddeninTorahforcertainsacrifices,
butitcouldbeofferedwiththethankoffering(Lev7:12).Elsewhere
inthistext,Amosisattackingfaithintheautomaticefficacyofpil-
grimagestotheshrinesratherthanillicitpracticesattheshrines,soit
isdoubtfulthathereheisassertingthattheofferingsareunlawful.
. The direct object. The thank offering of Leviticus 7:12
iscalled .
Line Bf: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 2
predicators,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalimperativempof withconjunction.
. Thedirectobject.Thefreewillofferingswouldbepro-
claimedaloudbecausetheyweregiveninfulfillmentofvows.
116 Amos4:4-5
Garrett Amos final.indd 116 6/6/08 2:25:06 PM
. Hiphilimperativempof.Theasyndetonwith
thissecond,redundantimperativegivesitthesenseofironicencour-
agement.
Line Bg:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
2predicators(includingthevocative),2constituents,and2units.
. Qalqatal 2mpwiththeparticles (usedinan
explanatorysense)and (usedadverbially,thatishow).
. Aconstructchainvocative.
Line Bh:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,1constituent,and3units.
. Adivinespeechformula.
4:6-13: Blindness to YHWH's Warnings and a Doxology of Dread
This section, like the previous, is in two parts except that the first
part (vv. 6-12) is prose. Just as 4:4-5 is an ironic benediction on the
pilgrimstotheshrines,soalsov.13isironicinthatitisadoxologybut
itpromptsonlyterrorandnotjoyorworship.Inaddition,theconstant
complaintofthistext,thattheIsraeliteshavenotreturnedtoYHWH,
issetagainstthesarcasticencouragementtogototheshrines.
4:6-12: Unheeded Warnings: Thisisalengthyprosetextinwhich
YHWHdetailshisvaineffortstobringIsraeltorepentancebymeans
ofvariousafflictions.BehindthispassagestandthewarningsofDeu-
teronomy28:15-68,whichtelltheIsraelitesthatiftheyrefusetoobey
the laws of the covenant, they will be beset with disease, drought,
cropfailure,andmilitarydefeatinincreasingseverity.Althoughsome
clausescouldbescannedaspoetry,otherclausesaretoolongandthe
grammarofthesentencesistoocomplextoanalyzethistextconvinc-
inglyasapoem.


Amos4:4-13 117
4:6
Garrett Amos final.indd 117 6/6/08 2:25:06 PM
Thisverseisasentenceofthreeclauses,thefirstbeingaconces-
siveprotasisandthesecondbeingtheapodosis.Thethirdclauseisthe
divinespeechformula.
Prose Clause:

Aconcessiveclause(introducedby )servingasaprotasis,ithas
atransitiveverb( ,aqalqatal 1csof)andtwoconjoinedand
parallelconstructchaindirectobjects( [cleannessofteeth]
and [andlackofbread]).Eachdirectobjecthasaphrase
withlocative appendedtoit( and ).Par-
allelismisafeatureofrhetoric;itisnotuniquetopoetry.Cleannessof
teeth( )obviouslyreferstoafoodshortage.
Prose Clause:
The conjunction on marks the apodosis. is a qal
qatal 2mpof,whichsignifiesrepentancewhenusedofpersons
returningtoGod.Theqatal couldbetranslatedwithapasttenseor
aperfectorevenpresenttense.
Prose Clause:
Adivinespeechformula.




Thisverseisaseriesofsixclauses,allofwhicharepartofacon-
cessiveprotasistotheapodosisattheendof4:8.
Prose Clause:

4:7
118 Amos4:6-7
Garrett Amos final.indd 118 6/6/08 2:25:07 PM
withtheverb (qalqatal 1csof)againmarksa
concessive protasis. (the preposition [from] with a 2 m p
suffix)isanindirectobjectcomplementto (thedirectobject
being [the rain]). The prepositional phrase with on
theadverb isidiomaticforwhilestill.The on (tothe
harvest)illustrateshowsometimesthisprepositioncanbetranslated
asfromoruntil.Tohavenorainsolongbeforeharvestwasobvi-
ouslyacalamity.
Prose Clause:
,ahiphilweqatal 1csof herefunctionsimper-
fectively,andIwouldsendrain,incontrasttothesimplepastmean-
ing a wayyiqtol would convey. This clause is epexegetical of and I
withheldraininthefirstclause(itisofflinerelativetocontext;itis
alsoconcessivehereandcouldberenderedasalthough).Theword
in the prepositional phrase (upon one city)
functionsindefinitelylikeagivenoracertain.
Prose Clause:
The + [x] + yiqtol pattern (with , a hiphil yiqtol 1 c s
of ), following the previous weqatal, binds the two contrasting
clausestogetherandindicatesthattheactionofthetwoisconceptu-
allysimultaneous.
Prose Clause:
Thislinehasconjunction(asyndeton),indicatingthatitisan
offlinecommentaryonthepreviousclauses. (niphalyiqtol 3fs
of)isimperfective. ,literallyashare,herereferstoaplot
ofarableland.
Prose Clause: . . .
This clause is interrupted by a relative clause (thus the ellipsis).
The +[x]+yiqtol joinsthisclausetothepreviousofflineclauseasa
parallelbutcontrastingevent.
Prose Clause:
Amos4:7 119
Garrett Amos final.indd 119 6/6/08 2:25:07 PM
Thisisarelativeclauseinsertedinthepreviousclause;itsante-
cedentis .Thereisaresumptivepronounpatternin. . .
,meaninguponwhich.Theyiqtol verbin (hiphilyiqtol
3fs)isimperfective,implyingaprolongedperiodwithnorain.The3
fsissurprising;somemanuscripts,withtheLXXandVulgate,havea
1cs.Butthe3fsmaybeimpersonal,liketheEnglish,itrained.


Thisverseismadeoffourclauses.Thefirsttwocontinuethepro-
tasisfromv.7,thethirdistheapodosis,andthefourthistheoracle
formula.
Prose Clause:

The weqatal (qal weqatal 3 c p of ) resumes the series
ofconcessiveclausesthatmakeuptheprotasis.Theasyndetonwith
means,twoorthree. (cities)isheresynecdo-
che for the people of those cities. , a qal infinitive construct
of with ,hereexpressespurposeasacomplementtothemain
verb. isthedirectobject.
Prose Clause:
The + + yiqtol ( , a qal yiqtol 3 m p of ) here
impliesanegationofaresultonemighthavedesiredorexpectedon
thebasisofthepreviousclause.Itcouldbetranslatedasbutwerenot
satisfied.Cf.the + +yiqtol inGenesis2:25:
(andthetwoofthem,themanandhis
woman,werenakedbutnotashamed).
Prose Clause:
The + +yiqtol ( ,aqalyiqtol 2mpof)isherethe
apodosisoftheprecedinglengthyprotasis.Noticethatinstructureit
isidenticaltotheprecedingclause,butthatitservesanentirelydiffer-
4:8
120 Amos4:7-8
Garrett Amos final.indd 120 6/6/08 2:25:08 PM
entsyntacticalfunction.Thechangeinsubjectfromthirdtosecond
personistheonlysignalthatthisclauseplaysadifferentroleinthe
sentence-levelstructure.
Prose Clause:
Adivinespeechformula.



This verse is made of four clauses. The first three are another
concessiveprotasis-apodosispatternandthefourthistheoraclefor-
mula.
Prose Clause:
isahiphilqatal 1csof.Thisclause,unlike4:6-7,
lackstheparticle ,butthesimilaritiestothoseversesindicatethat
thesyntaxofthesentenceisthesame.Havingtheqatal alone(where
the previous verses have the particle and a pronoun) is rhetorically
moredramatic. ,oftentranslatedblight,isliterallyadrying
out or scorching (see HALOT, ). , literally paleness, is
a plant affliction and is often translated as rust or mildew. The
two terms regularly appear as a pair (Deut 28:22; 2 Chr 6:28; Hag
2:17)andmaybehendiadys.ThisclauseperhapsalludestoDeuter-
onomy28:22( . . . [YHWH
willstrikeyouwithconsumption...andwithblightandmildew]).
, the hiphil infinitive absolute of , here as elsewhere is
adverbial(muchorabundantly).TheMTgivesthewordthecon-
junctiveazla,apparentlylinkingittothefollowingwords,butthatis
probablyincorrect.
Prose Clause:

4:9
Amos4:8-9 121
Garrett Amos final.indd 121 6/6/08 2:25:08 PM
The+[x]+yiqtol patternindicatesthatthisisanoffline,imper-
fectiveclausehereservingasepexegesisforthepreviousclause.That
is,theconditionsthatfavoredthedevelopmentofblightandmildew
also favored the development of insect vermin. The fronting of the
directobjectinacompoundphraseoffournouns(
) indicates that destruction of the gardensespe-
cially the variety and quantity of what was lostis the focus here.
Theagentofdestruction,thelocusts,isnotthefocus.Theverb
(qalyiqtol 3msof)isimperfectiveandcouldberendered,have
beeneating.
Prose Clause:
See4:6,8.
Prose Clause:
Adivinespeechformula.



Thisverseismadeoffiveclauses.Thefirstfourareanothercon-
cessive protasis-apodosis pattern and the fifth is the oracle formula.
Incontrastto4:7-8,theverbsinthefirsttwoclauseshereareqatal,
indicatingthattheyaretwodistinctactionsandarenotimperfective
inaspect.
Prose Clause:
Again, isimpliedonthebasisof4:6,7,andfrontingofthe
qatal verb( ,apielqatal 1csof)isrhetoricallydramatic.
The preposition in may either mean among or be used in
ahostilesense,against(seetheuseof inGen37:22).
(plague) is the direct object, and in means way or
manner, as in Genesis 31:35, and it here refers to the manner in
4:10
122 Amos4:9-10
Garrett Amos final.indd 122 6/6/08 2:25:08 PM
which God struck Egypt with plagues. Israel had evidently recently
gone through a series of natural calamities analogous to those that
befellEgyptattheexodus.
Prose Clause:
Asecondprotasisclauseheadedbyqatal,thisisasecondexample
inthisseries;itisanalogoustotheactionofthefirstclausebutissepa-
rateanddistinct.Here indicatesdeathinbattle.
isaqalqatal 1cs. ,youryoungmen,isthedirectobject
and refers to the rank and file soldiers. , with the
captivityofyourhorses,issometimesemendedtoread (pomp)
insteadof onthegroundsthat normallyreferstothecapture
ofhumans(e.g.,Wolff1977,210noteq).Butthisisunnecessary.The
pointisthattheIsraeliteshavesufferedthedoublelossofhavingtheir
troopskilledinbattleandtheirwar-horsescaptured.
Prose Clause:
Thewayyiqtol verb( ,hiphilwayyiqtol 1csof)joins
thisclausetothepreviousandindicatesthatthetworefertoasequence
ofeventswithinasingleepisode,thedefeatofanIsraelitearmyand
subsequentrottingofthedeadbodies. ,stench,issometimes
emendedto ,withfire,onthebasisoftheLXXt v upi ,but
thisdoesnotyieldabettersense. (andinyournose)isalso
consideredsuspect,oratleastsurprising,forhavingtheconjunction.
Thisisthewaw explicativum (GKC154a,note1b).Itmightberen-
dered,andrightinyournose!Thepointisthatthedefeatdidnot
occurfaraway,wheretheycouldonlyhearnewsofitfromadistance,
butrightintheirmidst,wheretheycouldsmellit.Amosmayherebe
referringtodefeatssufferedunderHazael.
Prose Clause:
See4:6,8.
Prose Clause:
Adivinespeechformula.
Amos4:10 123
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This verse is made of four clauses. The first three are another
concessiveprotasis-apodosispatternandthefourthistheoraclefor-
mula.SodomandGomorrahrepresentGodsultimatejudgment,the
completeeradicationofapeople,andthusthisisthelastinthisseries
of references to recent calamities. The first clause seems to say that
Israelsufferedthisjudgment(which,iftrue,wouldmeanthatAmos
would have no Israel to address), but the second clause draws back
fromthisinference,assertingthatIsraeljustbarelysurvivedthisexpe-
rience.ItprobablyreferstothenearcollapseofIsraelpriortotherise
ofJeroboamII.
Prose Clause:

Again, isimplied,andfrontingoftheqatal verb( ,a
qalqatal 1csof)isrhetoricallydramatic.Thepreposition in
maybepartitive,someofyou,indicatingthatsomebutnotall
ofthecitiesofIsraelwereannihilatedinthemannerofSodom.The
prepositionalphrase ,where andthenoun
(anoverturning)functionlikeaninfinitiveconstructphraseusedas
afiniteverb.Thusittakesthedirectobjects .
Prose Clause:
Thewayyiqtol verb( ,qalwayyiqtol 2mpof)joinsthis
clausetothepreviousandindicatesthatthetworefertoasingleepi-
sode, the near annihilation but subsequent survival of Israel. Rhe-
torically, the prepositional phrase with parallels in the
previousclauseandsetsupacontrast. isaburningstickinabon-
fire;cf.Zech3:2. isahophalparticiplemsfrom,snatched.
A is a very hot fire meant to either harden something (like
4:11
124 Amos4:11
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firing clay in a kiln; Gen 11:3) or incinerate it (such as the fire for
incineratingtheredheifer;Num19:6).
Prose Clause:
See4:6,8.
Prose Clause:
Adivinespeechformula.


This verse concludes the prose recitation. It is pregnant in that
judgmentisthreatenedbutnotexpresslyorspecificallydescribed;the
readerislefttoimaginewhatmaycomenext.Inlightofhowtheseries
ofjudgmentshasprogressedtothispoint,thereasonableconclusion
isthattheultimatedecreeofjudgment,theannihilationofIsrael,is
coming. A number of scholars believe that the first two clauses fit
togetherawkwardlyandthatthepresenttextisaconflationofvariant
readings (see Paul 1991, 150). This is unnecessary; the two clauses
haveentirelydifferentfunctionsandareinfactindifferentsentences,
asdescribedbelow.
Prose Clause:
,aqalyiqtol 1csof (usedhereforfutureaction),is
followedbyanindirectobject( )andavocative( ).Thekey
tounderstandingtheclauseistheparticle,whichheremeans,in
the same manner. Shalom Paul appropriately compares this to the
oathformulain1Kings2:23, ,May
Goddothesametomeandmayhedomoreofthesame!(Paul1991,
150). This clause therefore looks back over all of the preceding and
assertsthatGodwillcontinuetoafflictIsraelinthesamemanner.
Prose Clause:
4:12
Amos4:11-12 125
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means back, end, and from that means result or
wages, with idiomatically meaning because. is the
directobjectof (qalyiqtol 1csof),anditsantecedentis
theimpliedjudgmentofthepreviousclause.Thisclauseisthecausal
protasisofthenextclause.Itinfactbeginsanentirelynewsentence
andisseparatefromtheprecedingclause.
Prose Clause:
Thisistheapodosisofthepreviousclause. isaniphalimper-
ative m s of (cf. Ezek 38:7, where the niphal imperative implies
preparationforcombat). isaqalinfinitiveconstructof
II(meet)and,againstYoungblood(1971),not I(call).
isthedirectobject.Therepetitionofthevocative (alsofound
inthefirstclause),indicatesagainthattherearetwosentencesinthis
verse(sinceitispeculiartorepeatavocativeintwoseparateplacesin
onesentence).
4:13: Doxology:Thispoemisadoxologyinfivelines(onestanza
and one strophe). The doxology concludes this section and appears
abruptly; the reader is not expecting such language. Its presence
heightens the suspense created by the pregnant threat of judgment
inv.12.ThedoxologydescribesthekindofGodthatIsraelmustbe
readytomeet(viz.,anall-powerfulGod).Itmayalsobeadaptedfrom
oneofthehymnssungattheIsraeliteshrines.Thedoxologyconsists
offourlinesgivingdescriptionsofYHWHspower,withthefifthline
naminghim.Thewholedoxologyisthusakindofimpliedquestion
andanswer,withlinesa-dimplicitlyasking,Whoisthefashionerof
hillsandcreatorofwind...?andlineegivingtheanswer.Thelogic
ofthefirstfourlinesisthatYHWHisfirstmakerofheavenandearth
(hererepresentedbymountainsandwind;linea),hesecondlyisjudge
ofalltheearth,bringingaccusationsagainsthumanity(lineb),and
hethirdlycomesinapocalypticterror(linesc-d).

126 Amos4:12-13
4:13a
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Thefirsttwowords( )areaproseintroductiontothedox-
ology.Theycallthereadersattentiontothedoxologyandencourage
meditationoveritssignificance.





Line a:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:2predi-
cators,2constituents,and4units.
. Aconstructchainwiththeqalactiveparticiplem
sof usedinaperiphrasticconstructionwiththeimpliedsubject
he(). isanobjectivegenitive.
. Anotherconstructchain,withtheqalactiveparti-
ciplemsof usedperiphrasticallybeforeanobjectivegenitive.
Line b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,4constituents,and4units.
. Hiphilparticiplemsof withconjunctioninaperi-
phrasticconstruction.
. Prepositionalphrasewith indicatingaddressee.
. Thepronounisthedirectobjectof andintroducesan
indirectquestion.
. Thenoun ishapax legomenon. isoftentranslated
as thought in Amos, but there is confusion regarding the 3 m s
suffix. Is God declaring his own thoughts, or is he telling the man
what the man is thinking? There are no grounds for translating it
asplan,asissometimesdone(Stuart1987,335). isapparently
aby-formof II,meditation,lament(InSamariadiphthongs
4:13b a
b
c
d
e
Amos4:13 127
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were monophthongized; Paul 1991, 254). In 1 Kings 18:27 Elijah
mockinglysaysthatBaalhasa ,butthemeaningof inthat
text is disputed. appears a number of times in the Hebrew of
Sirach, as at 13:11: (and do not believe his
abundantspeech).Elsewhere, isalmostalwaysusedforacom-
plaint(1Sam1:16;Ps55:3[E=2];142:3[E=2];Job7:13;9:27;10:1;
etc.).Normally,ofcourse,apersonpoursouthiscomplainttoGod.
Here,however,itisverystrangetotreatthe3mssuffixasreferring
totheman,asthatwouldmeanthatGodwastellingamanwhatis
thatmanscomplaint.Thus,thesuffixmustrefertoGod.Theuseof
hereisclosetoJobsuseof ,whereitisaformalcomplaintor
accusation,analogousto .Sirach11:8,inacontextofadjudicat-
ingadispute,has (anddonotspeakwhile
[another]makeshiscase).Thus,Godismakingknownhischarge
orgrievanceagainstaman,or,moreprobably,againsthumanity(so
understanding ).
Line c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Aconstructchainwithqalactiveparticipleof
andanobjectivegenitive.
. Asecondaryobject,theoutcomeofwhatGodmakesof
.Thislineisoftentranslated,whomakesthedawnintodark-
ness,withtheunderstandingthatthisisanapocalypticdarkeningof
theheavens.ShalomPaul,however,understandsthemeaningofthe
wordstobereversed,sothatitactuallymeans,whomakesgloominto
shiningdawn(Paul1991,155).Atissueiswhether isderived
from,tobedark,or,toshine.OnbalanceandagainstPaul,it
ismorelikelythatitisderivedfrom (seeNIDOTTE II).
Line d:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalactiveparticipleof withconjunction.
. Prepositional phrase with locative . The
language of this verse has several analogies in the Bible. In Deuter-
128 Amos4:13
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onomy33:29Israeltreadson( )thebacks( )oftheirene-
mies.InHabakkuk3:19thepsalmistassertsthatGodmadehisfeet
asswiftasadeers,sothathecantreadon( )hills( ).In
Micah1:3,YHWHcomesforthasawarriorandtramples( )
thehills( )sothattheymeltunderhim,andinJob9:8Godsteps
across( )thewaves( )ofthesea.Thesignificanceof
hereisdebated.Interpretationsinclude:(1)YHWHislikeagigantic
figuresteppingfromhilltoptohilltop.(2)YHWHislikeavigorous
manwhowalksupanddownhillswithease.(3)YHWHistreading
on (i.e., crushing) the cultic high places of Canaan. Amos probably
impliesacombinationofideas,thatYHWHisvigorous,thatheisa
cosmicfiguresteppingacrosstheearth,andthatheisawarriorbefore
whom nothing can stand (the parallel to Mic 1:3 is especially tell-
ing).ThenotionofGodstampingoncultichighplacesmayalsobe
impliedasareflectionon4:4-5.(SeealsoCrenshaw1972,4244).
Line e:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predica-
tors,2constituents,and4units.
. Thepredicateinaverblessclause.
. Nounwith3mssuffix;thesubject.
5:16:14: Cruelty and Hollow religion II
With4:1-13,thisisthesecondoftwoindictmentsagainstIsraelforits
oppressionanditsemptyreligion.TheopeningcallforIsraeltolisten
toalament(5:1)misleadssomereaderstosupposethattheentiresec-
tionthatfollows,oftendefinedasincludingatleastallofchapter5,is
formallyalamentation.Thisisnotcorrect.Thelamentproperisonly
5:2;versessubsequenttothatareamixtureoforaclesandexhortations
of various kinds in both prose and poetry. On the other hand, the
lamentationmotifdoesprovideimportantstructureforthispassage.
Threetimesthemotifoflamentationisprominent:first,inalament
poem(5:2);second,inaprediction thatpeoplewillcallformourn-
ers(5:16-17);andthird,inanaccountofasceneinwhichtypically
therewouldbewailingandlamentationbutironicallylamentationis
Amos4:136:14 129
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absent(6:9-10).Thefulltextof5:16:14isboundedbyaninclusion
(seediscussionat6:14).Instructure,thisdivisionhasanintroduction
(5:1-3) followed by a series of accusations and warnings (5:46:8a),
afterwhichthereisajudgmentoracleintroducedbyalongandsol-
emndivinespeechformula(6:8b-11).Finally,thereisasummarizing
conclusion(6:12-14).Therearenumerousparallelelements,especially
insectionsI,IIandIII,asisapparentintheoutlinebelow.Amotifof
thistext,broughtoutclearlyintheproverbthatopenstheconcluding
summary(6:12a),isIsraelsperversity,theideathatthenationbehaves
inawaythatisabsurdlywrongheaded.Thestructureis:
I.Introduction:(5:1-3)
A:TheCalltoHear(5:1)
B:TheLamentPoem(5:2)
C:TheOracleofDoom(5:3)
II:Accusations,Warnings,andExhortations(5:46:8a)
A:FirstSeries(5:4-15)
1:Accusation:ReligiousArrogance(5:4-7)
2:Doxology:YHWHMadetheHeavens(5:8-9)
3:Accusation:NoRespectforPoor(5:10-15)
B:DoomOraclePredictingLamentation(5:16-17)
A:SecondSeries(5:186:8a)
1:Accusation:ReligiousArrogance(5:18-24)
2:QuestionandOracle:SkyGods(5:25-27)
3:Accusation:ArrogantLuxuries(6:1-8a)
III.JudgmentontheHousesofSamaria(6:8b-11)
A:OracleofDoom(6:8b)
B:AMass-FuneralwithoutLamentation(6:9-10)
A:OracleofDoom:(6:11)
130 Amos5:16:14
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IV.Summary(6:12-14)
A:Proverb(6:12a)
B:ProverbExpositionandAccusation(6:12b-13)
C:OracleofDoom(6:14)
Lookingatthedatainaslightlydifferentmanner,thistextcan
be seen as a pair of linked chiastic structures with a summarizing
conclusion.Thefirstchiasmusis5:1-17(A:doom[1-3],B:accusation
[4-7],C:doxology[8-9],B:accusation[10-15],A:doom[16-17]),and
thesecondchiasmusis5:166:11(A:doom[5:16-17],B:accusation
[5:18-24],C:skygods[5:25-27],B:accusation[6:1-8a],andA:doom
[6:8b-11]).Onthechiasmusof5:1-17,seealsodeWaard(1977).
1
Hear this word that I am raising against you as a lament, house of
Israel!
2
She has fallen never to rise again
The Virgin Israel
She is abandoned on her land with no one to raise her!
3
For thus says the Lord YHWH:
The city that sends out a thousand will have a hundred left,
And the one that sends out a hundred will have ten left in the house
of Israel.
4
For thus says YHWH to the house of Israel:
Seek me that you may live!
5
Do not seek Bethel!
And do not go to Gilgal!
And do not cross over to Beersheba!
For Gilgal will certainly go into exile,
And Bethel will become a disaster!
6
Seek YHWH that you may live!
Lest he rush upon the House of Joseph like a fire,
And it consume without anyone at Bethel to put it out,
Amos5:16:14 131
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7
Where they turn justice to wormwood
And lay righteousness in the dirt.
8
He is the maker of Pleiades and Orion!
And he turns deep darkness to morning
And darkens daylight at night!
He calls to the waters of the sea
And then pours them out on the surface of the earth!
His name is YHWH!
9
He smiles destruction upon the strong
And destruction comes upon the fortress!
10
At the gate, they hate a reprover
And they abhor an honest speaker.
11
Therefore, because you impose a grain tax upon the poor
And you take a grain-duty from them,
You build houses of ashlar
But you will not dwell in them.
You build pleasant vineyards
But you will not drink their wine.
12
For I know that your transgressions are many,
(I know) that your sins are strong.
They attack a righteous man! They take bribes!
And they turn aside poor people at the gate.
13
Therefore the prudent man is silent in such a time as this;
It is indeed an evil time.
14
Seek good and not evil
So that you may live
And it may be true: YHWH, God of Sabaoth be with you!
Just as you say.
15
Hate evil and love good,
And establish justice at the gate!
Perhaps YHWH, God of Sabaoth, will favor
The remnant of Joseph.
132 Amos5:16:14
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16
Therefore, thus says YHWH, God of Sabaoth, the Lord:
In all plazas, (there will be) lamentation!
And in all streets, they will say, Woe! Woe!
And they will call farmers to mourning
And (will call for) lamentation to those skilled in wailing!
17
And in all vineyards there will be lamentation!
For I will pass over in the midst of you,
Says YHWH.
18
Woe to those who desire the day of YHWH!
Why is the day of YHWH this to you?
It will be darkness and not light!
19
Just as though a man were to flee from a lion
And a bear met him.
Or he went home
And leaned his hand on the wall,
And a snake bit him.
20
Isnt the day of YHWH darknessnot light
And gloom without any brightness in it?
21
I hate, I despise your festivals,
And I will not show favor to your assemblies.
22
For even if you were to offer whole offerings to me,
I would neither be pleased with your gifts
Nor would I favorably look upon your peace offerings of fatted calves.
23
Get the noise of your songs away from me!
And I will not listen to the music of your lyres.
24
But let justice roll like water,
And (let) righteousness (roll) like a perennial stream!
25
Did you bring me sacrifices and offering for forty years in the wilder-
ness, house of Israel,
26
while you were carrying Sikkuth, your king, and
Kiyyunyour images, your astral deities that you made for yourselves?
Amos5:16:14 133
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27
But I shall exile you beyond Damascus,
Says YHWH, whose name is God of the Heavenly Hosts.
6:1
Alas! The carefree in Zion,
And those confident in the acropolis of Samaria!
They are marked as the best of the nations
And the house of Israel comes to them.
2
Cross over to Calneh and see!
And go from there to Great Hamath!
And go down to Gath of the Philistines!
Are you better than these kingdoms,
Or is their territory bigger than your territory?
3
They push away the evil day
And bring near the habitation of violence.
4
They lie on beds of ivory
And recline on their couches
And eat lambs from the flock
And calves from the midst of the stall!
5
They strum at the mouth of the lyre;
Like David they improvise for themselves upon musical instruments!
6
They drink with wine-bowls
And anoint (themselves) with the best of oils.
And they feel no distress over the breakup of Joseph.
7
Therefore, they will now go into exile at the head of the exiles
And the symposium of the reclining (revelers) will come to an end,
8
Swears the Lord YHWH by himself.
The oracle of YHWH, God of Sabaoth.
I abhor the pride of Jacob
And I hate his citadels,
And I will hand the city and the people who fill it over (to exile).
9
And it shall be that if ten persons are left in one household, they will
die.
10
And their Uncle Undertaker will take them up to remove the bodies
from the household, and he will say to the one who is in the back chamber
134 Amos5:16:14
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of the house, Any more with you? And (the one at the back) will say,
Thats it! And (Uncle Undertaker) will say, Hush! For it is not right to
invoke YHWHs name!
11
For behold YHWH is issuing a command,
And he will knock the great house to pieces
And the small house to rubble.
12
Do horses run upon a rocky crag?
Or does one plow (a rocky crag) with oxen?
Well, you turn justice into the poisonous Rosh plant,
And the righteousness plant into bitter wormwood.
13
(You, who) rejoice at Lo-debar
And say,
Didnt we take Karnaim for ourselves by our own strength?
14
For behold, House of Israel, I am raising up against youthe oracle
of YHWH, God of Sabaotha nation, and it will push you out (of the
land that stretches) from Lebo-Hamath to the Brook of the Arabah.
5:1-3: Introduction
Thistextbeginswithaprosecalltolistentoalament(v.1),followed
bythelamentitselfinv.2.Thelament,asiscustomary,ispoeticin
form.Ithasonestropheofthreelines.Thisisfollowedbyanoracle
thatexplainswhatpromptsthislament.
5:1: Call to Hear: A formal summons for Israel to listen to the
prophet,inprose,announcesalament.


Prose Clause: . . .
. the qal imperative m p of , opens major divisions
Amos5:1-3 135
5:1
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ofAmosat3:1;4:1;hereat5:1;and8:4. isthedirect
objectand isavocativeconstructchain.
Prose Clause:
A relative clause headed by , this interrupts the previous
clause.Theantecedentof is ,andtherelativeisthe
direct object of (qal active participle of with as the
subject). The prepositional phrase is a complement meaning
concerning you or against you. , lament, is in apposition
to .
5:2: The Lament Poem: The lament proper is made of a single
stanza(onestropheofthreelines).Itservestointroducetheaccusa-
tion,exhortations,andjudgmentsthatfollow.Thereisaninclusion
construction in that lines a and c both begin with a qatal 3 f s and
bothstartwith,andbothlinesendwiththeroot.



Line a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:2
predicators,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalqatal 3fsof.
. Negated hiphil yiqtol 3 f s of with qal
infinitiveconstructof asanauxiliary.Theverb(hiphilstem),
whennegated,oftentakesaninfinitiveasitsauxiliarytomean,shall
not do (X) anymore. The asyndeton with a negated yiqtol after a
qatal alsomakesthisclauseeffectivelyadverbialafter ;itcould
betranslatedasnevertoriseagain.
Line b:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:0pred-
icators,1constituents,and2units.
5:2 a
b
c
136 Amos5:1-2
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. Thesubjectofthetwopriorverbsisnotnamed
untilthesecondlineandissetbyitselfbetweenthetwolinesofthe
inclusion. This makes the naming of Israel as the object of lament
more prominent. Describing a nation as a virgin suggests that it
oughttobeimpregnable;itisnotastatementaboutthemoralquality
ofthecitizens.
Line c:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:2predica-
tors,4constituents,and4units.Likelinea,thislinehastwoclauses
withasyndeton.
. Niphalqatal 3fsof.Therootmeanstoleavesome-
thingalone(suchasleavinggroundfallow,Exod23:11),ortoaban-
donsomething.Thatwhichisabandonedinthismanner(niphalstem
of ) may run rampant, as there is nothing to restrain it (Judg
15:9;Isa16:8),oritmaybeleftdesolateandwithouthelp,asisthe
casehere.
. Prepositional phrase with locative on the
noun witha3fssuffix( istheantecedentof
thesuffix).
. Thesecondpredicator.Againthereisasyndetonafteraqatal
form,andagainthiscouldberenderedadverbially,withoutanyone
toraiseher.
. Hiphilparticiplemsof with3fssuffix.With ,
thisformsonepredicator,aperiphrasticconstruction.
5:3: Oracle: A prophecy of military disaster explains why the
lamentisnecessary.Afteraprosedivinespeechformulaintroducing
theoracle,theoracleitselfisatwo-linepoem.Theoracleassertsthat
Israelwillsufferveryhighcasualties(90percentiftakenliterally)in
acomingconflict.

Amos5:2-3 137
5:3a
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The above is a divine speech formula in prose with , a qal
qatal 3msof.
5:3b: Judgment Poem:Twolines.Thiscouldbecalledanoracleof
doom, describing as it does a military disaster (oracular statements
canbeveryshortpoems).Itlooksbacktotheinitialjudgmentagainst
Israelin2:14-16.


Line a:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:2pred-
icators,3constituents,and5units.
. Both (qalactive participle fsof
)andthenumeral areinappositionto .Thecityhere
bysynecdocherepresentsthemilitarymenofthatcity.Theparticiple
formsarelativeclause.
. Hiphilyiqtol 3fsof.Theyiqtol hereisasimple
futureindicative;thisisapredictivetext.
. is a complement to the verb and has the phrase
asitsantecedent.
Line b:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:2predica-
tors,4constituents,and5units(asapropername, canbe
countedasasingleunit).
. There is gapping of from line a. This
participlephraseservesasanotherrelativeclause.
. Hiphilyiqtol 3fsof.
. functionsthesameas inlinea.
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,whichishereprop-
erly possessive in meaning although it might be translated, in the
houseofIsrael.
5:3b a
b
138 Amos5:3
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5:4-15: First Series of Accusations, Warnings, and Exhortations
This series, as described above, is in three parts: an accusation that
focusesonreligiousarrogance(5:4-7);adoxologytoYHWH,maker
andgovernoroftheHeavens(5:8-9);andasecondaccusationfocusing
onhowthepoorareabusedbeforethecourts(5:10-15).Theoverall
messageisthatthisisatopsy-turvyworld,inwhichwrongbehavior
andconceptsaboutGodaresubstitutedforwhatisright.
5:4-7: Accusation Concerning Religious Arrogance: Thepoem,
afteraprosedivinespeechformula,isintwostrophes.Thereisachi-
asticstructureinthefirststrophe,asfollows:
A:Seekandlive(line1a)
B:Bethel(line1b)
C:Gilgal(line1c)
D:Beersheba(line1d)
C:Gilgal(line1e)
B:Bethel(line1f )
A:Seekandlive(line1g).
Thischiasmusisfollowedbyasecondstrophe,awarningintro-
ducedby (lines2a-2d).

A prose divine speech formula preceded by , which here is
probably explanatory (for), with , a qal qatal 3 m s of .
Theprepositionalphrase namesthepoemsaddressee.
5:4b-6a: First Strophe.Sevenlines.Theinitialimperativemarks
this as a directive text-type, as the poem uses commands, purpose
clauses, prohibitions, and explanatory clauses to make its exhorta-
tion.
Amos5:4-15 139
5:4a
Garrett Amos final.indd 139 6/6/08 2:25:14 PM







Line 1a:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:2predi-
cators,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalimperativempof with1cssuffixandener-
gic.SeeGKC58i.
. Qalimperativempof.Althoughitmaybetranslated
simplyasandlive,itprobablyisimplyingpurpose(sothatyoumay
live).SeetheparalleltothisverbinAmos5:14, ,andcf.
(sothatyoumaybeablessing)inGenesis12:2.
Line 1b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Negatedqalyiqtol 2mpof (usedforapro-
hibition).Thenegative ratherthan mayhavebeenusedhere
asaplayonthename .Contrasttheuseof inlines1cand
1d,andnotetheinclusionstructureformedby atthebeginning
andendofthisline.
. The direct object. The shrine here is synecdoche for
thereligiousleadershipthere.SetupasarivalshrinetotheJerusalem
temple,itisalsoimplicitlyarivaltoGod.
Line 1c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.Thislinehasachiasticstruc-
turewithline1b.
5:4b
5:5
5:6a
1a
1b
1c
1d
1e
1f
1g
140 Amos5:4-6
Garrett Amos final.indd 140 6/6/08 2:25:15 PM
. Onemightexpectadirective orpreposition here,
butomittingitmakesforabetterparallelto .Gilgalwason
thewestsideoftheJordannearJericho(Josh4:19).Asthefirstground
occupiedbyIsraelwestoftheJordanandasthespotwherethedis-
graceofanuncircumcisedgenerationwasremoved(Josh5:2-9),Gil-
galbecameamajorculticsite.Samuelvisiteditannually,alongwith
BethelandMizpah,inthecircuitofhisministry(1Sam7:16),and
thesiteappearsrepeatedlyintheSamuelnarrative.
. Negatedqalyiqtol 2mpof usedforaprohibi-
tion.Asageneralrule, oftenmarksatemporaryorspecificpro-
hibitionwhile marksapermanentorgeneralone,butthisisnot
alwaysthecase,asitclearlyisnothere.Amosisnotsayingthatnoone
shouldevergotoGilgal.
Line 1d: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.Thislineissyntacticallyparal-
lelto1c,andthusit,too,isboundto1b.Lines1b-darethusasingle
setofprohibitions.
. ItissurprisingthatthepeopleofSamariawould
crossJudahtomakeapilgrimagetoBeersheba,butthesiteisimpor-
tantinthestoriesofAbraham.Adismantledaltarwasfoundinlayer
IIIII of Beersheba (Tell es-Seba), suggesting that a cult flourished
theirduringthedividedmonarchyperiod.Thealtarmayhavebeen
dismantled as part of the reforms of Hezekiah (see ABD, Beer-
Sheba).
. Negatedqalyiqtol 2mpof usedforaprohibi-
tion. The use of reflects the fact that the pilgrims had to cross
through Judahite territory. There is assonance of at the begin-
ningofthelinewith attheendwiththerepetitionof and.
Line 1e:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. The isexplanatory.Thereisobviouslyassonance
between andthefollowing .
Amos5:4-6 141
Garrett Amos final.indd 141 6/6/08 2:25:15 PM
. Qalinfinitiveabsoluteof withtheqalyiqtol 3m
softhesameroothereexpressescertainty.
Line 1f:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.
. Inthechiasticstructure,Bethelheadsandconcludes
the list of towns, attesting to its prominence in the religious life of
Israel.
. Qal yiqtol 3 m s of . Used with , it often means
become(HALOT Qal7c).
. Theuseof (heremeaningdisasterornothingness;
cf.Paul1991,164)asawordplayonthename istakenupin
Hosea4:15;5:8.Thatis,insteadofbeingtheHouseofGod( )it
istheHouseofNothingness( ).
Line 1g: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 2
predicators,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalimperativempof.
. Incontrasttoline1a,whichhasseekme,theparal-
lelherehasthedivinename.
. Again, the qal imperative m p of probably connotes
purpose(seeline1a).
5:6b-7: Second Strophe.Fourlinesintwobicola.Becauseofthe
close connection between in 2c and in 2b, these
lines should not be separated into two different strophes (see com-
mentsonline2cbelow).




5:6b
5:7
2a
2b
2c
2d
142 Amos5:4-7
Garrett Amos final.indd 142 6/6/08 2:25:16 PM
Line 2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1 predicator, 3 constituents, and 3 units. This treats as a
propernameandthereforeasingleunit.
. Theuseof tobeginastrophemayseemunusual,
butcf.Ps7:3(E2);Job32:13;Prov5:9. alsobeginsasentenceat
Deuteronomy 8:12. The qal yiqtol 3 m s of is somewhat enig-
matic,asthatrootoftenmeanstobesuccessful(Isa54:17)orbe
useful (Jer 13:10; Ezek 15:4). However, the verb can also mean to
rush upon (Judg 14:6), where the subject is the . Here,
YHWHrushesupontheHouseofJosephasanenemy.
. Prepositionalphrasewith usedforasimile.Notethat
YHWH,notthefire,istheactualsubjectoftheverb .
. Aconstructchaindirectobject.
Line 2b:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:2predi-
cators,4constituents,and4units.
. Qal weqatal 3 f s of . The simile of the fire is
extendedhere.
. Although isasecondpredicatorintheHebrewgram-
mar of this line, it can be translated adverbially as a circumstantial
clause,withouttherebeing.
. Thepielparticiplemsof ishereusedperiphrasti-
callywith .
. Thepreposition mayexpresseitheradvantage(for
the sake of ) or possession. The latter is probably preferable, and it
herecouldbetranslatedasat.
Line 2c: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalparticiplempof withdefinitearticle,here
servingasarelativeclause.Whatistheantecedentofthisparticiple?
Clearly this cannot be linked to the following verse, a doxology to
YHWH.Theverb inline2disthirdperson(andlines2cand
Amos5:6-7 143
Garrett Amos final.indd 143 6/6/08 2:25:16 PM
2dareobviouslyboundtogether),whichindicatesthattheanteced-
ent to is not the implied second person you of
inline1g.Thismeansthatthecommontranslation,youthatturn
justicetowormwood(thustheNRSV;theESVandNIVaresimilar)
cannotbecorrect.Theantecedentcanonlybetheimpliedpeopleat
Bethelfromline2b,andismostlikelythepriestsandotherofficialsof
thatshrine.Theparticipleisthereforeimplicitlyexplanatory,assert-
ingthatIsraelshouldnotgotoBethelbecausetheprieststhereturn
justice to wormwood. To bring out this connection to Bethel, one
canrendertheparticipleaswheretheyturn,asisdoneintheabove
translation.
. After , the preposition points to the thing into
whichsomethingischanged.
. Thedirectobject.Thepointisthatthepriestsandoffi-
cials at Bethel and the other shrines give teachings and rulings that
areperverse.
Line 2d: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 1
predicator, 3 constituents, and 3 units. This line is bound to 2c in
a chiasmus, indicating that the two lines describe a single event or
circumstance.
. The direct object. The conjunction binds this line to
theprevious. herestandsforthepreceptsofrightreligion.
. Thepreposition isheredirectional. isherebetter
translatedasdirtthanlandorearth.
. Hiphilqatal 3cpof .Thehiphilofthisroothastwo
different forms, with the one ( ) generally having a meaning of
givingreposetosomethingorsatisfyingit,andtheother( )
meaningtolaydownorleavebehind(seeHALOT).Thisisthe
secondform.
5:8-9: Doxology: YHWH, Ruler of the Skies: The following
poem is one stanza in two strophes. It has one unusual feature: the
nominalclause inline1fsuggeststhatthedoxologyends
here (see 4:13; 9:6). However, lines 2a-b seem to function as a dark
144 Amos5:6-7
Garrett Amos final.indd 144 6/6/08 2:25:16 PM
and unexpected afterthought; the cosmic deity YHWH, who con-
trolsdaysandseasonsandrains,isbringinghispoweragainsthuman
institutions.ItmaybethatAmoshasadded5:9toanalreadyfamiliar
doxology in 5:8. The insertion of this doxology at this point seems
arbitrary,butitservestwopurposes.First,byproclaimingthecosmic
powerofYHWH,itrebukestheattemptstodomesticatehim,treat-
inghimasagodoftheshrineswhocanbeappeasedbypilgrimages
andofferings.Second,itsetsupacontrasttotheIsraeliteadorationof
skydeitiesin5:25-27.
5:8: First Strophe. Sixlines.Thereisaninclusionwithanominal
clauseateachendofthepoem(lines1aand1f ).Withinthat,there
are two couplets (1b-c and 1d-e), each having a periphrastic parti-
cipleinthefirstlineandafiniteverbinthesecondline.Thefocusis
onYHWHspowersovertheskyandseas,asheisbothmakerand
governoroftheheavenlybodiesandtheonewhosendsrain.Thereis
nothingthreateninginthispictureofYHWH;itismadethreatening
byaddedsecondstrophe.






Line 1a:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalactiveparticiplemsconstructof.Onthesyntax
oftheparticiple,seeline1b.
. ThesearewidelyregardedasrespectivelythePle-
iades and Orion. These constellations are associated with the New
Amos5:8 145
5:8 1a
1b
1c
1d
1e
1f
Garrett Amos final.indd 145 6/6/08 2:25:17 PM
Yearandthechangefromwintertosummer,andthustheirmention
hereimpliesthatYHWHgovernstheseasons(Paul1991,168).
Line 1b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qal active participle m s of functioning as a peri-
phrastic predicator. There are two possible interpretations of this
and the previous participle. They could be substantival in verbless
clauses,asin(heis)makerofthePleiadesandOrion.Or,theycould
periphrastic, as in, and(he) turns darkness to morning.Infact,it
appearsthat,notwithstandingtheformalsimilaritybetweenlines1a
and1b, issubstantivaland isperiphrastic.Line1arefers
toasingleeventinthepastandnottoongoingactivity,butline1b
refers to ongoing activity. Also, line 1b is bound in a chiasmus to
thefiniteverbinline1c,whichimpliesthat isverbalandnot
substantival.
. Thereisprobablysomeintendedironyintherepetition
oftheidiom hereafteritsusagein5:7.
. Thedirectobject.
Line 1c: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Thedirectobject.
. Wemighthaveexpectedthepreposition ,meaninginto
night. The lack of the preposition suggests that is here tem-
poral,atnight.Butitshouldnotbetakenapocalyptically(as,he
makesdayasdarkasnight)sinceeverythingelseinlinesa-frelates
to the normal functioning of the cosmos and not to an apocalyptic
calamity.
. Hiphilqatal 3msof.Thechangefromparticiple
inline1btothepattern +[X]+qatal herecreatescontrastivematch-
ing for the two lines (i.e., it is conceptually a single event that goes
throughcyclesofdayandnight).
Line 1d:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
146 Amos5:8
Garrett Amos final.indd 146 6/6/08 2:25:17 PM
. Qal active participle m s of with definite article
andformingaperiphrasticrelativeclause.
. Thepreposition heremarkstheaddressee.
Line 1e:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalwayyiqtol 3msof with3mpsuffix.The
wayyiqtol isusedherebecausethewayyiqtol moreclearlysuggeststhe
idea of sequential action (rather than the cyclic pattern of lines 1b-
c).Theideaofsequencemaybeincludedinthetranslationwiththe
Englishwordthen,asisdoneabove.
. Prepositional phrase with on a construct
chain.Theprepositionisdirectional,markingmotionfromabove.
Line 1f:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators, 2 constituents, and 2 units. It is impossible to tell with cer-
tainty which noun in this nominal clause is the subject and which
is the predicate. Probably the suffixed noun is the subject and the
predicate, ,isfrontedasthefocusoftheclause.
. Propernameaspredicate(orsubject).
. Suffixednounassubject(orpredicate).
5:9: Second Strophe. Twolines.Asdescribedabove,thiscomesas
an unexpected amendment to the doxology after line 1f. Praised as
adeityofskyandsea,YHWHseemssafelydistant.Suddenly,heis
threateninglyclose.


Line 2a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Hiphilparticiplemsof withdefinitearticle.The
hiphilof elsewheremeanstosmile(Ps39:14[E=13];Job9:27;
Amos5:8-9 147
5:9 2a
2b
Garrett Amos final.indd 147 6/6/08 2:25:18 PM
10:20). Some resolve the problem by emending the text (e.g., Mays
1969, 95, reads . who sends down; Wolff 1977, 229, reads
, supposedly who appoints, on the basis of the LXX (o
ioipov). For discussion of other proposed emendations, see Zalc-
man(1981).Butsuchemendationisguessworkandhardlypersuasive.
Sometakesmiletoconnoteashiningorflashingcountenance,and
thustranslatethewordhereasflashforth,butothersaredubious
ofthis(e.g.,Paul1991,169).Itmaybethat connotesmock-
ing or laughing at, as do and in Psalm 2:4. The benefi-
cent management of the cosmos in lines 1a-f is therefore ironically
reversed.Godspowerovertheworldissuchthathesmiles,butnot
benevolently,onthehumanpowerthatopposeshim,andheuseshis
cosmicpowertobringdestructionuponthem.
. Although the hiphil of is elsewhere intransitive (Ps
39:14[E13];Job9:27;10:20), appearstobeadirectobject.The
resultantoxymoron,hesmilesdestruction,isprobablyaspeculiarin
HebrewasitisinEnglish,butitisintelligibleincontext.
. Inlightoftheverbusedhere,theprepositionmayspeak
ofapotentialorimminentdestructionhangingabovethestrong,and
theadjectiveisusedsubstantively.
Line 2b:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.
. Neitherthisnorthepreviousoccurrenceof shouldbe
emended,astherepetitionconnotesthefulfillmentofaprocess:God
conceivesofandsmilesdestructionuponthemighty,andthenthat
destructiondoesinfactcome.Notethatthepatternofline3ais:par-
ticiple+ +preposition ,whilethepatternofline3bis: +
preposition +yiqtol.Thatis,thetwolinesarepairedinamanner
analogoustothatoflines1b-candlines2a-b,onlyherethepattern
isoneofanticipationandfulfillment.Thatis,line3asuggestsdivine
intent,andline3bsuggeststhefulfillment,inanegativecounterpart
totheword-creationsequenceseeninGenesis1.Thusitishere,and
notinstrophe1,thatthereisanapocalypticelement.Thebenevolent
148 Amos5:9
Garrett Amos final.indd 148 6/6/08 2:25:18 PM
creator God of strophe 1 becomes the destructive, apocalyptic God
instrophe2.
. The preposition again is directional, marking
motionfromabove.
. Qalyiqtol 3msof.
5:10-15: Accusation: No Respect for the Poor: Thefundamental
accusationhereisthatthepowerfulclassexploitsthepoorbyimpos-
ingseveretaxesontheirgrainharvestsandthen,bymeansofitscon-
trolofthecourtsystem,thwartsanyeffortsbythepoortogetjustice.
Sinceitscontrolofthecourtsisthekeytoitsabilitytofleecethepoor,
the aristocracy is openlyhostile to anyone who feels obligedto deal
honestly and fairly with legal cases. Thus, honest men are silenced.
The structure of this poem is as follows. The first two strophes are
bound by a chiastic pattern (third person / second person // second
person / third person). The third strophe is an exhortation that fol-
lowsfromtheaccusations.
Stanza 1:Firstaccusationpair(5:10-11)
Strophe 1:Accusationinthirdperson(5:10)
Strophe 2: Protasis-Apodosis; accusation and judgment in sec-
ondperson(5:11)
Stanza 2:Secondaccusationpair(5:12-13)
Strophe 1:Accusationinsecondperson(5:12a)
Strophe 2:Protasis-Apodosis;accusationandsocialconsequence
inthirdperson(5:12b-13)
Stanza 3:Exhortation(5:14-15)
Strophe 1: Seekgoodandnotevil(5:14)
Strophe 2:Hateevilandlovegood(5:12b-13)
5:10-11: First Stanza. Two strophes respectively of two and six
lines.Thefirststrophemakesageneralaccusationabouttheantago-
nism displayed toward honest people who take part in judicial pro-
ceedings.Byitself,thisisdifficultforthereadertounderstandasithas
Amos5:9-15 149
Garrett Amos final.indd 149 6/6/08 2:25:19 PM
nocontext.However,thesecondstropheexplainswhymenofintegrity
areunwelcomeatcourt.
5:10: First Strophe. Twolinesinchiasticparallelism.


Line A1a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalqatal 3cpof.Theqatal hereconnotesgnomic
ortypicalaction.
. Thepreposition islocative,andthegaterepresentsthe
lawcourts.
. Hiphilparticiplemsof (usedsubstantivelyandnot
as a predicator here). This is a person who openly criticizes corrupt
practicesduringcourtproceedings.Amoderncounterpartwouldbe
awhistle-blower.
Line A1b:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalactiveparticiplemsof withconjunction
andtheadjective .This isapersonwhotestifieshonestlyina
courtcase.Theparticipleissubstantival.
. Pielyiqtol 3mpof.Boththeqatal andtheyiqtol
canbeusedforgnomicaction.
5:11: Second Strophe. Six lines, including a protasis (lines A2a-
b) and an apodosis (lines A2c-f ). The apodosis is a loose citation of
Deuteronomy 28:30. The punishment fits the crimes, but being an
allusiontoDeuteronomy28:30,italsoimpliesthatthecursesofDeu-
teronomy28havefallenuponIsrael.Thisapodosis,moreover,isitself
madeoftwobicola(A2c-dandA2e-f ),eachoneaprotasis-apodosis
construction.Thusthetexthasacomplexprotasis-apodosisstructure,
asfollows:
150 Amos5:10-11
5:10 A1a
A1b
Garrett Amos final.indd 150 6/6/08 2:25:19 PM
Majorprotasis
LineA2a
LineA2b
Majorapodosis
LineA2c Minorprotasis1
LineA2d Minorapodosis1
LineA2e Minorprotasis2
LineA2f Minorapodosis2






Line A1a:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,3constituents,and3units.
. Theword hasbeenmovedupintotheprotasisandaway
fromitsnormalplaceintheapodosis.Thisplacingof makesthe
apodosisrhetoricallystronger,asitdoesnotbeginwithatransitional
adverb.
. ThisistheonlyplaceintheHebrewBiblewhere
(because)immediatelyfollows ;itis thatmarksthisline
astheprotasis.Theverb isoftenregardedasapoelinfini-
tiveconstructof,totrample,butitmoreprobablyisacognate
ofAkkadiansabas u sibsa,toextractagraintax(HALOT ).In
Hebrew,the and metathesized(Paul1991,173,suggeststhatit
shouldherebepointedasaQalinfinitiveconstructwith2mpsuffix
as ). Officials of the royal government apparently taxed the
Amos5:11 151
5:11 A2a
A2b
A2c
A2d
A2e
A2f
Garrett Amos final.indd 151 6/6/08 2:25:19 PM
peasants exorbitantly for their crops and also skimmed off some for
themselves.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .Theprepositionsuggests
thatthetaxisaburdenuponthepoor.
Line A1b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Aconstructchainusedasthedirectobject.This
isanothertaxordutyimposedontheyeomenandpaidinkindwith
grain.
. Qal yiqtol 2 m p from . The shift from the more
abstract third person in A1a-b to the more direct second person in
A2a-fisstriking;thefirstbicolonisageneralstatementaboutthecur-
rentstateofmoralperversityintheland,whilethesecondisadirect
accusationandleadsintoapronouncementofdoom.
. The3mssuffixon has inA2aasitsantecedent.
Line A2c:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.Thisisthefirstminorprotasis(hav-
ingA2dasitsapodosis),butitisunmarked,havingnoparticlesuchas
toindicatethatitisaprotasis.Thiscreatesmomentarysuspense,
asthereaderdoesnotyetknowwhyAmosmentionsthattheybuild
ashlarhouses.
. Housesbuiltofashlar(cutstone)wouldbeofthehigh-
estqualityandextremelyexpensive.Becausetheaccusedenrichedthem-
selvesbyexploitingthefarmerstheycanaffordsuchextravagance.
. Qalqatal 2mpof.Thisshouldnotbetranslatedas
apasttensebutapresent,sinceitwouldnotmakesensetosupposethat
theyhadalreadybuiltsuchhousesbutwerenotinhabitingthem.
Line A2d: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qal yiqtol 2 m p of with and conjunc-
tionservingtomarkthefirstminorapodosis.Theconjunctionhere
isadversative.
152 Amos5:11
Garrett Amos final.indd 152 6/6/08 2:25:20 PM
. Preposition with3mpsuffix;theantecedentis .
Line A2e:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1 predicator, 2 constituents, and 3 units. This is the second minor
protasis,andit,too,isunmarked.
. Aconstructchaindirectobjectinwhichtheabso-
lute noun is used adjectivally. Thus, vineyards of pleasure means
pleasantvineyards.
. Qalqatal 2mpof.
Line A2f:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalyiqtol 2mpof with andconjunction
servingtomarkthesecondminorapodosis.
. Thedirectobject;the3mpsuffixhas as
itsantecedent.
5:12-13: Second Stanza. Two strophes of two and four lines. It
mirrorsthefirststanza,exceptthatithasthefirststropheinthesec-
ondpersonandthesecondstropheinthethird.
5:12a: First Strophe.Twolines.Anotheraccusation,inwhichthe
crimes of Israel are grammatically governed by , rhetorically
implyingthatthesecrimesareundeniablebyvirtueofbeingobjects
ofdivineknowledge.


Line B1a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraints
are: 1 predicator, 3 constituents, and 3 units. After the predicator
, the words are a subordinate verbless clause
describingthecontentofwhatYHWHknows.
. Qalqatal 1csof withanexplanatory ,indicat-
ingthatthisisjustificationfortheaforementionedpunishment.
Amos5:11-12 153
5:12a B1a
B1b
Garrett Amos final.indd 153 6/6/08 2:25:20 PM
. Apredicateadjective.
. Definitebyvirtueofthepronounsuffix,thisisthe
subjectofthetwo-wordverblessclause .
Line B1b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 0
predicators,2constituents,and2units.Thereisgapping,with
inlineB1agoverningbothlines.
. Apredicateadjective.
. Definitebyvirtueofthepronounsuffix,thisisthe
subjectofanothertwo-wordverblessclause.
5:12b-13: Second Strophe. Four lines. The two lines of 5:12b
belong with 5:13 and not with 5:12a. This is because, first, the
abstractaccusationof5:12acontrastswiththespecificdetailsof5:12b
inamanneranalogoustothetwostrophesof5:10-11.Second,5:12a
isinsecondperson,while5:12bisthirdperson(see inlineB2b).
Third,themutedresponseoftheprudentmanin5:13makessensein
thecontextoftheperversionofjusticegoingoninthecourtproceed-
ingsatthegate.




Line B2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
2predicators,2constituents,and4units.Thetwoparticiplesarein
constructform.Theyarepredicatorsbyvirtueofbeingcoordinated
withthefiniteverboflineB2b.Thispattern,oneormoreparticiples
in a series of clauses that concludes in a finite verb, is frequent in
Amos.Thetwoparticiplesherearepredicatestotheimpliedsubject
inlineB2bandthereforeshouldbetranslatedasthirdpersonverbs.
. Qalparticiplempconstructof II(attack)
5:12b
5:13
B2a
B2b
B2c
B2d
154 Amos5:12-13
Garrett Amos final.indd 154 6/6/08 2:25:21 PM
withtheabsolutenoun servingasanobjectivegenitive.Inthis
context,a isamanwhosecasebeforethecourtisright.
. Qalparticiplempconstructof withtheabso-
lutenoun servingasanobjectivegenitive.
Line B2b: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.Whenthepoorgotocourtto
complainoftheinjusticedonetothem,theyareturnedaway.
. Thedirectobject.Theword ,poor,isderived
from,toneed,andoftenconnotesfinancialpoverty.InPsalm
49:3(E2),itisthepolaroppositeofrich( )inamerism.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .
. Hiphilqatal 3mpof.Theverbheremeanstoturn
away. Similar usage is found, for example, in Psalm 27:9,
(Donotturnawayyourservantawayinanger).
Line B2c: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,4constituents,and5units.
. Theparticle(therefore)leadsintotheconsequenceofthe
aforementioned situation. The widespread corruption in the courts
hassilencedmenofintegrity;theycannotopenlyopposesuchasys-
temforfearofreprisalandbecausenooneinpowerwilllisten.
. Hiphilparticiplemsof withdefinitearticle;itis
substantiveandisnotapredicator.Thehiphilparticipleof (used
eitherasasubstantive, ,orwithoutthearticleasanattribu-
tiveorpredicateadjective)regularlyimpliespositivemoralqualities.
ApersonsodescribedisprudentandseeksGod(Ps14:2;53:3[E2]),
givesthoughttothepoor(Ps41:2[E1]),isdiligent(Prov10:5),con-
trolshistongue(Prov10:19),andisintelligentandofgoodcharacter
(Dan1:4).Evenwherethepersoncalled isdescribedashaving
success,theimplicationthathehasprudenceorpietyisalsopresent(1
Sam18:14-15;Prov14:35;17:2).AgainstSmith(1988),theworddoes
notrefertowealthybutunscrupulousindividualswhobytheirsilence
joinintheoppressionofthepoor.
Amos5:12-13 155
Garrett Amos final.indd 155 6/6/08 2:25:21 PM
. Prepositionalphrasewith .Thisexpression,anal-
ogoustotheEnglishinsuchatimeasthis,marksexasperationover
thecurrentmoralclimate.
. Qal yiqtol 3 m s of , be silent. Many geminate qal
yiqtol verbshaveamorphologythatseemstofollowthatoftheroot
I- (suchas,withtheyiqtol ).
Line B2d: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 0
predicators,2constituents,and3units.
. The predicate is modified by the adjective
.Theparticle introducesthissecondcommentonthenature
ofthetime,thatsocietyissocorruptthatthiseracansimplybecalled
evil.
. Aneutrum,thisisthesubjectofthenominalclauseofthis
line.
5:14-15: Third Stanza. This stanza is made up of two strophes
thatrecall5:4b-7andalsocloselyreflectoneanother.Eachisinfour
lines,andinbothaprotasisexhortsIsraeltoseekgoodandnotevil,
andthenanapodosisoffersapotentialbenefittothemfordoingso.
5:14: First Strophe.Fourlinesinprotasis-apodosisstructure,with
C1abeingtheprotasis,andC1b-cbeingtheapodosis.LineC1dcom-
ments on the apodosis, declaring that the condition it describes is
whatIsraeldesires.




Line C1a:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.
5:14 C1a
C1b
C1c
C1d
156 Amos5:13-14
Garrett Amos final.indd 156 6/6/08 2:25:21 PM
. Qalimperativempof.
. The direct object. One may wonder to what specifically
refers.IsitGodhimself,orrightbehavior,ortruereligion(as
describedinJames1:26-27)?Itprobablyincludesallofthese.
. Negated direct object. The specific content of
wouldbethereverseof above.
Line C1b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,1constituents,and2units.
. A purpose clause with a qal yiqtol 2 m p of
givingtheexpectedresultoffollowingthecommandinC1a,thepro-
tasis. includesavoidanceofthemilitarycalamitypredictedin5:3
andmorebroadlyinvokesalltheblessingspromisedinDeuteronomy
(e.g.,4:1;5:33;8:1;16:20;30:16).
Line C1c:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and5units.Theparticle isnotaunit.The
verblessclause isapparentlyaconventional
blessingusedattheshrines,whichAmosciteswiththehopethatit
mayonedaycometrue.
. Qalweyiqtol 3msexpressingpurpose,with ,which
heremeanstrue.
. ThenameYHWHisheregivenwithone
ofhistitles,asisappropriateforaformalbenediction.
. Thepredicateofthebenediction.
Line C1d:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,1constituent,and2units.
. Qal qatal 2 m p of with , just
as. The context in which this is said is probably in benedictions at
theshrines.
5:15: Second Strophe.Fourlines.Thisparallelsthepreviousstro-
phe,indicatingagainthatgoodwillcomeiftheyrepent.
Amos5:14 157
Garrett Amos final.indd 157 6/6/08 2:25:22 PM




Line C2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraints
are:2predicator,4constituents,and4units.
. Qalimperativempof.
. Thedirectobjectof .Theorderofgoodandevilis
herereversedoveragainstlineC1a.
. Qal imperative m p of with conjunction. An
imperativemaybefollowedbyaweqatal withimperativalforcewhen
theyconstituteasequenceofactions.Here,thetwoimperativesindi-
catenotasequencebutamerismwithhateevilandlovegood,as
intheso-calledantitheticalparallelismofProverbs.
. Thedirectobjectof .
Line C2b:Thecolon-markerisathnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Hiphilimperativempof,establish.OnrootsI-
with assimilated,seeGKC 71.
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,with herereferringto
thecourtroomsetting.
. Thedirectobject.Justiceherereferstoarightverdict
in the courts, and specifically to one that respects the rights of the
poor.
Line C2c:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and5units.
. Introducing the apodosis with , perhaps, implies
thatthesuppliantcannotpresumeupondivinegrace.Itoftenappears
incontextsofrepentanceandsupplication,asinIsaiah37:4;Jeremiah
21:2;Jeremiah36:7;Jonah1:6;Zephaniah2:3.
5:15 C2a
C2b
C2c
C2d
158 Amos5:15
Garrett Amos final.indd 158 6/6/08 2:25:22 PM
. Qalyiqtol 3msof,begracious.
. ThetitleforGodheredeliberatelyfollows
thepleonasticformulausedintheshrinebenedictioncitedinC1c.
Line C2d: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 0
predicators,1constituent,and2units.Thislineisthedirectobject
oftheverboflineC2c.Thereisdramaticpowerinendingthestanza
withthewords,theremnantofJoseph.Itimpliesthatdestructionis
allbutcertainbutthatthereisyethope.
. ThisphraseoccursonlyhereintheHebrewBible.
Itisalsooneofthefewplaceswherearemnanttheologyappearsin
Amos,anditsuggeststhatAmosisthinkingmoreofafuturerestora-
tionthanofanavoidanceofthedestructioncurrentlyloomingover
Israel.Otherwise,itisoddthathewoulddescribeJeroboamIIsIsrael,
attheheightofitspowers,asaremnant.
5:16-17: Lamentation Predicted
The theme of lamentation is resumed not with a lament poem but
withapredictionoflamentationtocome.

The above prose divine quotation formula introduces the fol-
lowingpoem.Theclausehastoomanyunitsforittobeconsidered
poetry. The title for God is given as extravagantly as possible, sug-
gestingthatwhatfollowsisandivineoracleorcursegivenwithfull
solemnity.Also,ifthepleonastictitleisalsousedintheshrinebene-
dictions (5:14), the text tells the reader that the God by whose title
theypronounceblessingsisinfactcursingIsrael.
5:16b-17: Oracle:Sevenlines.Thepoemisnotproperlyalament
butaprophecythatatimeoflamentationiscoming.Itisclearlyan
oracle, being bounded by an inclusion formed by in
theproseintroductionat5:16aand inlineg.Itthustakes
Amos5:15-16 159
5:16a
Garrett Amos final.indd 159 6/6/08 2:25:23 PM
up the pattern of the long judgment stanzas in the oracles on the
nations(e.g.,1:4-5).Repetitionof inlinesa,b,andedominates
thepoem,withlinescanddgivingexpositiononthenatureofthe
lamentationthatwillcome,andlinefgivingthereasonforthelam-
entation.Thisoracleparallelsthatgiven5:3.







Line a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0 predicators, 2 constituents, and 2 units. This is a nominal (verb-
less) clause; subsequent verbs indicate that it should be regarded as
predictive.
. Prepositional phrase with locative serving as
the predicate. The plazas referred to here are those within Samaria
andtheothercitiesofIsrael.
. Thesubject.Theterm referstoanoutpouringof
griefandmayrefertoafuneralceremony.Isaiah22:12,
(Inthat
day YHWH GOD of Sabaoth called to weeping and mourning, to
baldness and putting on sackcloth), illustrates the four acts associ-
atedwithapublicdisplayofgrief.
Line b:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,3constituents,and4units.
. Matching the previous line, this begins with a
5:16b
5:17
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
160 Amos5:16-17
Garrett Amos final.indd 160 6/6/08 2:25:23 PM
prepositionalphrasewithlocative .Here,however,theprepositional
phrasemodifiesafiniteverb.
. Qal yiqtol 3 m p of in a predictive (future tense)
text.
. Reportedspeech;thecontentofwhatthepeoplewillsay.
Line c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 3cpof.
. The direct object indicating which person is addressed.
Apparentlyamassivecropfailureisbehindthelamentation,andthus
thefarmeriscalledupontomourn.
. Prepositionalphrasewith indicatingpurpose,the
tasktowhichthefarmeriscalled. ,like ,refersgenerally
tomourning,but sometimesrefersmorespecificallytoatimeor
ceremonyofmourning.Seetheusageof and inGenesis
50:10.
Line d:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,2constituents,and3units.Thereisgapping,with from
line c governing this line as well. Amos skills as a poet are evident
here.Formally,thetwolinesparalleleachotherveryclosely,witheach
having a anarthrous noun followed by a prepositional phrase with
.Functionally,however,thegrammaticalslotshavereversedroles,
withtheanarthrousnounbeingtheaddresseeinlinecbutthetaskto
whichheiscalledinlined,butwiththe phrasebeingthetaskin
linecbuttheaddresseeinlined.
. Thedirectobject.
. Qalactiveparticiplempconstructof ina
constructchainwith (inpausalform)andpreposition .Here,
indicateswhichpersonsareaddressed. isanactoflamentation
associatedwithweepingandbitterwailing;seeJeremiah9:17(E18);
Micah2:4.
Amos5:16-17 161
Garrett Amos final.indd 161 6/6/08 2:25:24 PM
Line e:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:0pred-
icators, 2 constituents, and 2 units. This is a verbless clause with a
prepositionalphraseasthepredicate.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .Again,the
textindicatesthatthefocusofthemourningisanagriculturalcalam-
ity.
. Thesubject.
Line f:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:1predica-
tor,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalyiqtol 1csof withexplanatory .
. The verb with occurs five times in the
HebrewBible(Deut29:15[E16];Josh1:11;3:2;24:17;andhere).In
allothercases,itreferstoapersonorgrouppassingthroughanother
group of people (in Deut 29:15 and Josh 24:17 it refers to Israels
marchduringtheexodus).InExod12:12(with ,butnot )the
word describesYHWHmovingthroughEgypttoslaythefirst-
born.Exodusalsospeaksofagreatoutcry( )goingupfromthe
Egyptiansovertheirdead;Amosuses and ,butnot .
Itisprobable,butnotcertain,thatAmosisalludingtotheExodus12
event,assertingthattheGodofthePassoverwasnowcreatingdevas-
tationinIsraelitself.
Line g:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predica-
tor,2constituents,and2units.Thisisanotherdivinespeechformula.
. Qalqatal 3msof.
. Thesubject.
5:186:8: Second Series of Accusations, Warnings
and Exhortations
Parallelto5:4-15,thissectionisinthreemajorparts:anaccusation
againstperversereligion(5:18-24;compare5:4-7);aquestionconcern-
ingtheskygods(5:25-27;contrast5:8-9);anaccusationagainstthe
upperclasses(6:1-8a;compare5:10-15).Inaddition,allthreepartsof
162 Amos5:17
Garrett Amos final.indd 162 6/6/08 2:25:24 PM
thissectionbeginwithrhetoricalquestions(5:18,25-26;6:2-3),and
thetwoaccusatorypoems,5:18-24and6:1-8a,bothbeginwith.
5:18-24: Accusation: Perverse Religion.Thissectionbeginswith
,anoutcryofwoebutusedhere,asin6:1,toidentifyinageneral
waythoseagainstwhomYHWHhasanaccusation.Theaccusationis
intwostanzas(vv.18-20and21-24)thatdescribehowIsraelsreligion
isperverselymisguided.
5:18-20:FirstStanza. Thisstanzaisinthreestrophes.Thereisa
chiasticstructurehere,asstrophes1(v.18)and3(v.20)bothspeak
ofthedayofYHWHasdarknessandnotlight,andbothemployrhe-
toricalquestions.TheessenceofthereligiousperversityofIsraelhere
istheassumptionthatthedayofYHWHissalvationforthemwhen
itisinfactinescapabledoom.
5:18: First Strophe. Three lines. The initial cry of lament, ,
connects this to the lament text that precedes this, but this is not a
lamentation,asthesubsequentcontentmakesclear.



Line A1a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Aninterjection.Itiscommonlyusedintheprophetswhen
callingouttoanevilpeopleonwhomdisasterissoontocome(e.g.,
Isa1:4;5:8,11;10:5;29:15;45:9;Jer23:1;48:1;Ezek13:18;Mic2:1;
Hab2:12;Zeph2:5),althoughitsometimesisusedofmourninggen-
erally without moral condemnation (e.g., Jer 34:5). An interjection,
itisdistinctfromtheword,whichappearstobeproperlyanoun
meaninggrief (cf.Prov23:29, [Whohasgrief?]).When
usedtomeanwoeto, almostalwayshasthepreposition (e.g.,
Num21:29;1Sam4:7;Isa3:9;Ezek16:23);but,asimpleparticle,
Amos5:18 163
5:18 A1a
A1b
A1c
Garrett Amos final.indd 163 6/6/08 2:25:24 PM
neverdoes(Ezek13:18beingtheexceptionthatprovestherule).In
an extensive discussion, Wolff (1977, 24245) argues that the woe
saying(with)aroseincirclesofclanwisdomandwasadoptedby
Amos,butthisisneitherpersuasivenorhelpful.
. Hithpaelparticiplempwitharticle.Thisparticiple
isaperiphrasticrelativeclauseandisalsovocative,asindicatedboth
bythesecondpersonpronounsuffixinlineA1bandbythefactthat
thesearethepeopletowhomwoeisaddressed.
. The direct object of the participle. It would
appear thateageranticipationofthedayof YHWHhadbecomea
standardfeatureoftheIsraeliteshrines.Theyprobablythoughtthat
YHWHwouldappearasawarriortodefeatIsraelsenemiesonthat
day.
Line A1b:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,4constituents,and5units.
. Interrogativepronoun.
. The of often has daghesh forte after , as in Gen-
esis25:22.Also,thereisdoublingofthefirstletterofamonosyllable
closely connected to a preceding word accented on the penult; see
GKC 20f. Apparently here is to be considered as accented on
the penult. Normally when a demonstrative heads a verbless clause,
the nominative that forms the other part of the clause will be the
predicate,asin ,ThisisthedayofYHWH.Inthiscase,
however,thedemonstrativeisthepredicate.Grammaticalclinesthat
describegreaterdegreesofdefinitenessinordertodeterminepredica-
tionarenotinviolable.Theimpliedantecedentfor ,fromA1a,is
anobjectofdesire.
. Prepositionalphrasewith and2mpsuffix.Thedative
expression to you here means, in your estimation. That is, it
means,WhydoyouregardthedayofYHWHasthis(athingtobe
desired)?
. Subjectofverblessclause;aconstructchain.
164 Amos5:18
Garrett Amos final.indd 164 6/6/08 2:25:25 PM
Line A1c:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0pred-
icators,3constituents,and3units.
. Thesubject.Theantecedentis .
. Thepredicateinaverblessclause.
. Asecond,negatedpredicate.Theprecisesignificance
ofthemetaphorsdarknessandlightisnotmadeclear,butprob-
ablytheyrespectivelyrepresentdisasterandsalvation.
5:19: Second Strophe. Five lines describing a hypothetical flight
fromwildbeastsasananalogytohowinescapableisthedoomofthe
dayofYHWH.





Line A2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,4constituents,and4units.
. Thiswordgenerallystandsbeforeafiniteverbandmeans
justas.Itcanbeusedinatemporalsense(Gen12:11;Jer38:28),or
it can describe some kind of correspondence, usually either between
whatwassaidandwhatwasdone,orbetweentwoactionsthoughtto
beequivalent(Gen17:23;21:4;26:29;41:13;Exod1:12;7:20;1Kgs
1:30;Isa14:24;Ezek16:59).Here,itisusedtointroduceananalogy
(seeIsa9:2;29:8;65:8;Jer13:11;43:12;Ezek1:16;15:6;Amos2:13).
. Qal yiqtol 3 m s of . The issue of flight from danger
recallsAmosinitialstatementofjudgmentonIsrael(2:16).Theyiq-
tol hereisusedforthesubjunctivemood,heresettingupanunreal,
hypotheticalcondition.
. Thesubject,hereahypotheticalman.
Amos5:18-19 165
5:19 A2a
A2b
A2c
A2d
A2e
Garrett Amos final.indd 165 6/6/08 2:25:25 PM
. Prepositionalphrasewith .Forasecondtime
Amosusesthelion( )asananalogyforthedisasterabouttoover-
takeIsrael;seeAmos3:12.
Line A2b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalweqatal 3msof (meet)with3mssuffix.The
weqatal marks the apodosis after the preceding line, a hypothetical
situationthatformstheprotasis.
. This is the only place where Amos refers to the bear,
althoughHosea13:8usesitforametaphorofdivinewrath.Here,it
illustratesfutility;apersonescapesonedisasteronlytorunheadlong
intoanother.
Line A2c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qal weqatal 3 m s of . The weqatal here could be
sequential to the previous episode, as in, and then he, or it could
markanalternativeapodosis,usingorfortheconjunction.
. ThenounhereisequivalenttotheEnglishhomeand
needsnoprepositionordirective.
Line A2d:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qal weqatal 3 m s of . This is another sequential
weqatal.
. Thedirectobject.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .Theimplica-
tionisthathethinkshehasescapedandcanrestamoment.
Line A2e: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalweqatal 3msof.Althoughsequential,itisalso
theapodosistolinesA2c-d;notealsothatitismorphologicallyidenti-
calto inlineA2b.
166 Amos5:19
Garrett Amos final.indd 166 6/6/08 2:25:26 PM
. Thebitingofthesnake( andtheverb)isused
hereandin9:3todescribethefutilityoftryingtoescapeGodswrath.
Thereismorethanfutilityhere;thereisalsoirony.Themanwhotries
to escape a lion runs straight to a bear or finds himself bitten by a
snake.TheironyrelatestotheabsurdityofIsraelgoingtotheshrines
andthinkingthatthereandinthedayofYHWHtheyhavesafety.
5:20: Third Strophe.Twolines.Repetitionofthehomophone lo
(twice in A3a as , and twice A3b as and ) dominates these
lines.


Line A3a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 0
predicators,3constituents,and4units.Thisisaverblessclausewith
acompoundpredicate.
. Anotherrhetoricalquestion,thisoneisintroduced
by ,implyingthattheanswershouldbeself-evident.Thus,long-
ingforthedayofYHWHisaformofself-delusion.
. Thesubject,with beingthepredicate.
. Asecond,negatedpredicate.
Line A3b: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 0
predicators, 3 constituents, and 3 units. There is gapping, with the
subject fromlineA3agoverningthisline.
. Anotherpredicatefor andparallelto .The
form isfoundonlyhere;elsewherethewordis (whichitself
occurs only eight times [five times in Job]). Another cognate noun,
,ismorecommonintheprophets(e.g.,Isa8:22;Joel2:2).All
threecognatesmeandarkness.
. Anothernegated,secondarypredicate,andinparallel
with .
Amos5:19-20 167
5:20 A3a
A3b
Garrett Amos final.indd 167 6/6/08 2:25:26 PM
. Prepositionalphrasewithpossessive .Thisactuallymakes
for a much stronger statement; line A3a had merely said that it was
darknessandnotlight.Withthisprepositionalphrase,thislinesays
thatthedayofYHWHpossessesnolightatall.Thissuggestshope-
lessness,analogoustoDantesAbandonallhopeyewhoenterhere
(Inferno III.9).
5:21-24:SecondStanza. Fourstrophesatvv.21,22,23,and24.
In these strophes YHWH respectively rejects their feasts, sacrifices
andsacredmusic,butthencallsonthemtofillthelandwithjustice.
Eachstropheisofadistinctgrammaticaltype:strophe1isdeclarative,
strophe2isaprotasis-apodosisconstruction,strophe3hasasecond
personimperativeandanemphaticfirstpersonyiqtol,andstrophe4
isathirdpersonjussive.
5:21: First Strophe. Twolines.ThisstrophedescribesGodsdis-
dainforIsraelsfestivals.


Line B1a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 2
predicators,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalqatal 1csof,hate.
. Qalqatal 1csof,reject.Theanarthroussec-
onding of the first verb with another, near-synonymous verb elo-
quentlyexpressesthedisgustofsomeonewhoiswearyofsomething
tediousandirksome.
. Thedirectobjectwitha2mpsuffix.Festivalswereof
courseintendedtobeoccasionsofcelebration,andthetriumphalist
assumptionoftheparticipantsisthatGodisaspleasedwiththewor-
shipasthepeoplethemselvesare.ThesuffixsubtlysuggeststhatGod
hasnothingtodowithreligiousceremoniesthatbelongtoyouand
nottoGod.
5:21 B1a
B1b
168 Amos5:20-21
Garrett Amos final.indd 168 6/6/08 2:25:26 PM
Line B1b:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,2constituents,and2units.
. Hiphilyiqtol 1csof.Theverbproperlymeans
tosmell,buthereitconnotesGodsapprovingacceptanceofsacri-
fices(cf.Gen8:21).InLeviticus26:31,theverbhasthepreposition
attached to its object: (and I will not
inhaleyourpleasingaromas).Buttheusagehereseemsdifferent(see
below).
. Thenoun meansassembly(2Kgs10:20;
2Chr7:9),whichseemsanoddobjectfortheverb .However,
sacrifices may be implied as what takes place in ( ) the sacred
assemblies.Notethecloseassociationbetweenofferings,incense,and
the inIsaiah1:13.
5:22: Second Strophe. Threelines.Noamountofextravaganceor
expenseinreligiousofferingswillmoveYHWHtoshowthemfavor.



Line B2a:Thecolon-markeristevir andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.Theuseofthetevir foracolon-marker
isunusual;bythecantillationmarksalonewewouldtreatB2aandB2b
togetherasoneline.Here,however,thisispeculiar.First,asoneline,
therewouldbefiveconstituents.Second, and donot
fitwelltogetheronasinglelineasthecompounddirectobjectof .
Thisisbecause hasnosuffixbut does.Note,however,
thatinthecolometryproposedabovelineB2bissyntacticallyparallel
toB2c(adirectobjectwith2mpsuffixfollowedbyanegatedyiqtol).
Thus,weproposethatlineB2aistheprotasisandlinesB2bandB2c
areaparallel,two-lineapodosis.
Amos5:21-22 169
5:22 B2a
B2b
B2c
Garrett Amos final.indd 169 6/6/08 2:25:27 PM
. Hiphilyiqtol 2mpof,precededby
(nottheexceptivemeaningsunlessorinstead[GKC 163]butthe
moreliteralforif ).
. Theindirectobject.
. Thedirectobject.Asasacrificeinwhichtheofferedbeast
isentirelyconsumedinfire,withnothingleftfortheparticipants,the
wholeofferingisthemostextravagant(andexpensive)culticdisplay
ofdevotiontoGod.Thissuggeststhatthislineisreallyaconcessive
protasis:even if youweretoofferwholeofferingstome.
Line B2b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. The direct object. The noun is here the
mostgeneralandbroadtermforofferingsmadetoGod,includingall
kindsofsacrifices,libations,andgrainofferings.Itthusincludesbut
isnotlimitedtothewholeofferingsofthepreviousline.Itisoddfor
anegatedapodosistobeginwithaconjunctionandnoun,butthisis
preciselywhatAmosdoestwicein3:6(
[Willashofarsoundinacity/Andapeoplenotbeterrified?]
and [Willtherebedisasterina
city/AndYHWHhasnotdoneit?]).Granted,3:6containsrhetori-
calquestionsandthepresentversedoesnot.Ontheotherhand,the
frontingofthetwoconjoinednounphrasesinB2b-c( and
) suggests that these two items are made prominent
in order to set them in contrast with in line B2a. The idea is
thatGodwouldnotaccepttheirgiftsandpeaceofferingsevenifthey
includedwholeburntsacrifices.
. Negatedqalyiqtol 1csof.
Line B2c:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,2constituents,and3units.
. Thedirectobjectinaconstructchainwith
theconjunction.
. Negatedhiphilyiqtol 1csof.Theuseofthisverb
170 Amos5:22
Garrett Amos final.indd 170 6/6/08 2:25:27 PM
inaculticsettingwiththemeaninglookfavorablyuponisunusual,
buttheword,whenGodisthesubject,canhavesuchameaning.Cf.
Isaiah66:2: (andtothisoneIwill
look[withfavor],tothehumbleandbroken-hearted).
5:23: Third Strophe.Twolines.ThisstrophedescribesGodsdis-
dainforIsraelssacredmusic.


Line B3a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Hiphilimperativemsof.
. Prepositionalphrasewith and ona1cssuffix.The
preposition suggeststhatthemusicofIsraelhasbecomeanunbear-
ableburdenuponYHWH.ItisdifficulttoconveythisinEnglish.
. The direct object; a construct chain with 2 m s
suffix.Here,theabsolutenoun(yoursongs)isadjectival,describing
whattheconstructnoun(noise)consistsof.Theredoesnotappear
tobeanysignificancetothechangefrompluralsuffixesintheprevi-
ousstrophetothesingularsuffixesusedhere,exceptthatperhapsit
helpstodelineatestrophicdivisions.Thenoun generallyrefers
eithertoamobofpeople(Isa5:13)ortothediscordantnoisetheycre-
ate(1Sam14:19;Isa31:4).Thus,theworshipsongsofIsraelssingers
areregardedasthecacophonyofamob.
Line B3b: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. The direct object; a construct chain with 2 m
ssuffix.Thisisformallyparallelto inthepreviousline.
Thenoun ,however,doesnotcarryanynegativeconnotations
(see Ps 81:3 [E 2]). The important point is that it is not the quality
oftheirplayingthatmakestheirsongsdiscordantinGodsears,but
Amos5:22-23 171
5:23 B3a
B3b
Garrett Amos final.indd 171 6/6/08 2:25:27 PM
their moral and spiritual lives. The (lyre) is associated with
worshipinvariouscontexts(e.g.,Ps144:9).Forfurtherdiscussionon
thenatureoftheinstrument,seethecommentson6:5.
. Qalyiqtol 1csof andthenegative.The
firstpersonyiqtol hereisnotasimplestatementofthefuturebutan
emphaticrefusaltolisten,aswhenanEnglishspeakersays,Iwillnot
go!asanemphaticrefusaltogo.
5:24: Fourth Strophe. Two lines. YHWH here gives Israel an
alternativetotryingtopleasehimwithsacrificeandsong.


Line B4a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Niphalweyiqtol 3msof.Theweyiqtol hasjussiveforce
and is here contrastive, suggesting that the Israelites should do this
rather than sing their praise-songs. is not elsewhere used with
.Theniphalof appearsinonlyoneotherplace,Isaiah34:4,
whereheavenisrolleduplikeascroll.Thustheverbhereseemsto
refertohowwaterrollsoveritselfinwaves.Thissuggestswatersthat
movewithspeedandinabundance.Justiceshouldcomeforthplente-
ouslyandnot,asitwere,inasmalltrickle.
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,formingananalogy.Water
isrefreshingandcleansing,andsoisanaptmetaphorforjustice.
. Thedirect object.Incontext,thiswouldrefer toput-
tinganendtotheoppressionofthepoor.
Line B4b: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 0
predicators,2constituents,and3units.Thereisgapping,with
governingthisline.
. Parallel to , this again refers to honesty in the
courtsandconcernfortheneedsofthepoor.
5:24 B4a
B4b
172 Amos5:23-24
Garrett Amos final.indd 172 6/6/08 2:25:28 PM
. Prepositionalphrasewith andparallelto .
Theadjective meanspermanent,perennialandsohererefers
toastreamthatdoesnotrundry.
5:25-27: Question and Oracle: Sky Gods: This text, a prose
rhetoricalquestion(5:25-26)withanoraclefromYHWH(5:27),is
ironicallyjuxtaposedwith5:8-9,adoxologythatassertsthatYHWH
is ruler of the heavens (note also that in 5:8 is answered
by in 5:27). Although YHWH rules
heavenandearth,Israelworshipsminorastraldeities!Theonlypos-
sibleresponsetothisperverseapostasyisforIsraeltogointoexile.
5:25-26:Thisisaproserhetoricalquestion;itisasinglesentence
inthreeclauses.




ProseClause:

Theabove,5:25,isasingleclause.Itsverb, (hiphilqatal
2mpof),hereindicatesthatthetextperspectiveishistorical(past
tense).Thesentencebeginswithtwodirectobjects(
[sacrifices and offering]) pointing to the focus of this paragraph,
the religious observances of Israel. Formally, the prefix on
hasallthecharacteristicsofadefinitearticle,butitiswidelytakento
beaninterrogative (cf.thepathach anddaghesh forte beforeshewa
intheinterrogative ofNumbers13:19, ).Iftheprefixon
were the article, it would be anomalous that does
nothavethearticle.Allinall,itappearscertainthattheprefixisin
factaninterrogative.Thefirstpersonindirectobject( )indicates
Amos5:24-27 173
5:25-26
Garrett Amos final.indd 173 6/6/08 2:25:28 PM
therecipientofthesacrifices,YHWH.Thelocativephrase( )
and the temporal phrase ( ) together indicate that the
setting for the question is the forty years in the wilderness. A voca-
tive ( ) concludes the clause. The real problem here, of
course,isnotthegrammarofthetextbuttheastonishinginference
onedrawsfromit,thatAmoshereclaimsthatIsraelmadenosacri-
ficestoGodforfortyyearsinthewilderness.Acommoninterpreta-
tion is that Amos 5:25, along with Jeremiah 7:22-23, either follows
JE against P (Paul 1991, 194) or reflects Deuteronomistic thinking
(Wolff1977,26465)whenitassertsthattheIsraelitesreceivedlittle
ifanyculticinstructioninthewilderness.Mays(1974,11112)sug-
gests that Amos words reflect a somewhat strident attitude on his
part as a spokesman for the anti-sacrifice party. See also the views
expressed in Smith (1998, 25354); Cripps (1929, 33848); Ander-
sen and Freedman (1989, 53137). I am on record for rejecting the
documentaryhypothesis(Garrett1991),butthisisnottheplacefor
entering into such a far-reaching discussion, nor is there room here
fordealingeitherwithJeremiah7:22-23orwiththereconstructionof
Israelsreligioushistorythatassertsthattheprophetsrejectedthecult.
Inmyview,theentirediscussionofAmos5:25ismisguidedsinceit
failstoreckonwiththeconnectionbetween5:25and5:26(Andersen
and Freedman do see a connection between these verses, but they
arenotabletoworkthisintoanintelligibleinterpretationandtheir
discussionflounders).
Prose Clause:

Thesinglemostimportantgrammaticalfeatureofthistextisthe
verb , aqalweqatal 2mpof.Whyistheweqatal used?
It cannot have one of its more common functions here (such as an
apodosis,afinalclause,oramainlineverbinapredictiveordirective
text), since all of these interpretations disregard the context. Rather,
thisisacasewheretheweqatal hasimperfectiveforceinapasttense
context.Thisismostoftenseenwherethepasttensecontextissetbya
174 Amos5:25-26
Garrett Amos final.indd 174 6/6/08 2:25:29 PM
priorwayyiqtol verb(Gen30:40-41;1Sam7:15-16;seeIBHS 32.2.3),
butinthiscasethecontextisarhetoricalquestion,whichisnaturally
headedbyaqatal ratherthanawayyiqtol.Translatingliterally,there-
fore, heremeans,andyouwerecarryingorandyouwould
carry,butputtingitintonormalEnglishinthecontextofapasttense
rhetoricalquestion,itmeans,whileyouwerecarrying.Amosisnot
simplyaskingiftheymadesacrificestoYHWHduringthefortyyears,
butwhether they made sacrifices while also carrying images of the sky gods
from place to place.HeisnotdenyingthatIsraelsacrificedtoYHWH
in the wilderness. He is saying that sacrificing to YHWH is funda-
mentallyincompatiblewithgivingreverencetotheskygods,andhe
is pointing out how absurd it is to imagine the wilderness Israelites
underMosesdoingsuchathing.Also,thecarryingoftheskygods
mayalludetofestiveprocessions,inwhichimagesofastraldeitieswere
paradedabout,thattookplaceattheshrinesinAmostime.Thealter-
native interpretation, taking as a future tense that refers to
the Israelites carrying their gods into exile, is both grammatically a
nonsequiturandhistoricallyimplausible.Thegrammaroftherestof
thesentenceissomewhatdifficultforhavingsomanynounsoneafter
another.Emendingthetext,asisproposedbyIsbell(1978)onthebasis
oftheLXX,ishighlyspeculativeandnotpersuasive.Thebestsolution
istotake and ,bothpropernames,asthedirectobjectsofthe
verb.Paul(1991,19596)hasdemonstratedthatSikkuthandKiyyun
wereancientdeities knowninMesopotamiaand Ugaritandthatno
emendationisnecessary. isacommonnouninappositionto
,while and bothstandinappositionto
both proper names. The singular noun in here
referstoapluralityandshouldberenderedas,thestarsofyourgods
ormoresimply,yourastralgods(cf.theanalogousconstructionin
Gen 32:17, [in the hands (singular noun representing a
plural) of his servants]). The phrasing
maybedeliberatelyconstructedasamockingrhyme.
Prose Clause:
Amos5:25-26 175
Garrett Amos final.indd 175 6/6/08 2:25:29 PM
Theisarelativeclause;theantecedentof isthetwoproper
namesSikkuthandKiyyun. ,aqalqatal 2mpof,and
, for yourselves, point out that these deities are man-made
and are novelties as far as Israels religious traditions go. The words
may also allude to the golden calf epi-
sode,suggestingthatIsraelisfulfillingthatoneunsavoryaspectofthe
exodusstory(cf.Exod32:1, [makegodsforus!]).
5:27: Oracle.Twolines.Thisisconnectedtotheprecedingtext
bytheverb(weqatal),butitsignalsachangebyaswitchtothefirst
personsingularoveragainstthepriorsecondpluralverbs.Thissec-
tionscansasapoem,unlikethepriortext,andasisappropriatetoan
oracleithasadivinespeechformula.


Line a:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,3constituents,and4units.
. Hiphilweqatal 1csof,herefunctioningasapre-
dictivetext.Asindicatedabove,thisverbfallswithinaseparatesection
ofthetextfromthepreviousweqatal, ,anditisalsomarkedby
achangeinsubject.Apartfromthat,itisnotatallunusualfortwocon-
secutiveweqatal verbstohaveentirelydifferentsyntacticalfunctions.
. Thedirectobject.
. Thepronoun (overthere)combines
with and to form the preposition (beyond). It is
foundinGenesis35:21;Jeremiah22:19;andhere.BeyondDamascus
suggestsAssyriandomainsinnorthernMesopotamia.Thisremoves
theIsraelitesbeyondtheexpandeddomainIsraelhadachievedunder
JeroboamII(see2Kgs14:28).
Line b:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,4constituents,and5units.Therearetwoclauses:
5:27 a
b
176 Amos5:26-27
Garrett Amos final.indd 176 6/6/08 2:25:30 PM
and . The conjunctive merka in should be
disregarded;itmakesthelineungrammatical.Thesecondclauseisa
relativeclausewithimplied .
. Qalqatal 3msof.
. Thesubjectinthedivinespeechformula .
. Thisconstructchainisthepredicateoftherela-
tiveclause ( ).
. This is the subject (with implied ) of the relative
clause.Itmeans,whosename(is).
6:1-8a: Accusation: Perverse Behavior: Four stanzas. Like the
firstpoemofthesecondcomplaint(5:18-24),thispoembeginswith
thelamentcry.Itisacomplextextofseveralparts.Aftertheini-
tialcryofwoe,identifyingtheaccused(6:1),thetextcommandsthe
accusedtotakenoteofnationsthatarecomparabletotheirownand
drawtherelevantlesson(6:2).Afterthis,itpresentsthearistocratsin
Samariawithadetailedlistofaccusations(6:3-6)andconcludeswith
anoracleofjudgment(6:7-8a).
6:1:FirstStanza. Thisstanzaisinonestropheoffourlines.The
Hebrewissomewhatdifficult,butneitheremending(asinHolladay
1972)norremovinglineAcasaDeuteronomisticgloss(asinWolff
1977,27071)ispersuasive.Thisstanzaistwoparts.Thefirst,lines
Aa-b, is an interjection, a cry of woe against the upper classes. The
second,linesAc-d,isasentenceintwoclausesdescribingthehonors
giventothoseclasses.




Amos5:276:8 177
6:1 Aa
Ab
Ac
Ad
Garrett Amos final.indd 177 6/6/08 2:25:30 PM
Line Aa:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0predicators,3constituents,and3units.Thislineisanexclamation
andlacksanypredication.
. TheinitialcryofwoegovernslinesAa-b.
. Theadjective (self-confident,carefree)with
adefinitearticle.
. Prepositional phrase with locative . It is peculiar that
Amos, who devotes almost the whole of his book to castigating
Samariaandthenorthernkingdom,shouldinthisbriefinstanceand
contrarytocontextspeakagainsttheJerusalemaristocracy.TheLXX
hereisquitedifferent,takingitasanattackonthosewhorejectZion
theology (ou oi oi t outvou oiv 2iov [Woe to those who despise
Zion]).ButtheLXXshouldnotbefollowedhere(itisunreliableas
awitnesstotheHebrewUrtext;seeGelston2002).Scholarsroutinely
treatthislineasaninterpolationorseektoemendthetext(seeWolff
1977,26970).Itisbettertoseethisasaplacewherethehumanity
ofAmoscomesthrough.Amoscouldnothavebeenunawareoffact
thatmostofthearistocratsinhishomelandwerenobetterthanthose
ofSamaria,andheprobablyfeltgreaterbitternesstowardsthecorrupt
snobswhomistreatedhisownpeople.HiscommissionwastoIsrael,
butheinsertsawordofcondemnationagainstsimilarsinnersinZion.
TheauthenticityofZionhereisalsoattestedtobyAmosoblique
referencetoJerusalemsdominationoverGathin6:2(seethediscus-
sionat6:2b).
Line Ab:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:0
predicators,2constituents,and3units.
. Qal active participle of with conjunction. It
functionsadjectivallyinparallelwith inlineAa.
. Prepositional phrase with locative . The term
herereferstotheacropolisofthecityandbyextensionitsfortifi-
cationsandculticsitesinwhichpeopleplacedtheirhopesformilitary
anddivineprotection.
178 Amos6:1
Garrett Amos final.indd 178 6/6/08 2:25:30 PM
Line Ac:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,1constituent,and3units.
. A construct chain with a qal passive
participlempconstructof (designate,mark).Itisnotgram-
maticallyconnectedtotheprevioustwolines(notethelackofacon-
junction), but it is joined to the next line (indicated by the weqatal
thatbeginslineAd).Forthisreason,thislineshouldbetranslatedas
aperiphrasticclausewiththesubject (they,from inthenext
line)implied. isanappositionalgenitiveand isapar-
titive genitive. It ironically speaks to the conceit of the aristocracy
of Samaria, who think of themselves as the best people of the best
countryintheworld.
Line Ad:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units(counting asaproper
nameandthereforeoneunit).ThislineisexpositiononlineAc.
. Qalweqatal 3cpof.Theweqatal functionsimperfec-
tivelytodescribeafrequentevent.
. Prepositionalphrasewithdirectional anda3mpsuffix.
. The subject. The phrase here stands for all the
peopleofIsrael,andthusthethirdpluralverb.Themeaningisthat
thearistocracybasksinthegloryofhavingpeoplefromalloverthe
nationcometothemforadvice,help,ortopayhomage.
6:2: Second Stanza. This stanza is in two strophes. The first is
atricolonofimperativesandthesecondisapairofalternativeques-
tions. It pointsto othernations inorderto demonstrate the follyof
Samariasconfidenceandpride.
6:2a: First Strophe. Threelines,eachbeginningwithanimpera-
tive.



Amos6:1-2 179
6:2a B1a
B1b
B1c
Garrett Amos final.indd 179 6/6/08 2:25:31 PM
Line B1a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
2predicators,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalimperativempof.Theverbheresignifiescross-
ingintoanothernationsterritory.
. Calneh, also called Calno, was located in Syria, in the
lowerOrontesvalley(itisalsomentionedinIsa10:9).Onthesignifi-
canceofmentioningCalnehhere,seethediscussionbelowat6:2b.
. Qalimperativempof withconjunction;theimpera-
tivewithconjunctionsometimesimpliespurpose.
Line B1b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units(taking asaproper
nameandthereforeoneunit).
. Qalimperativempof withconjunction.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .
. Great Hamath, so-called because it contained
varioussmallerstateswithinit.InthetextoftheEponymChronicle,
whereTiglath-pileserIIImentionshisdefeatofCalneh,healsorefers
tothenineteendistrictsofHamath.ItwaslocatedontheOrontes
inSyria.
Line B1c:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalimperativempof withconjunction.
. ThepropernameconstructchainGathofthe
Philistines. A directive particle such as a preposition or direc-
tive is implied. Gath was almost certainly located at Tell es-Safi.
Accordingto2Kings12:18(E17),HazaelofDamascusseizedGath
inthelateninthcentury.UzziahofJudah,withinwhosereignAmos
prophesied(Amos1:1),pulleddownthewallsofGathintheearly8th
century according to 2 Chronicles 26:6. A major destruction level,
togetherwithamajorsiegetrench,datingtoIronAgeIIAhasbeen
foundatTelles-Safi.Evidenceindicatesthatthissiegewascarriedout
180 Amos6:2
Garrett Amos final.indd 180 6/6/08 2:25:31 PM
byHazael;UzziahprobablyfurtherreducedGathaftertheHazaels
departurefromthearea.Forfurtherdiscussion,seeMaeir(2004).
6:2b: Second Strophe. Two lines, each containing a direct ques-
tion.


Line B2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0predicators,2constituents,and3units.Thisisaverblessclause,but
thesubjectisnotexplicit;itisimpliedtobeyoubythe2mpsuffix
inlineB2b.
. Adjective with interrogative . In the comparative
context,thismeansbetter,whichhereimpliesricher,morepower-
ful,orhavingalargerterritory.
. Prepositional phrase with compara-
tive followed by a noun with demonstrative pronoun. The word
referstothedomain,reignorroyalpowerofaking.
Line B2b: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 0
predicators,3constituents,and3units.
. The word here means or. The adjective in
conjunction with the following is comparative in force and thus
meanslargerorgreater.
. The subject, with 3 m p suffix. This word may mean
boundary or territory, and it here focuses on the size of a king-
domsterritoryasameasureofitsgreatness.
. Prepositionalphrasewithcomparative .Theseter-
ritories, Calneh, Great Hamath, and Gath, are held up as examples
before the arrogant people of Samaria. Calneh and Hamath suf-
fered either destruction or subjugation c. 738 B.C. at the hands of
Tiglath-pileserIII.SeeABD,Calneh,andalsoRaineyandNotley
Amos6:2 181
6:2b B2a
B2b
Garrett Amos final.indd 181 6/6/08 2:25:31 PM
(2006, 22627). Hamath was listed among states giving tribute to
Tiglath-pileser III in that year, and its territory was reduced (Paul
1991,202).Theproblem,however,isthattheconquestofCalnehby
Tiglath-pileserIIIwassometwentyyearsaftertheministryofAmos,
but the text here indicates that the subjugation of these states has
already taken place. A number of scholars therefore argue that this
sectionisalaterinterpolationbyadiscipleofAmosfromtheperiod
afterTiglath-pileserIIIscampaign(seeWolff1977,274).Thereare
twopossiblealternativestothisanalysis.(1)ItmaybethatAmosis
not at all suggesting that these nations have already been brought
down but in fact asserting that they were equally as prosperous as
Israel (Paul 1991, 203). The question of line B2b (Or is their ter-
ritory bigger than yours?) indicates that in Amos day these cities
werestillstandingandstillfairlyrobust.Againstthisinterpretation,
however,isthementionofGath,whichhadlostitspowerandpres-
tige by the time of Amos (see the discussion at 1:6-8). (2) A better
solutionisthatthesethreestatesarementionedneitherbecausethey
hadbeenalreadyobliteratedbyAssyrianorbecausetheywerestillas
prosperousasIsraelbutbecausetheywereunderIsraeliteorJudahite
domination. Jeroboam II himself had forced Hamath into submis-
sionearlierinhisreign(2Kgs14:28),andGathwasruledbyUzziah
ofJudah(2Chr26:6).Nothingcertainisknownofthesituationof
CalnehduringAmosministry.Ontheotherhand,sinceJeroboam
IIhadbecomedominantintheregion,itisreasonabletoassumethat
Calneh,too,wasinsomemeasuresubordinatetoIsrael.Thesmug-
nessofthearistocraciesinSamariaandZionwasinpartduetotheir
dominationofthesethreekingdoms.
6:3-6: Third Stanza. This stanza, giving the details of the
accusationsagainstthearistocrats,haselevenlinesdividedintothree
strophes. The key to the strophic division is in Amos tendency to
matchaparticipleinanopeninglineorlineswithafiniteverbina
closinglineorlines.Thispatterngovernsthesethreestrophes(C1a
withC1b;C2a-ewithC2f;C3awithC3b-c).Throughoutthestanza,
theparticiplesthatleadlinesmustberegardedaspredicators,asin
182 Amos6:2
Garrett Amos final.indd 182 6/6/08 2:25:32 PM
every case they are joined by a conjunction to a concluding finite
verb.Thestanzaendsin6:6withtwolinesgovernedbyfiniteverbs.
The lengthy second strophe, describing the carefree attitude of the
aristocrats, is the heart of the stanza. The first strophe introduces
the theme by noting that they push back any thought that disaster
maybecoming,andthethirdstanzaconcludesitwithapictureof
anself-indulgentdrinkingparty.Anumberofscholarscallthistext
awoepassage(seediscussionoflineC1b).Theyseemtothinkthat
thegrammarofhavingaparticipleinonelinefollowedbyaconjunc-
tionandfiniteverbinthenext,thepatternusedthroughoutthistext,
means that the text is a woe. This is plainly wrong; in 6:8b this
patternisusedwithGodasthesubject,andGodisnotpronouncing
awoeonhimself.
6:3: First Strophe. Two lines describing how the wicked have a
kind of cognitive dissonance, on the one hand scoffing at the idea
thatdisasterisnearbutontheotherpromotingtheconditionsthat
guaranteeitwillcome.


Line C1a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Piel participle m p of with definite article. The
root occursonlyinthePielandtwiceintheHebrewBible(here
andIsaiah66:5: ,yourbrothers[who]hate
you [and] push you away). This interpretation of the verb is sup-
ported by the Hebrew of Sirach 6:10 (concerning the false friend):
(whenyouareintroubleheseparateshimself
from you), using the Hithpael. Stuart (1987, 357) argues that this
is the Akkadian nad, to forecast. But, apart from the aforemen-
tioned evidence, the antithesis of the piel in this line with the
hiphil (bringnear)inthenextiscompelling,andanalterna-
Amos6:2-3 183
6:3 C1a
C1b
Garrett Amos final.indd 183 6/6/08 2:25:32 PM
tivemeaningfor isnotpersuasive.Also,theideathattheypush
awaytheevilday(i.e.,dismissthenotionthattroubleisnear)leads
intothenextstrophe,wheretheyliveincarelessindulgence.
. Prepositional phrase with . The use of to mark
an accusative is well-attested (IBHS 11.2.10g), but we do not have
anydatafor apartfromthisexample. onlyoccurshere,
althoughwedohave inPsalm49:6(E5)andPsalm94:13.It
referstoatimeofdisaster.ThearistocratsofSamariarejecttheidea
thatsuchacrisisiscoming,asillustratedbytheirwordsin9:10.
Line C1b:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,2constituents,and3units.
. Hiphilwayyiqtol 2mpof withconjunctionand
paragogic.Theparagogic maymarkcontrast(seeIBHS 31.7.1b),
andcontrastisapparenthere.Thenormalmeaningofthisverbisto
bring close. Stuart (1987, 357) suggests that the verb here means
produceviadivination,butsuchameaningisunparalleledforthis
verb. A number of scholars have stated that the second person verb
looks peculiar here; Wolff has proposed emending to third person
(Wolff1977,27172).Thisisfoundedonthenotionsthatthisstro-
pheisawoestatement,whichshouldbeinthethirdperson.Butin
factthisisaseriesofaccusations;itisnotgovernedbythe of6:1;
thesecondstanza(6:2)between6:1and6:3precludesthispossibility
(contrary,e.g.,toAndersenandFreedman[1989,54446,55960],
who arbitrarily add six times in 6:1-6 to create a series of seven
woes).
. The direct object. The meaning of here is
debated.Itappearstobeanoun(orinfinitiveconstruct)oftheroot
, which would give the meaning seat / habitation of violence.
ThisiscomparedtoPsalm94:20, (Canathrone
ofdestructionbejoinedtoyou?i.e.,Canviolentrulersbealliedwith
you,[YHWH]?).Or, couldbederivedfromtheroot and
taken to mean cessation. But cessation of violence is surely not
the meaning here. Occurrences of in Exodus 21:19; 2 Samuel
184 Amos6:3
Garrett Amos final.indd 184 6/6/08 2:25:33 PM
23:7;Isaiah30:7arethemselvesquiteobscure,butin1Kings10:19
(||2Chr9:18);Obadiah3;Lamentations3:63itclearlymeansseat
or sitting. In Proverbs 20:3 either sitting or cessation is possi-
ble. Stuart (1987, 357) emends to and so translates the
verse,Thosewhoareforecastingabadday/Anddiviningaharmful
week,butthisbuildsspeculationonspeculationandcannotbefol-
lowed. For other proposed emendations or interpretations of ,
seeWolff1977,272.Onthewhole,habitationofviolenceremains
themostpersuasiveoption.Thebicolonmeansthattheyscoffatthe
notion that disaster is near but make Samaria a place where violent
oppressionhasahome.
6:4-5: Second Strophe.Sixlinesfollowingthepatternofaparti-
ciple(linesC2a-e)followedbyafiniteverb(C2f ).Translatingthese
participlesintoEnglish,itisappropriatetousefiniteverbs(e.g.,They
lieonbedsofivory).






Line C2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalactiveparticiplempof withdefinitearti-
cle.Incontext,theyarenotlyingdowntosleepbutrecliningatfeasts.
Thedefinitearticleappears withtheparticiple here andinC2ebut
notinC2bandC2c.Thisgroupsthestropheintotwoparts,C2a-d
andC2e-f;seethetranslationabove.
. Prepositional phrase with on a construct
Amos6:3-5 185
6:4
6:5
C2a
C2b
C2c
C2d
C2e
C2f
Garrett Amos final.indd 185 6/6/08 2:25:33 PM
chain(anadjectivalgenitive).Thisofcoursedoesnotmeanthatthe
entirebedismadeofivorybutthatitisdecoratedwithivoryinlay.
Line C2b:Thecolon-markerisathnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.Thelineissemanticallyparal-
leltoC2a.
. Qalpassiveparticiplempof withconjunction.
The verb appears in the qal yiqtol in Exodus 26:12 ( )
where it refers to an excess of tent fabric that hangs over the back
ofthetent.Inthenextverse,Exodus26:13, (itshallbe
overhung),withthepassiveparticiple,isusedinaparallelmanner.
See also Ezekiel 23:15. Used of people, this refers to lounging on a
couch(drapingonesbodyoverit)inacarefreemannerthatsuggests
luxuryandarrogance.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .
Line C2c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qal active participle m p of with conjunction,
implyingthattheloungingoncouchesandeatingarepartofasingle
event(i.e.,amealwhilereclining).
. The direct object. The word refers to young rams or
lambs,themeatofwhichwouldbetenderandpresumablyexpensive.
In1Samuel15:9, arelistedamongthebestoftheflockthat
thepeoplerefusedtodestroyintheherem ofAgagspossessions.
. Prepositionalphrasewithpartitive .
Line C2d: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 0
predicators,2constituents,and3units.Thereisgappingof
fromthepreviousline.
. Thedirectobject.An isayoungbullfromwhich
tendercutsofvealwouldcome.
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,referringtoorigin.
Cattlewereconfinedtostallsinordertofattenthem;theywouldof
coursebeveryexpensive.
186 Amos6:4-5
Garrett Amos final.indd 186 6/6/08 2:25:34 PM
Line C2e: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalactiveparticiplempof withdefinitearti-
cle.Therootishapax legomenon;itisprobablyonomatopoeicforthe
soundofstrummingonstrings.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative onacon-
structchain.The isgenerallytranslatedharpwhilethe is
generally translated lyre. The lyre is bow-shaped with a cross-bar
acrossthetopofthebow;stringsextendparalleltoeachotherfromthe
bartothebow,andthelongeststringsarethoseatthecenter.Artistic
depictions of symposia on Greek pottery routinely show celebrants
holdinglyres.Theharp,bycontrast,isbowedbutthestringsrunpar-
alleltooneanotherfromoneendofthebowtotheotherend(likethe
stringonabowforarrows),andtheygetprogressivelylongernearer
tothetwoendsofthebow.Aharpmayhaveacross-bartostrengthen
thebow,butstringswillnotbestrungfromit.Largeharps,suchas
standonapedestal(likethemodernharp),areattestedintheancient
world.Wecannotbesure,however,thatthesedefinitionsforlyreand
harpapplytothe and .TheBiblespeaksofbotha and
ofa whichwashand-heldandthusrelativelysmall(e.g.,1Sam
10:5;Isa23:16;1Chr13:8).Josephus,Antiq.7:306(7.12.3.306)says
thatthe (|ivu po)hadtenstrings(_opq )andwasplayedwith
a plectrum but that the (vo io) had twelve notes (o yyo)
andwasplayedwiththefingers.IfJosephusiscorrectabouthowthe
instruments were played, and if analogies from classical Greece are
appropriate,thenthe wasactuallyalyre.Classicaldepictionsof
symposia generally have the participants playing the lyre (with the
fingers,notaplectrum)andnottheharp.Themouth( )ofthe
lyrewouldbetheopenspaceinthecenterwherethefingersplucked
thestrings.
Line C2f:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,4constituents,and5units.
. Prepositionalphrasewithcomparative .
Amos6:4-5 187
Garrett Amos final.indd 187 6/6/08 2:25:34 PM
. Qalqatal 3cpof.Theverbheremeansdevise,as
inExodus31:4.Incontext,itcouldbetranslatedasimprovise.
. Indirectobjectwith anda3mpsuffix.
. Thisconstructchainappearstobethedirectobject
andtomeanmusicalinstruments,since normallyreferstosome
object,suchaspottery,atool,oraweapon.Seealso inNehe-
miah12:36;1Chronicles15:16;16:42;2Chronicles7:6;34:12;where
it always means musical instruments. It seems odd, however, that
revelersrecliningoncouchesatasymposiumwouldbebusyinventing
newmusicalinstruments,anditcontradictsthepreviousline,where
theyareplaying instrumentsandnotmakingthem.Itisbesttoassume
that is not the direct object but is instrumental; it may be
thatthe fromlineC2eimplicitlygovernsthisphrase.Thedirect
object,impliedbytheterm ,isanunstated (song).See
also the next line, C3a, which speaks of the vessel with which they
drinkbutdoesnotexplicitlystatewhattheydrinksincetheimplied
directobjectwith (withbowlsofwine)is .
6:6: Third Strophe.Threelines.Theendofthisstanzaismarked
byendingthestrophewithtwofiniteverbsinsteadofjustone.



Line C3a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qal active participle m p of with the definite
article.
. Prepositional phrase with instrumental . The
isashallowbowlusedfordrinkingwineandpouringoutliba-
tions. In Greece, participants in a symposium might drink from a
6:6 C3a
C3b
C3c
188 Amos6:5-6
Garrett Amos final.indd 188 6/6/08 2:25:35 PM
large bowl called a io iq, which they passed from one to the other
(Plato,Symposium 223c:i vtiv t | io iq tyo iq[todrinkfroma
large bowl]). Artwork also depicts celebrants drinking from small,
shallow,cup-sizedbowlsheldinonehand.Intheconstructchain,
isanadjectivalgenitive.
Line C3b:Thecolon-markeris athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Aconstructchainwithconjunction,thisis
an accusative phrase describing the substance with which they were
anointed.Thegenitiverelationshipintheconstructchainispartitive;
theyusethebestofallavailableoils.
. Qal yiqtol 3 m p of . The verb usually connotes
somekindofritualanointing,butitcanbeusedfornon-ritualpur-
poses(Isa21:5;Jer22:14).Peoplegenerallyanointedthemselveswith
oilsatdinnersandparties;cf.Luke7:46.
Line C3c: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Niphalqatal 3cpof.Theverbmeanstobesickor
feelpain,andhereitreferstoemotionaldistress.
. Prepositional phrase with meaning con-
cerning. The construct chain here properly means the breakup of
Joseph.TheuseofJosephassynecdocheforthenorthernkingdom
isfairlyrare;itisalsofoundinEzekiel37:16,19;Psalm80:2(E1).
canrefertothedestructionofanationbyanoutsideentity(Jer
4:6). This could be the meaning here, but Amos implies that this
is something the leaders of society should perceive around them at
thepresent;itisnotsomethinginthefuturethatonlyaprophetcan
see.Itmayrefertothesplitofthenationintofactionsanddivisions.
Ontheonehand,divisionsbetweeneconomicandsocialclasseswere
widening,andontheother,factionswithinthearistocracymusthave
already been apparent. With the death of Jeroboam II, Israel would
fallintopoliticalchaosifnotoutrightcivilwar.
Amos6:6 189
Garrett Amos final.indd 189 6/6/08 2:25:35 PM
6:7-8a: Fourth Stanza. This stanza is in one strophe and has
threelines.InterpretersnormallytakelineDc(thebeginningofv.8)
withtherestofv.8inaccordancewiththeparagraphdivisionofthe
MT.However,itisbettertoreadlineDcwithv.7fortworeasons.
First,adivineoathnormallyshouldbeattachedtoasolemnstatement
in which God declares what he will or will not do in the future, as
intheotherinstancesof inAmos(4:2and8:7).Itispeculiar
thatGodwould,takinglineDcwithv.8,swearanoaththathehates
something. It makes more sense to take the oath with 6:7, a prom-
isethattheleadingmenofSamariawillheadoffintoexile.Second,
beginningthenextsectionin6:8bwith ,as
is proposed below, creates an inclusion structure for 6:8 with 6:14,
wherewehave .



Line Da: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,4constituents,and5units.
. Therefore. The previous accusations conclude with the
judgmentthatmustlogicallyfollow.
. Thiswordisnotmerelyfiller;theliteralmeaningnow
indicatesthatthejudgmentisimminent.
. Qalyiqtol 3mpof usedforfuturetense.
. Prepositional phrase with locative on the qal
active participle m s of . Their prior position, according to 6:1,
hadbeenasthe ;nowtheygooff ,at
theheadofthelineofexiles.
Line Db:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
6:7
6:8a
Da
Db
Dc
190 Amos6:7-8
Garrett Amos final.indd 190 6/6/08 2:25:35 PM
. Qalweqatal 3msof.Normallymeaningturnaside
orgoaway,itheremeans,cometoanend.
. Aconstructchainwithaqalpassiveparticiple
m p of (see 6:4) used substantively as the absolute noun. The
isclearlyaouo oiov(symposium;lit.,drinkingtogether)
such as is familiar from classical Greece. All of the major elements
familiar from the classical world are present: revelers reclining on
couches,musicmaking,feasting,anddrinkingwinefrombowls.
Line Dc: The colon-marker is revia and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
.Niphalqatal 3msof.
. Thesubject.
. Prepositional phrase with for that by which one
swears. heremeansself.Godisswearingbyhisownperson.
6:8b-11: Judgment on the Houses of Samaria:Thistextiscom-
posed of two judgment oracles (6:8, 11), between which is a prose
description of a grisly funerary scene (6:9-10), ironically making
thepointthat,owingtotheextentofthedisaster,nolamentationis
heard.
6:8b:OracleagainsttheCitadelsofSamaria. Thisisasingle
stropheoffourlines.Itservesthreefunctions.First,itusesalengthy
formula of divine speech (line a) to introduce a pronouncement of
divinedispleasureinlinesc-d.Second,itlinksthisdispleasuretothe
oraclesagainstthenationsinAmos12andsotreatsIsraelasoneof
thenations.Godhatesthecitadels( )ofSamaria,and is
usedinthejudgmentsagainstallofthefirstsevennations.Also,Israel
willbehandedover()toitsenemies( isusedinAmos
1:6,9forcarryingoffcaptivesintoslavery).Third,itprovidesalead-in
tothefollowingprosetext,6:9-10,inthatlinedspeaksofthewhole
ofthecitybeingremoved,andvv.9-10describealargehouseholdthat
isentirelywipedout.
Amos6:7-8 191
Garrett Amos final.indd 191 6/6/08 2:25:36 PM




Line a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:0
predicators,1constituent,and4units.
. This is another divine oracle for-
mula,butitismademoresolemnbythepleonasticdivinetitle.
Line b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Pielparticiplemsof II,usedperiphrastically.This
rootishapax legomenon withthemeaningabhor(itisclearlymeant
to be the parallel of in line c). In Psalm 119:40, 174, a root
(qal)meanstolongfor.Notwithstandingthedifferentstems,
it is astonishing that two homonyms could have such diametrically
oppositemeanings.Itispossiblethatascribehasdeliberatelyaltered
to forthesakeofeuphemismorthat,abhor,issim-
plyaby-formfor.Anotherpossibilityisthatthereisadeliberate
wordplayhere.GodabhorstheprideofJacob(theirwealth,citadels,
etc.)butalsolongsforitinthesensethatGodhimselfoughttobe
theirpride.Thelikelihoodofsuchaninterpretationisenhancedby
thefactthatGodreferstohimselfastheprideofJacobin8:7.Itis
impossibletobringthisoutintranslation,however.
. Thefirstpersonsubjecthastobeexplicitbecausetheverb
isaparticiple.
. Thedirectobject.Thenoun canreferto
anykindofarrogance,buthereitseemstoreferspecificallytotheir
confidence in their military power and high walls, as the next line
indicates.
Line c:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,2constituents,and2units.
6:8b a
b
c
d
192 Amos6:8
Garrett Amos final.indd 192 6/6/08 2:25:36 PM
. Thedirectobject.Thechiasticstructureofthisand
thepreviouslinestronglysuggeststhatthefortificationsofSamaria
arethebasisfortheirpride( ).
. Qalqatal 1csof.Notethathereagainaparticiple
inonelineisfollowedbyaconjunctionandfiniteverbinthenext.
Line d:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.
. Hiphilweqatal 1csof.Thisreferstosendingthe
peopleintoexileandslavery,asinAmos1:6,9.
. Thedirectobject.Cityisheresynecdocheforthepeople
ofthecity.
. Aseconddirectobjectwitha3fssuffix(theantecedent
is ).Thefullnessofthecityiseverythingthatenrichesit,includ-
ingitspeople,itstreasures,anditsprestige.
6:9-10:AMass-FuneralwithoutLamentation:Thistextisnot
poetry.Itisakindofone-actplay,apictureofthetraumathatwill
overtakethearrogantnation,inwhichtheonlylivingandspeaking
characters are two gravediggers. The scene is grotesque, ironic, and
notmeanttobefullyrealistic.Itportraysalandinwhichthenormal
conventionsofmourninghavebeenabandoned.

Prose Clause:
The qal weqatal 3 m s of serves as a discourse marker to
introduceananticipatory(futureoriented)narrative.Onthepattern
,seethediscussionat7:2.
Prose Clause:
Aprotasiswith ,aniphalyiqtol 3mpof,aspredicate.
Theimpliedsettingissomefuturecalamityinwhichthepopulation
of the northern kingdom has been all but eradicated. An extended
Amos6:8-9 193
6:9
Garrett Amos final.indd 193 6/6/08 2:25:37 PM
familymayhaveoncehadfiftyorevenonehundredpeopleinit(
hereisprobablynotasinglestructurebuta ,asmallinterre-
latedcommunitybuiltaroundalocalpatriarch).Afterthedevastation
oftheland,almostallwillhavebeentakenawayorkilled.But,the
protasisasks,whatiftenpersonssurvive?( hereispersonsof
eithergenderoranyage.)
Prose Clause:
Theqalweqatal 3cpof istheapodosis,anditrespondsto
theindirectquestionwithastartling,one-wordanswer:theywilldie.
Thepointisthattherewillbenoescapefromthefurytocome.



Prose Clause:

.aqalweqatal 3msof witha3mssuffix,continues
the apodosis with a second mainline clause. is hendi-
adysforapersonwhoisresponsibleforthedisposalofadeadbody.
Thebasicmeaningof isprobablyuncle,butbyextensionitis
a term of endearment and could probably be applied to a nonrela-
tiveperformingthedutiesofarelative.Indeed, maybeaddedto
thismanstitleasaeuphemisminlightofhowunpleasanthistaskis
andbecauseideallyitoughttobedonebyafamilymember.
appearstobeapielparticiplemswitha3mssuffixandconjunction.
Therootiseither I(burn)or II(embalm).Ineithercase
itreferstosomeonedesignatedthetaskoftakingcareofadeadbody,
butitisprobablyfrom II.Immolationnotattestedasafunerary
riteinIronAgeIsrael,and isaknownvariantfor IIbutnot
for I(Paul1991,21516).Thus,inourtermsandmaintaining
theeuphemism, ishisUncleUndertaker.The3ms
6:10
194 Amos6:9-10
Garrett Amos final.indd 194 6/6/08 2:25:37 PM
suffixontheverb(andthetwonouns)referstoanydeceasedperson
that the undertaker must deal with; the suffix can be translated
into English as their. , a hiphil infinitive construct of
with , expresses purpose. , bones, is synecdoche for dead
bodies(thisversedoesnotrefertotheritualprocessofdesiccatingthe
bones,althoughthatprocessmaybebehindreferringtoadeadbody
asbones).
Prose Clause:
.anotherqalweqatal 3msof,continuesthemainline
predictivediscourse.Thesubjectistheundertaker, ,and
hespeakstosomeslaveorsubordinatewhoishelpinghimfindand
removebodies,herecalled (thisperson,whois
inthebackpartsofthehouse,shouldnotberegardedasoneofthe
originalinhabitants;heisinthehouseonlybecauseheislookingfor
dead bodies). In the Israelite three-room or four-room house of
theIronAge, wouldprobablybethestoreroomthatgoes
acrossthebackpartofthegroundfloorofthebuilding(seeKingand
Stager2001,2830).Thus,theinnermostrecessesofthehousesare
beingsearched.
Prose Clause:
Reportedspeech;averblessclausewithaprepositionalphraseas
thepredicateandthesubjectunstated.Theparticle hasaninter-
rogative;thus,(Are)therestill(anybodies)withyou?Thisiscol-
loquial speech; it could be accurately rendered as, Any more with
you?orStillgotany?
Prose Clause:
.Anotherqalweqatal 3msof,continuesthemain-
line predictive discourse. The assistant who is in the back of the
houseresponds.
Prose Clause:
Reported speech. Literally end, (in pausal form in this
text)heremeans,thatsitortherearenomore.
Amos6:10 195
Garrett Amos final.indd 195 6/6/08 2:25:38 PM
Prose Clause:
.Anotherqalweqatal 3msof,continuesthemain-
linepredictivediscourse.Theundertakerspeaks.
Prose Clause:
Reportedspeech.LiketheEnglishHush!thisisanindeclinable
imperativethatcallsforsilence.
Prose Clause:
Thereportedspeechoftheundertakercontinues.Thepattern
with andaninfinitiveconstructappearshereandinJudges1:19.
InJudges,itmeansalthough(theywere)not(able)to.Here,however,
itmustmean,for(itis)not(permissible)to.Thehiphilof,when
usedwith andthenameofadeity,meanstomakeaninvoca-
tioninthedeitysname(Josh23:7;Ps20:8[E7];seealsoW.Smelik
1999).Theundertakerisconcernedthattheassistantmaycasu-
ally,inhisdistressoverthescene,invokeYHWHsnameinsomeway
(perhapsusingsomethinganalogoustotheEnglishLordblessus!as
anapotropaicinvocation).Butwhydoestheundertakerdeclarethatit
isnotpermissibletomakeaninvocationinYHWHsname?Therea-
sonisthatthelandhasbecomesodefiledwithdeath,bloodshedand
gorethatitwouldbeblasphemingGodsnametoinvokeitinsucha
place.Inthecontextofthebook,thishastwofunctions.First,after
the hollow exuberance of praise found at the shrines (5:21-23), the
trauma and defilement will make it impossible to invoke YHWHs
nameinanymanner,beittheformalliturgyoftheshrinesoracasual
exclamation by an undertakers assistant. Second, it ironically refers
tothethemeoflamentationthatappearsat5:1-2;5:16-17;andinthe
useof at5:18and6:1.Thatis,whenlamentismostcalledfor,any
lamentthatinvokesthenameofYHWHwillbeforbiddenbecauseof
theexcessivedefilementpresent.ThelandofIsraelwilltrulybeGod-
forsaken,andonewillnotbeallowedtocalluponthenameofGod
inanymannerthere.
6:11:JudgmentOracle:Asecondjudgmentoracleinonestrophe
concludes6:8-11.Thisprophecy,introducedby ,isexplana-
196 Amos6:10
Garrett Amos final.indd 196 6/6/08 2:25:38 PM
toryofthepreviousprosetext.Godwillcrusheveryhouseholdinthe
land.



Line 1a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Withoneexception,theexpression occursonly
intheLatterProphets(theoneexceptionisJudges13:5,inwhichan
angelicvisitormakesaprophecy).Italmostalwaysoccursinaproph-
ecywhichisexplanatoryofapriortext.Forexample,Jeremiah30:10
reads,Butasforyou,Jacobmyservant,donotfeartheoracleof
YHWHnorbedismayed,OIsrael;forbehold( ),Iwillsave
youfromfaraway....Seealso,e.g.,Isa26:20-21;60:1-2;65:16-17;
Jer1:14-15;25:28-29;50:8-9;Ezek36:8-9;Mic1:2-3.Thisnotonly
explainsthesyntacticalfunctionofthislinebutalsoindicatesthatthe
oracleof6:11isattachedto6:9-10inthestructureofthissection.
. Thesubjectofthefollowingparticiple.
. Pielparticiplemsof usedperiphrastically.Unusu-
ally,noreportedspeechfollowsthisverbwearenottoldwhatthe
commandofYHWHis.Theverbisusedabsolutelyandmeansthat
YHWHismakingadecreeabouthowthingsshouldtranspire.
Line 1b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Hiphilweqatal 3msof.Theweqatal functionsasan
apodosistothepreviouslinetoindicatewhatwillhappenasaresult
ofYHWHsdecree.
. Thedirectobject.Thelargehouseiseithera
householdofanaristocratorahouseholdthathasmanypeopleinit.
Amos6:11 197
6:11 1a
1b
Garrett Amos final.indd 197 6/6/08 2:25:38 PM
regularlyreferstoimportantandpowerfulpeople,butinlightof
theprecedingprosetext,wecannotexcludethepossibilitythatalarge
familymayequallybeimplied.
. These are the fragments or pieces that remain after
somethinghasbeensmashed.Thisword, II,ishapax legomenon
unless I (drop; used only in Song 5:2) is actually the same
word.Butitsmeaningisnotindoubt;cf.HALOT.
Line 1c:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,2constituents,and3units.Thereisgappingoftheverb
fromthepreviousline.
. Thisformsamerismwith fromthe
previousline.Itisthuseitherthehomeofthecommonerorahome
withasmallfamilyinit.
. Fromtheroot,tosplit,thisreferstofissuresin
wallsandthenalsototherubblethatisleftafterawallisbreached.
6:12-14: Summary: The full series of accusations, exhortations
andjudgmentsin5:16:11isheresummarizedundertheheadingof
aproverb.
6:12a:AProverb: Thisisasinglebicolon,anditspeaksofabsurd
orirrationalbehavior(contrarytoCooper1988).Itisappropriatehere
since throughout 5:16:14 Amos has decried the Israelite behavior
asfundamentallyperverse.Theholyshrinesareplacesthatthetruly
pious should avoid (5:5). The people worship God without paying
attention to his demands (5:21-24), honor the sky gods instead of
YHWH,ruleroftheheavens(5:8,26),androutinelyturnrightinto
wrong(5:7).Theyrefusetodrawtherightlessonsfromhistory(6:2)
andplacetheirfaithinfortificationsratherthanGod(6:3,8).


198 Amos6:11-12
6:12a a
b
Garrett Amos final.indd 198 6/6/08 2:25:39 PM
Line a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalyiqtol 3mpof,run,withinterrogative and
paragogic.Iftheparagogic markscontrast(seeIBHS 31.7.1band
commentsat6:3),thecontrasthereisnotwiththenextlinebutwith
reality.Inotherwords,thesituationdescribedinthislineisinherently
implausible.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative anddefinitearticle.
normallyreferstoaclifforrockycrag,anditcanbealargestone.
Therhetoricalquestion,whichexpectsananswerofObviouslynot,
couldbewhetherhorsesrunupthefaceofacliff.Probably,however,
the word here refers to rocky ground that is badly broken with fis-
sures,largestones,andsheerdrops,suchthatahorsecouldnotrun
onitwithoutbreakinghisleg.
. Thesubject.
Line b:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalyiqtol 3msof (toplow)with .
. Prepositional phrase with instrumental . This line
gaverisetoafamousbutmisguidedemendation.ThinkingthatOr
doesoneplowwithoxenincontextmakesnosense(becausepeople
obviouslydoplowwithoxen,andcontextrequiresanegativeanswer),
thishasbeenemendedto (Doesoneplowwithanox[the]
sea?).ThiswasfollowedbytheRSVandNJB,forexample.Inreality,
fromlineaisgappedhere(i.e.,doesdouble-duty).Theques-
tionis,Doesoneplowstonewithoxen?Obviously,onedoesnot.
6:12b-13:ProverbExpositionandAccusation:Theexposition
oftheaboveproverbconstitutesasummaryaccusationagainstIsrael.
Itisasinglestropheinfivelines.Thestartingpointfortheaccusation,
lines a-b, is a metaphor of transforming as if by magic wholesome
plantsintonoxiousandpoisonousplants.Thissummarizesthetheme
ofmoralperversitythatdominates5:16:14.Afterthis,inlinesc-e,
Amos6:12 199
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thetextreturnstoIsraelsprideandjoyovertheirmilitarypower(cf.
5:3;6:2,8.





Line a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qal qatal 2 m p of (to turn or change)
with .Theparticle isatthesametimeexplanatory(asin,Isay
thisbecause)andadversative(asin,Horsesandoxenarenotsofool-
ish,butyouare).
. Prepositionalphrasewith .Thenounis II,avari-
etyofpoisonousplant,not I,head.With,thepreposition
isthatintowhichsomethingischanged.
. Thedirectobject.
Line b:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators, 2 constituents, and 3 units. There is gapping of the verb
.
. Aconstructchainasthedirectobject.Inconstruct
withanothernoun,thenoun (fruit)isalmostalwaysboundto
agenitiveofsource(andthefruitofyourground[ ],
Deuteronomy28:42;likethefruitofhisdeeds[ ],Jer-
emiah 17:10; from the fruit of your genitals [ ], Psalm
132:11,etc.).Therelationshiphere,however,isprobablynotagenitive
of source, as the fruit that comes from righteousness. It is prob-
ablyappositionalordescriptiveofthenatureofthefruit,analogous
6:12b
6:13
a
b
c
d
e
200 Amos6:12-13
Garrett Amos final.indd 200 6/6/08 2:25:40 PM
toSong4:13, ,choicefruits.Thus,itisthefruit(that
is)righteousness.
. Prepositional phrase with . The plant , worm-
wood,isastereotypedmetaphorforbitternessintheOTanditoften
appearswith (seeDeut29:18;Jer23:15;Lam3:19).Inthesetwo
lines,theIsraelitesaresomethinglikedemonicmagiciansorwhotake
thegoodcreationofGod,justiceandrighteousness,heremetaphori-
cally portrayed as wholesome fruit, and transform it into bitter and
poisonousplants.Specifically,theytakeTorah,theworshipofGod,
andthejusticesystemandturnthemintomeansofexploitation.
Line c:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,2constituents,and2units,taking asapropername.
. Qalactiveparticiplempof withdefinitearti-
cle.Thisservesasarelativeclausewithyou(thesuffixoftheverb
)asitsantecedent.
. Prepositionalphrasewithcausative .Lo-debarwas
in the Transjordan near the Yarmuk River and in the area of Gil-
ead.Thiswasahotlycontestedterritory,withDamascusandSamaria
both seeking to maintain control over it. Under Jeroboam II, Israel
wasascendantoverSyriaandthuscouldclaimthisareaforitself.The
joyofthepeopleovertheirvictoriesagainstSyrianenemiesisreflected
alsoin6:2.Butthereisanobviouswordplayhere; alsomeans
nothing.Thus,theyarerejoicingovernothing.
Line d:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,1constituents,and1unit.Thiscolometryviolatesthe
normalconstraints,anditszaqeph qaton,beingprecededbyanathn-
ach andhavingnosubordinatedisjunctiveaccent,doesnotnormally
constitute a colon-break. But lines d-e together are too long to be
joinedasoneline,andthisseemsthebestsolution.Seealso9:10.
. Qalactiveparticiple3mpof withdefinitearti-
cle.
Amos6:12-13 201
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Line e:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator, 4 constituents, and 4 units. This line is reported speech. The
threefoldrepetitionoftheending (we,our,us)isironic,mocking
howpleasedthepeoplearewiththemselves.
. Prepositionalphrasewithinstrumental ,asuf-
fix1cp,andprecededbytherhetoricalquestionmarker .The
noun appearsonlyhereandinExodus13:3,14,16;Haggai2:22,
butitisfromthewell-attestedroot anditsmeaning,strength,
isnotindoubt.
. Qalqatal 3cpof.
. Prepositionalphrasewith asadativeofadvantageand1
cpsuffix.
. Karnaim,likeLo-debar,wasintheTransjordanandits
capture reflects the triumph of Israel over their Syrian enemy. The
dualformoftheword ,itliterallymeanstwohorns.Sinceahorn
could represent power, this could sound like a worthy boast. Taken
literally,however(Wehavecapturedtwohorns!),itisabsurd.
6:14:OracleofDoom: AsummaryofthejudgmentagainstIsrael
concludes 5:16:14. It is marked by an expanded formula of divine
speech,and(unusuallyforajudgmentoracle)isinprose.Theconclu-
sionformsaninclusionwiththeintroductionin5:1-3.Like5:3,this
verseisaprophecyofdoomintroducedby .Also,6:14looksback
ironically to 5:2, which lamented that there was no one to raise up
(hiphilparticipleof)fallenIsrael.Inthisverse,Godwillraiseup
(hiphilparticipleof)anationagainstIsrael.Inaddition,thereis
aconceptualinclusion.Amos5:3hadspokenofcalamitousmilitary
defeat, and here Israel suffers oppression at the hands of a Gentile
nation.Finally, hereandin6:8bformsan
inclusion to demarcate this divisions final sections, in which judg-
mentsaregiveninresponsetotheaccusationsof5:46:8a.
202 Amos6:13
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Prose Clause: . . .
The1cssuffixon functionsasthesubjectof ,apiel
participlempof.Thedirectobjectis,andtheclauseisinter-
ruptedbyadivinespeechformula. hasadversativeforce,and
isvocative.
Prose Clause:
Adivinespeechformulawithapleonasticdivinetitle.Itgivesthe
prophecysuitablesolemnityandindicatescertaintyoffulfillment.
Prose Clause:

Theweqatal 3cpof continuesthemainlineofthispredictive
textandindeedmakesthefinalandconcludingprophecyof5:16:14.
Theverb isusedfortheoppressiondonetotheHebrewslavesby
theEgyptians(Exod3:9;22:20)andforthemaltreatmentofIsraelby
foreignersduringtheJudgesperiod(Judg2:18;4:3;6:9;10:12).But
theverbliterallymeanstopush,anditherespeaksofdrivingIsrael
intodiaspora.Lebo-Hamath( ,EntranceofHamath)is
atraditionalnorthernborderofIsrael(Num34:7-9;Josh13:5;Ezek
47:16).ItsmentionhereisappropriatebecauseHamathwasoneofthe
kingdomsIsraelgloatedover(6:2).Thelocationofthe
(the Brook of the Arabah) is unknown, but it clearly was in the
farsouthandishereinamerismwithLebo-Hamath.Itthusrepre-
sentsthesouthernborderofgreaterIsrael.Normally,theOTusesthe
Brook of Egypt ( ) as a traditional designation for the
southernborder(Josh15:4;Ezek47:19).Amoslanguage,however,is
deliberatelyshapedtoreversetheprophecyspokenbyJonahthesonof
AmittaioverJeroboamII,thathewouldrestoretheterritoryofIsrael
from( )Lebo-hamathto( )theSeaoftheArabah(2Kgs14:25).
Amos6:14 203
6:14
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ThegloryofJeroboamsreignwouldsoonendandthepeoplewould
bedrivenoutoftheland.Inthistext,
doesnotmeanthattheywouldbedrivenfrom Lebo-Hamathto the
BrookoftheArabah;heuses and toparodyJonah.Thepointis
thatIsraelwouldbeexpelledfromallthelandwithinthoselimits.
7:18:3: Amos the seer
Thisisacollectionoffourvisions(7:1-3,4-6,7-9;8:1-3)interrupted
byanaccountofAmosencounterwithAmaziahthepriestofBethel
(7:10-17). Some scholars consider vv. 10-17 to be a later redactional
insertion,althoughothersarguefortheoriginalunityofthetext(e.g.,
Noble1998,althoughaspectsofhispresentationarenotpersuasive).
Theentiretextisinproseexceptforfouroraclesofjudgmentappended
to,respectively,Amaziahscomplaint(7:11b),theAmosresponseto
Amaziah (7:17), and the third and fourth visions (7:8b-9; 8:2b-3).
Because YHWHrelentsinvisions oneandtwo,these sections have
nooraclesofjudgment.

7:1
This is what Lord YHWH showed me: Behold, (he was) forming
a locust swarm at the beginning of the sprouting of the latter crop now
it was the latter crop that is after the kings cut.
2
And it would happen,
whenever it finished eating the vegetation of the earth, that I said, Lord
YHWH, forgive! How will Jacob stand? After all, he is small.
3
YHWH
relented about this. It will not happen, YHWH said.
4
This is what Lord YHWH showed me: Behold, Lord YHWH was
calling for a judgment with fire, and it consumed the great deep and was
consuming the fields.
5
And I said, Lord YHWH, desist! How will Jacob
stand? After all, he is small.
6
YHWH relented about this. It will not
happen, Lord YHWH said.
7
This is what he showed me: Behold, the Lord was standing at a wall
of anak, and anak was in his hand.
8
And YHWH said to me, What do
you see, Amos? And I said, Anak. And the Lord said,
Behold, I am setting anak
In the midst of my people, Israel.
204 Amos6:148:3
Garrett Amos final.indd 204 6/6/08 2:25:41 PM
I will no longer pass by him.
9
And the high places of Isaac will be laid desolate,
And the sanctuaries of Israel will be laid waste.
And I will arise against the house of Jeroboam with a sword.
10
And Amaziah, the priest of Bethel, sent (a message) to Jeroboam, the
king of Israel, as follows:
Amos has conspired against you right in the middle of the house of
Israel. The land is not able to contain all his words!
11
For thus says Amos:
Jeroboam will die by the sword
And Israel will wholly go from its land into exile!
12
And Amaziah said to Amos, Seer, go on and flee to the land of
Judah! So eat bread there and prophesy there!
13
But never again prophesy
at Bethel! For it is a royal shrine, and it is a national structure.
14
And Amos answered and said to Amaziah, I am (was) not a prophet
and I am (was) not a son of a prophet. Rather, I am (was) a herdsman and
a cutter of sycamore figs.
15
And YHWH took me from behind the flock.
And YHWH said to me, Go, prophesy to my people Israel!
16
Now listen to
the word of YHWH! You are saying, Do not prophesy against Israel and
do not preach against the house of Isaac!
17
Therefore, thus says YHWH:
Your wife will be used as a prostitute in the city
And your sons and your daughters will fall by the sword.
And your ground will be divided with a measuring line
And you will die on unclean ground.
And Israel will wholly go from its land into exile!
8:1
This is what Lord YHWH showed me: Behold, a basket of summer
produce.
2
And YHWH said to me, What do you see, Amos? And I said,
A basket of summer produce. And the Lord said to me,
The end has come upon my people Israel.
I will no longer pass by him.
3
And they shall wail temple songs on that day
An oracle of the Lord YHWH:
An abundance of corpses! They are thrown everywhere!
Hush!
Amos7:18:3 205
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7:1-3: Te Vision of Locusts


Prose Clause:
Hiphilqatal 3msof with1cssuffix. isthesub-
ject.Thisclause,headedby,introducesavisionaccountinaman-
neranalogoustohow introducesapropheticspeech.
Prose Clause:
The particle gives the reader Amos perspective on the
vision. is a qal active participle m s of . The verb (to
form) may be a deliberate catchword with in the doxology of
4:13;soalso occursinthesecondvisionat7:4andinthesecond
doxologyat5:8(seePaas2002).After ,aparticipialphrase(rather
thanafiniteverb)oftenservesaspredicate,althoughapronounsuffix
isoftenaddedto toindicatethesubject.Here,a3mspronoun
(withYHWHasantecedent)isimpliedasthesubjectoftheverb.The
noun refers to some variety of locust or grasshopper. It appears
in only one other OT passage, Nahum 3:17, where it is parallel to
(whichalsomeanslocust).Theinfinitiveclause( ,aqal
infinitiveconstructof)headedby functionstemporally,
tellingthereaderwhenthevisiontookplace.Theverb refersto
thesproutingofyoungplants.Theterm (lattercrop)appears
inthesecondlineofthetenthcenturyB.C.GezerCalendarandonly
hereintheOT.
Prose Clause:
. hereintroducespertinentinformation,specifyingforthe
readerwhenthisvisionoccurredsothatthereadermayfullyappreci-
atewhatathreatthiswastotheharvest. isthepluralconstructof
themasculinenoun ,whichcanmeaneitherthefleeceofsheep,as
inDeuteronomy18:4,orthecuttingofgrassorofagraincrop.Ithere
7:1
206 Amos7:1
Garrett Amos final.indd 206 6/6/08 2:25:42 PM
referstothecutoftheharvestthattheroyalhousetakesforitself
(thekindofgraintaxthatiscondemnedinAmos5:11).Onthesur-
face,thisclauseisonlyatemporalmarker.Butitmayalsobeasubtle
attack on the royal taxation system. Note how similar this clause is
totheprevious,andespeciallyhowsimilararetheconsonantsof,
locusts,and (thekings)cuttings,implyingthatthekingwas
alocusttotheyeomanfarmers.Amoschoiceofthesewordsmaynot
havebeenaccidental.


Prose Clause:
Theqalweqatal 3msof isfollowedby ,whichintroduces
aprotasis.Thepattern occursfivetimesintheHebrewBible
(Jer12:16;17:24;Amos6:9;7:2;Zech6:15).Ineveryothercasebut
thisone,thepatternintroducesafuturecontingencyinaprophetic
context(withthemeaning,anditshallhappen,if...).Here,this
meaningisnotpossible,andscholarshavesuggestedvariousemenda-
tions(seePaul1991,228n.20).Buttakingthetextasitstands,one
cantreattheweqatal asapastimperfective,suggestingthatthevision
wasrepeatedseveraltimes(suchascenarioforvisionsisnotunlikely;
cf. Acts 10:9-16). We should note that Stuart creatively translates
thisas,Itseemedasiftheywouldcompletelydevour(Stuart1987,
370),buthegivesnoevidencetosupportthisrendition.Ifthatwere
the meaning, the Hebrew would probably have something like
(seeGen19:14;Num13:33).Thepielof followed
by andaninfinitiveconstructmeanstocompletetheverbofthe
infinitive,asinGenesis24:45, (beforeIfin-
ishedspeaking). referstoanykindofvegetationand
iswhatthelocustplagueconsumedduringtheexodus(Exod10:12).
Prose Clause:
Amos7:1-2 207
7:2
Garrett Amos final.indd 207 6/6/08 2:25:42 PM
Thewayyiqtol 1csof introducestheapodosis(beingpast
tense,theapodosisisawayyiqtol andnotaweqatal).
Prose Clause:
Afterthevocative ,theqalimperativemsof with
givesthewholeofAmosrequest,whatfollowsbeingmerelyargu-
mentthatstrengthenshisappeal.Theimperativeof alsoappears
in the intercessions of Moses (Num 14:19) and Daniel (Dan 9:19).
The parallel to Moses is particularly notable as Amos imitation of
Moseshelpstoauthenticatehisclaimtobeingatrueprophet.
Prose Clause:
isaqalyiqtol 3msof with assubject.Thecuri-
ousfeatureis ,whichhereseemstomean,how.Italsoseemsto
meanhowinRuth3:16.HereinAmos,theclauseprobablyimplies,
WhoisJacobthatheshouldstandinthefaceofsuchacalamity?
ButHowwillJacobstand?isaccurate.,literallytoarise,may
connoterecoveryafteradisaster.
Prose Clause:
Anominal(verbless)clauseintroducedbyexplanatory .Israel
is (small)inthesensethatitistooweaktowithstandadivine
assault.DuringthereignofJeroboamII,ofcourse,Israelspowerwas
thegreatestithadeverbeen,butbeforeYHWHthatisinsignificant.

Prose Clause:
,morphologicallyeitheraniphalorpielqatal 3msof,
isheretheniphal,toregretorchangeonesmind.Theverbalso
appearsinExodus32:14,themostfamousinstanceofGodrelenting
overanintendedjudgment,settingupanotherparallelbetweenAmos
andMoses.Thepreposition heremeans,concerning.Thechoice
ofaqatal overawayyiqtol hereisnoteworthy.Itfocusesmoreonthe
factthatYHWHrelentedthanonthehistoricalsequence.
7:3
208 Amos7:2-3
Garrett Amos final.indd 208 6/6/08 2:25:43 PM
Prose Clause:
Reported speech. The qal yiqtol 3 f s of . The verb is femi-
nine,asispronoun inthepreviousclause,toindicateabstractly
thehypotheticaleventofalocustplague.
Prose Clause:
Adivinespeechformulawiththeqalqatal 3msof.
7:4-6: Te Vision of Drought


Prose Clause:
See7:1.
Prose Clause:
The grammar of is like that of 7:1. has
theqalinfinitiveconstructof (writtendefectively)headedbythe
preposition followedbyaprepositionalphrasewith .Thiscould
betakentobesomethinglikeatrialbyfire,but isnotusedfora
judicialordeal.Adifficultywiththisphraseisthatintheformula
thepreposition usuallysignifiestheopposingparty,asinGenesis
31:36;Judges6:32,andwiththenoun ,Jeremiah25:31(
;forYHWHhasacontentionwiththenations).Obvi-
ouslythefireisnottheopposingparty.Thus,anumberofscholars
reconfigure the text as , for a rain of fire (Wolff 1977,
29293).ElsewhereintheHebrewBible,theword appearsonly
inthepluralas ,butasingularformisattestedinUgaritic.If
this emendation is correct, it probably alludes to the fire that God
rained down on Sodom according to Genesis 19:24. On the other
hand,Limburg(1973)arguesthat heremeanstojudge, since
in Jeremiah 25:31 is paralleled by the niphal participle
(initiate a judgment). Compare also Isaiah 66:16,
Amos7:3-4 209
7:4
Garrett Amos final.indd 209 6/6/08 2:25:43 PM
(forYHWHisbringingaboutajudgmentwiththefire).In
short,thepointisthatfireispunishmentimposedafterajudgment.
Thus,itisbesttoleavethetextunemended.
Prose Clause:
,hereaqalwayyiqtol 3fs,isoftenusedforfireburningup
itsfuel.Here,however,itappearsthatthetextdoesnotmeanaliteral
fire but a drought. The (great deep) is not the Medi-
terranean Sea but the primeval ocean under the earth that feeds all
thespringsandotherperennialwatersources.Inotherwords,allthe
springsandstreamsdriedup.
Prose Clause:
appearsagain,buthereitisaqalweqatal 3fs.Intheprevi-
ous clause, the wayyiqtol is used perfectively and simply means that
the springs dried up and had no water. Here, the weqatal is imper-
fective and means that the fields were getting progressively more
parched,crackedandbarren. ,portion,herereferstothearable
landapportionedoutamongthepeople.


Prose Clause:
Theqalwayyiqtol 1csof resumesthemainlineofthenar-
rative.
Prose Clause:
Afterthevocative ,theqalimperativemsof calls
on God to desist. This is not implying that the situation in 7:4-6 is
somehowdifferentfromthatin7:1-3,whereAmoscalledout,
(forgive!).Inbothcases,AmoswantsGodtoforgiveJacobandstop
ravagingtheland.
Prose Clause:
See7:2.
7:5
210 Amos7:4-5
Garrett Amos final.indd 210 6/6/08 2:25:44 PM
Prose Clause:
See7:2.


Prose Clause:
See7:3.
Prose Clause:
See7:3.
Prose Clause:
Adivinespeechformula.
7:7-9: Te Vision of YHWH at the Wall
Thepriorvisionnarrativeswereinproseonly.Thisoneandthenext
(8:1-3)areeachintwoparts,withaprosevisionnarrativefollowedby
apoeticoracleofdoom.
7:7-8a: Prose Narrative: Achangeissignaledbyaformalchange
inthenarrative.Here,unlikethepriortwovisionnarratives,YHWH
questions Amos about the content of the vision before pronouncing
doom.Amos,inturn,doesnotmakeintercessionforIsrael.


Prose Clause:
See7:1.
Prose Clause:
The grammar here is similar to that of 7:1, with , a niphal
participle m s of , to stand. The preposition may literally
7:6
Amos7:5-8 211
7:7
Garrett Amos final.indd 211 6/6/08 2:25:44 PM
meanuponawallorsimplyatorbesideawall.Intheconstruct
chain ,thewallisqualifiedasbeingof ,whichmay
meanthat wasthematerialofwhichitwasmade,orthatitwas
somehowcharacterizedormadeby .
Prose Clause:
Averblessclausewith asthesubjectand asthepredi-
cate.YHWHheld inhishand,suggestingthat wasasub-
stanceorobjectthatcouldbeheld.Whetherahumancouldholdit,
oronlyGodcould,isunclear.


Prose Clause:
Themainlineofthenarrativecontinueswiththeqalwayyiqtol 3
msof,whichintroducesreportedspeech.Theexpressmention
ofthesubjectindicatesthatthisisanewsentence.
Prose Clause:
Reportedspeech.Theinterrogative isusedhereforthefirst
timeinthevisions,sincepreviouslyAmoshadsimplyinterpretedthe
visionsforhimselfandonhisownintercededwithYHWH.Thenew
pattern, a divine interrogation, suggests a new development, and it
mayimplythatAmos,thoughherecognizedthe forwhatitwas,
did not understand its significance. The qal active participle m s of
suggeststhatGodquestionedAmoswhiletheprophetwaslook-
ingatthe .
Prose Clause:
See7:5.
Prose Clause:
Amosanswerisshortandtothepoint. wasobviouslysome-
thingthatAmoscouldeasilyrecognize;itisalsonoteworthythathe
7:8a
212 Amos7:7-8
Garrett Amos final.indd 212 6/6/08 2:25:44 PM
doesnotspeakofthe butsimplythe itself;itisthe
inYHWHshand,notthewall,thatisthefocus.Theotherclueabout
isthatin7:8bGodplaces inthemidstofIsraelasajudgment.
Thus,therewasawallof ,but couldbeheldinthehand(at
least in Gods hand), and Amos knew when he saw it, and it
couldbesetinIsraelasamarkofjudgment.Butwhatis ?Options
include:(1) isaplumbline.Thisisamedievalviewandisbased
ontheideathat isliterallythemetalleadbutthatbymetonymyit
isaplumbline,andthisviewuntilrecentlywaswidelyfollowed(e.g.,
Maag1951,4445,66;Hammershaimb1970,111).Thisinterpreta-
tionfitsalltheaboveconditions;a wouldbeawallmade
withaplumbline(i.e.,awallthatisplumb),itissomethingthatcan
beheldinthehandandthatAmoswouldrecognize,itsignifiesjudg-
ment,sincesettingitinthemidstofIsraelwouldimplyareckoning
againstadivinerule.Againstthis,recentanalysisisfairlyconclusive
that doesnotmeanleadandthereforethatitdoesnotsignifya
plumbline(Paul1991,23334;seealsoNIDOTTE ).Inaddition,
noancientversionrendersitasplumbline,indicatingthatifitever
hadthatmeaning,itwasentirelylostontheearliesttranslatorsofthe
text.Thisisnotafatalobjectiontothetranslationplumbline,but
itdoesrenderitlesslikely.(2) meanstin.Thisisbasedonthe
Akkadianannaku,tin.Theproblemisthatthismeaningfailsevery
aspect of the context in Amos. First, wall of tin makes no sense.
Somesaythatitmightbemetaphoricalforweakdefenses,justaswall
ofironcouldbemetaphoricalforastrongarmyinheavyarmor.One
might well have such a verbal metaphor, but it is doubtful that one
wouldsee awalloftininavision.Whatwouldsuchawalllooklike?
Howcouldonemakesenseofitorevenrecognizeit?Second,wouldit
bemeaningfulforGodtoholdalumpoftininhishand,andwould
Amosrecognizeit?Inparallelvisions,thethingobservedisanevery-
dayobjectandeasilyrecognized(analmondbranchinJeremiah1:11;
abasketofsummerfruitinAmos8:1-2).Alumpoftinishardlythe
same.Third,itisdifficulttoseehowsettingtininthemidstofIsrael
Amos7:8 213
Garrett Amos final.indd 213 6/6/08 2:25:45 PM
signifiesjudgment.Somesuggestthat mightmeantinbutalso
beawordplayon ,moaning,meaningthatGodintendstoset
moaninginIsrael(e.g.,Stuart1987,373).Butintheparallelvisions
thewordplayisexplicit(thesignificanceofthesummerfruit[ ]is
explicitly that the end [ ] has come in Amos 8:2; the significance
of the almond [ ] is explicitly that God is watching [ ] in
Jer 1:11-12). This is not the case here. Fourth, the normal word for
tin in biblical Hebrew is , and thus it is likely that has
someothermeaning.(3)Ancientinterpretationsincludethatthe
is adamant (LXX: o oovivo and o o o), or plaster and a
trowel(Vulgate:litum andtrulla),orjudgment(Targum:).All
oftheseappeartobeguessworkandnonesuitsthefullcontextwell.
(4)Cripps(1929),workingfromtheLXX,suggeststhato o omay
refertoironandbymetonymymeanaswordorwar-hammer.
Rudolph (1971, 23435) similarly, rendered it as Brecheisen (crow-
bar). This is rather far-fetched and lacks support in the Greek use
of o o o, and few scholars follow it. (5) Andersen and Freedman
(1989,754)actuallytake tobefirstawallofplaster,thentin
inYHWHshand,andthengrief thatYHWHwillsetinthemidst
of Israel. This is altogether unsatisfactory. (5) On the other hand,
Aquilaherereadsyovo o(shining)andTheodotionhasq|o tvov
(molten).Bothsuggestsomethinglikeaglowing,moltenmetal,and
thisinterpretationdoesmakesomesenseincontext:amelting,burn-
ingwallcouldsuggestacollapseofIsraelsdefenses,Godcouldhold
a molten metal in his hand (cf. Isa 6:6) and Amos could recognize
it,andsettingsuchasubstanceinIsraelcouldsignifyjudgmentand
destruction.Unfortunately,wehavenogroundsonwhichtosustain
this interpretation. (6) Another wordplay-based interpretation sug-
geststhatwhatever originallymeant,itisusedasawordplayfor
, I, in v. 8, where God declares that he is setting in the
midstofIsrael(seeLandy2001,16566).Theideaisthatheisset-
tinghimselfinthemidstofIsrael.Thisisgrammaticallypeculiarand
quitefar-fetched.Inshort,themeaningof islost.
Prose Clause:
214 Amos7:8
Garrett Amos final.indd 214 6/6/08 2:25:45 PM
Adivinespeechformulawithaqalwayyiqtol 3msof.
7:8b-9: Oracle of Doom: Apoemofsixlines.YHWHinterprets
thevisionwithanoraclepredictingthedestructionofIsrael.Inthis
case,hemakesclear,thereisnopossibilitythathewillrelent.






Line a:Thecolon-markerispashta andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.Itisrarebutnotunknowntohavea
line-breakinAmosaccentedwithpashta.Ifabreakisnotplacedhere,
theresultinglinewouldviolatetheconstraintsforbothconstituents
and units. But ending the line here is probably correct because this
endsthefirstlinewithanounthatisobviouslyveryimportanthere,
.
. Particle with1cssuffixassubjectofparticiple.
canintroduceasolemndivinedisclosure.
. Qalactiveparticiplemsof .
. Thedirectobject.
Line b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:0
predicators,2constituents,and3units.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative onaconstruct
chain.
. Thisisinappositionto .
Line c:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predica-
tor,2constituents,and4units.
Amos7:8-9 215
7:8b
7:9
a
b
c
d
e
f
Garrett Amos final.indd 215 6/6/08 2:25:46 PM
. Negatedhiphilyiqtol 1csof.The
expression means,nolonger. ,theqalinfinitivecon-
structof,isusedasanauxiliarytothefiniteverb.
. Theexpression meanstopassby.Itappearstomean
topassbywithouttakingaction(i.e.,tooverlookIsraelscrimes).The
expression , to overlook an offense (Mic 7:18; Prov
19:11)isillustrative.
Line d:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Niphalweqatal 3cpof.Theniphalsuggeststhat
theshrinesaretheobjectsofviolentaction.
. The subject (a construct chain). The unusual
spelling for Isaac ( instead of ) occurs here and in v.
16, and also in Jeremiah 33:26. The use of Isaac to refer to the
nationandinparallelwithIsraelisquitepeculiar,butinAmosit
occurshereandagainin7:16.Thelatteroccurrenceismostsignifi-
cant,becauseitappearsthereonthelipsofAmaziah.Thissuggests
thattheuseof todesignatethenorthernkingdom,andperhaps
alsotheunusualspelling,isalocalphenomenonattheBethelshrine.
Seefurtherdiscussionatv.16.
Line e:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator, 2 constituents, and 3 units. This line forms a chiasmus with
thepreviousline.
. Thesubject(aconstructchain),sethereasa
parallelto .
. Qal yiqtol 3 m p of , to be ruined, wasted. The
yiqtol is offline, and is joined to the preceding weqatal in line d to
speakofonesingleeventandnottwoseparateevents.Thethirdplural
isimpersonalandcanberenderedasapassive.Thechoiceofthisverb
maybedrivenbyadesiretocreateawordplaywith inlinef.
Line f:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predica-
tor,3constituents,and4units.
216 Amos7:8-9
Garrett Amos final.indd 216 6/6/08 2:25:46 PM
. Qalweqatal 1csof.Theweqatal ismainlineand
hereintroducesaprophecythatisseparatefromtheonegiveninlines
d-e.
. Prepositional phrase with , here meaning
against.SeveralinterpretationsforthehouseofJeroboamarepos-
sible.(1)Hisdynasty.Butifthatwerethemeaning,onewouldexpect
ittobethehouseofJehuafterthefounderofthedynasty,asinHos
1:4.Ontheotherhand,JeroboamIIwassospectacularlysuccessful
thedynastyherecouldbenamedforhim.(2)Aroyalpalacelocatedat
Bethel.Thisinterpretationispossibleifat7:13 istaken
tomeanandaroyalpalace,butthatseemsunlikely.(3)TheBethel
shrineitself,whichwassponsoredbytheking.Amos7:13doesseem
todescribeBethelasaroyalshrine,butonbalanceitisbettertotake
houseofJeroboamtobeareferencetothedynasty.
. Prepositional phrase with instrumental . The sword
hererepresentscomingtoaviolentend.Ontheendofthedynasty,
see2Kings15:8-10.
7:10-17: An Encounter with Amaziah:Abiographicalaccountof
Amos encounter with the chief priest of Bethel is abruptly inserted
here. Calling this insertion redactional really does nothing to
explain why it is here; it simply makes us ask questions about the
redactorinsteadoftheauthor.Atminimum,thisepisodeisinserted
heretoforceustoreckonwiththisencounterinthecontextofAmos
fourvisions.Also,thearroganceofAmaziahenablesthereadertosee
thejusticeintheverdictsthataregiveninthethirdandfourthvisions.
Moresignificantly,thisepisodeishighlyironicwhensetagainstthe
visions.AmaziahderisivelycallsAmosaseer(v.12),andthereader
knowsfromthevisionaccountsthatthisispreciselywhatAmosis.In
addition,AmaziahseesAmosasanenemyofIsrael,butthefirsttwo
visionsshowhimintercedingwithYHWHtopardonIsrael.Finally,
thissectionisprobablyputherebecausetheprophecyofdoomagainst
the house of Jeroboam at the end of 7:9 is the basis for Amaziahs
accusationin7:11.
Amos7:9-17 217
Garrett Amos final.indd 217 6/6/08 2:25:47 PM
7:10-17a: Prose Narrative: ThestoryofAmosencounterwith
Amaziahisinprose,butitconcludeswithanoracleinpoeticform.



Prose Clause:

Theuseoftheqalwayyiqtol 3msof setsthestoryofthe
encounterwithAmaziahinthecontextofthevisions,althoughitdoes
not necessarily mean that the encounter actually occurred between
theAmosreceptionofthethirdandfourthvisions. ,in
appositionto ,suggeststhathewasahigh-rankingpriestatthe
shrine. ,theqalinfinitiveconstructof with ,introduces
thecontentoftheimpliedlettertotheking.
Prose Clause:
The qal qatal 3 m s of introduces a factual summation
(fromAmaziahsperspective)ofthesituation.Thisisanabbreviated
versionoftheletter;nodoubtthefulloriginalwouldhavecontained
a suitable salutation. The idiom can literally mean to tie
somethingontosomething(Jer51:63),butoftenitmeanstoconspire
against(1Sam22:8;1Kgs15:27;2Kgs10:9).
probablyconnotes,rightinthemiddleofthehouseofIsrael,sug-
gestingthatAmoswasadangertotheroyalhouseandwasguiltyof
great effrontery. The house of Israel may refer to the nation orto
theBethelshrine.
Prose Clause:
The negated qal yiqtol 3 f s of with its auxiliary, a hiphil
infinitive construct of , literally says that the land cannot con-
tain all his words (see 1 Kgs 7:26; 1 Kgs 8:64; Ezek 23:32). This
7:10
218 Amos7:10-17
Garrett Amos final.indd 218 6/6/08 2:25:47 PM
couldmeansomeorallofthefollowing:(1)Amoswordsaresomany
thattheyfilltheland;thatis,hewontstoppreaching.(2)Hismes-
sageisspreadingthroughallIsraelandevenspillingoverintoother
nations,makingthemwonderwhatishappeninghere.(3)Theland
(referringtothepeople)cannotbearhispreaching;inotherwords,he
isdiscouragingandfrighteningthem.(4)Amosmessageisaboutto
burstthelandopenlikeanoverstuffedbag;thatis,aviolentreaction,
possiblydirectedagainsttheking,willsoonerupt.

Theaboveclauseisprose,butAmaziahscitationofAmosbelow
ispoetry.AmaziahsintroductionofAmoswordsisstrikinglysimilar
tooneofAmosdivinespeechformulas, (1:3,6,8,etc.).
Infact,thispatternisalmostalwaysusedofGod,andtheexceptions
citethespeechofakingorakingsrepresentative (Isa36:4;14,16;
37:3).Thisisironic;whetherhehasintendedtoornot,Amaziahhas
citedAmosasarepresentativeofGod.


Line a:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,3constituents,and3units.Thechiasticrelationshipoflinea
(prepositionalphrase/verb/subject)tolineb(subject/verb/prepo-
sitionalphrase)indicatesthatJeroboamsdeathandIsraelsexilewill
beasingleeventtakingplaceataboutthesametime.Butwehaveno
evidencethatAmosactuallysaidthis;thewordsoflineasubtlybut
criticallydistortlinefin7:9.
. Prepositional phrase with instrumental . The front-
ing of this phrase makes the violent nature of Jeroboams death the
focus.
Amos7:10-11 219
7:11a
7:11b a
b
Garrett Amos final.indd 219 6/6/08 2:25:47 PM
. Qalyiqtol 3msof.
. Propernameassubject.
Line b:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and4units.Thislineiscitedverbatimin7:17,
andsimilarstatementsappearin5:5and6:7.
. Propernameassubjectwithconjunction.
. Qalinfinitiveabsoluteandqalyiqtol 3msof.
Theinfinitiveabsolutemayimplycertaintyortotality.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative and .


Prose Clause:
,aqalwayyiqtol 3msof,headsamainlinenarrative
clause and initiates the second episode of Amaziahs dealings with
Amos;italsointroducesAmaziahsreportedspeech.
Prose Clause:
Thisisreportedspeech. ,aqalactiveparticiplemsof,
ishereavocativesubstantive.Theuseofthistitleisunintendedirony
onAmaziahspart;hehasderisivelycalledAmosaseerofvisions,
butthecontextindicatesthatthisispreciselywhatAmosis.
(qalimperativesmsof and),althoughtwoverbs,isreally
asyndetichendiadysandnottwoseparateclauses.Notetheconjunc-
tivemerka with .Theprepositionalphrase isanidiomaticverbal
complement (the ethical dative) and need not be translated. The
prepositionalphrase isdirective,givingtheplaceto
whichAmosshouldflee.
Prose Clause:
isaqalimperativemswith,heresubordinatetotheprevi-
ousclauseandfunctioningasanimplicitpurposeclause,givingthe
220 Amos7:11-12
7:12
Garrett Amos final.indd 220 6/6/08 2:25:48 PM
reasonAmosshouldfleethere.Theantecedentof is inthe
previousclause. isthedirectobject.Idiomatically,eatingbread
referstoearningaliving.
Prose Clause:
isaniphalyiqtol 2msfunctioningmodally.The +[x]+
yiqtol hereiscoordinatedtotheimperative inthepreviousline,
implying that the two actions are bound together as one. Note the
chiasticstructureofthetwoclauses:

(verb+ + + +verb)
ThelinesmeanthatAmosshouldearnhislivingbyperforming
hisservicesasaprofessionalprophetinJudah.


Prose Clause:
Headingthenextclausewiththelocative indicatesthat
Amaziah does not care whether or where Amos prophesies, so long
ashedoesnotdoithere.Thehiphilmodalyiqtol 2msof with
itsauxiliary,theniphalinfinitiveconstructof,togetherwiththe
strong negative and the temporal adverb , imply that Amos
mustneverprophesythereagain.
Prose Clause:
The explanation, introduced by , is that Bethel is a
. The construct chain probably designates a royally sponsored
shrine.Itisindefinite,suggestingthatitisoneofseveral(therewas
alsooneatDan,andalmostcertainlyoneatSamariaaswell).
Prose Clause:
The phrase could be taken to mean that Bethel
Amos7:12-13 221
7:13
Garrett Amos final.indd 221 6/6/08 2:25:48 PM
wasalsoaroyalresidence,butthisisunlikely.Thephraseisprobably
simplyaparalleltotheprecedingclauseandmaymean,anational
temple(seePaul1991,243).


Prose Clause:
Thewayyiqtol carriesthemainlinenarrativeforward. isaqal
wayyiqtol 3msof.
Prose Clause:
Epexegesisof fromthepreviousclause,introducingthecon-
tentofAmoswords. isaqalwayyiqtol 3msof and
isaprepositionalphrasewith indicatingtheaddressee.
Prose Clause:
Negated verbless clause. As such, it is impossible to determine
whether it is a present or past tense. Some prefer past tense on the
grounds that Amos at this point obviously is a prophet and would
notdenybeingsuch(seev.15,whichseemstoestablishthepasttense
meaning).ButAmosmaymorepreciselymeanthatheisnotaprofes-
sional prophet.Inotherwords,hedoesnotearnmoneybyprophesy-
ing,incontrasttoAmaziahssarcasticandimpliedaccusationinv.12.
ProbablyAmoshereandinthenextclauseisdeliberatelyexploiting
thetemporalambiguityoftheverblessclauses:heis not aprofessional
prophetbutcontinues toearnhislivingasaherdsman;hewas not a
prophet but was a herdsman until God chose him to be a prophet.
Englishcannotadequatelyconveythis.
Prose Clause:
Anothernegatedverblessclause.A isamemberofapro-
pheticguild,notaprophetsbiologicalson(2Kgs2:3,7;6:1).
Prose Clause:
7:14
222 Amos7:13-14
Garrett Amos final.indd 222 6/6/08 2:25:49 PM
A verbless clause with a compound predicate ( and
).Theparticle ishereadversative.Since oftenmeans
cattle,thiswouldmeansomethinglikecattleman,butitisanach-
ronistic to suppose that this precludes his also being a shepherd, as
heindicatesheisinv.15.Probablyherdsmanisabetterrendition,
indicatinghemanagedsheep,goatsandcattle.Anotherpossibilityis
that shouldbeemendedto,givingthemeaningpiercer.
So emended, it would go with and refer to someone
who pierces sycamore figs (as proposed by Zalcman 1980). A
isapparentlyapersonwhocutthehuskofthesycamorefig
tree to enable the figs to ripen properly to an edible state. , a
qalactiveparticiplemsconstructof,isusedsubstantively;
appearsonlyhereintheHebrewBiblebutthereisfairlystrongcon-
sensus about its meaning (for an alternative view, see Rosenbaum
1990, 4750). The problem with the emendation of to is
that,becauseofthewordorder, cannotbeinconstructandcon-
joinedto (togivethesense,Iamapiercerandcutterofsyca-
morefigs).Forthattobethemeaning,thewordorderwouldhave
tobe .Also, iselsewhereusedforthe
piercingofpeople,generallybytheswordorinsomeactofviolence.
Thus,thetextshouldnotbeemended.Wecannottellfromthesejob
descriptionshowwealthyorpoorAmoswas,butclearlyheidentified
himselfwiththosewhoworkedinthefields(seeGiles1992).


Prose Clause:
Theprecedingnominalclausesarebackgroundinformationand
presented the setting for Amos small narrative; this clause, headed
by ,aqalwayyiqtol 3msof witha1cssuffix,isthefirst
event of his narrative. The prepositional phrase com-
bines ,indicatingthesituationfromwhichGodtookhim,andthe
Amos7:14-15 223
7:15
Garrett Amos final.indd 223 6/6/08 2:25:49 PM
constructpluralof ,indicatinghispositionrelativetotheflock
thathewatchedover(hewalkedbehindhisherdsandflocks).
Prose Clause:
Thewayyiqtol 3msof continuesthemainlinesequenceof
Amos narrative and introduces another reported speech. The sub-
jectof isofcourse ,butthepositionoftheprepositional
phrase between verb and subject is slightly unusual. It may be
thatthepositionof attheendoftheclauseisstrongerthanif
inthemiddle(itcannothavethefirstpositionbecauseofthewayy-
iqtol).Thus,whatYHWHsaidtoAmoshere(Prophesy!)issetin
contrasttowhatAmaziahsaid(Donotprophesy!),asnotedinthe
nextverse.Bethatasitmay,theimportanceofthisasadivinespeech
is not understated; the name YHWH is given twice in this verse as
thesubjectofthetwoverbs and ;thisisadivinecom-
missioning.
Prose Clause:
Aqalimperativemsof;comingfromJudah,Amosnaturally
hadtogotoIsraelbeforehecouldprophesythere.Amaziahscom-
mandtoAmosalsobeganwith .
Prose Clause:
ThissingleclauseisthewholeofAmosdefenseandexplanation
forhisactivity;heisprophesyinginIsraelbecauseYHWHtoldhim
todoso.ContrastAmaziahscommandinv.12,whichusesvirtually
identicallanguage( . . . . . . ).The
word ,aniphalimperativemsof,impliesthatAmoshas
thetitleof entirelybydivinecommissionratherthanbytraining
orpersonalpreference.Theprepositionalphrase fur-
thermoredemonstratesthathisareaofpropheticactivity,Israelrather
thanJudah,isbyGodscommandincontrasttoAmaziahsorder.


224 Amos7:15-16
7:16
Garrett Amos final.indd 224 6/6/08 2:25:49 PM
Prose Clause:
, literally and now, is an inference marker that brings
theprevioushistoricaldiscoursequicklytothepresentanddescribes
theramificationsofprioreventsforthecurrentsituation.Inanother
ironic touch, Amos, who had been forbidden to prophesy, responds
to the command with another prophecy introduced by , a qal
imperativemsof,anditsobject, .
Prose Clause:
Rather than using a finite verb (such as the qatal ), Amos
employs a periphrastic qal active participle m s in . This need
notbetakentomeanthatAmaziahisrepeatinghimselforspeaking
constantly; it only implies that this is the demand that Amaziah is
currentlyputtingforth.
Prose Clause:
Amaziahsprohibition, (withaniphalyiqtol 2msof
),herecontrastswithYHWHscommissioninthepreviousverse.
Thenegative (incontrastto )islegislativeinnature(seeIBHS
34.2.1b) and suggests a permanent injunction. The preposition
probablyhasthesenseofagainst.
Prose Clause:
This clause is parallel to the previous, with another prohibitive
with ,thehiphilyiqtol 2msof,andanotheradversative
useof .Theverb (qalandhiphilstems)meanstosecreteor
drip,butitreferstopropheticpreachinghereandinEzekel21:2,7;
Micah 2:6. The term is not of itself derisive, as God uses the word
to direct Ezekiel to prophesy. Here again, Isaac is set as a parallel
toIsrael,butitmaybenoteworthythatAmaziahalsoreferstothe
houseofIsaac.Whilethismaybenomorethananalternativename
forthekingdom,thetermmayhavespecialsignificanceattheBethel
shrine.Ofcourse,theGenesisstoriesprimarilyassociateBethelwith
Jacob,butthisdoesnotmeanthatthenameIsaacwasnotusedatthe
shrine.
Amos7:16 225
Garrett Amos final.indd 225 6/6/08 2:25:50 PM

Theaboveisadivinespeechformulainprose;itintroducesthe
poeticoraclethatfollows.
7:17b: Oracle of Doom: Amosheregivesaone-strophe,five-line
oracleinwhichhepredictspersonaldisasterforAmaziahontopofthe
generalcalamitycomingtoIsrael.Everylinebeginswiththesubject,
then has a prepositional phrase (with in lines a-c and in lines
d-e),andthenhasayiqtol predicateattheendoftheline(exceptfor
linee,whichbreaksthepatternbyinvertingtheorderoftheverband
prepositional phrase). Also, each of the subjects in lines a-c has the
2mssuffix(theothersubjectsobviouslycannothavesuchasuffix),
andlinesc-eeachhavethenoun .Theselineshavenumerous
interconnectionsandareineffectalistofcomingdisasters.Thesefive
linesaregroupedintotwocouplets(linesa-b:wifeandchildren;lines
c-d: your ground and unclean ground) concluding with a final line
thatcastsAmaziahsreporttoJeroboambackintohisface(compare
lineetothesecondlineof7:11b).





Line a:Thecolon-markerispashta andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.
. Thesubject.WolffnotesthatAkkadiantreatiescallfor
thesexualhumiliationofthewivesofcovenantviolators(Wolff1977,
315n.59).
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .Presumablythecity
7:17a
226 Amos7:17
7:17b a
b
c
d
e
Garrett Amos final.indd 226 6/6/08 2:25:50 PM
meanthereisthecityofAmaziahsresidence,Bethel.Thephrasemay
implythatwhatshedoes,orwhathappenstoher,willbeamatterof
publicknowledge(cf.Deut22:2324).
. Qal yiqtol 3 f s of . The verb usually implies willful
promiscuity. It seems very odd, however, that Amos should in this
contextpredictthatAmaziahswifewouldbecomelustfullyimmoral.
EveryotherlinespeaksofviolenceforciblycarriedoutagainstIsrael,
Amaziah and his children and possessions. here probably con-
notes not willful promiscuity but sexual defilement either through
rapeorsellingherselfoutofdesperationtosurvive.Asthewifeofa
priest,suchdefilementisparticularlyheinous.Herruinmaybesym-
bolicofthedesecrationofthesanctityoftheBethelshrine.
Line b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Thesubjects;itisnotnecessarytoassumeAma-
ziahssonsanddaughterswouldbechildrenatthetimethispredic-
tionwasfulfilled.
. Prepositional phrase with instrumental . Falling by
theswordrepresentsaviolentdeath.Amaziahssonsmayhavebeen
combatantswhile hisdaughtersmayhavebeenkilledinthesackof
thecity.
. Qalyiqtol 3mpof.
Line c:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,3constituents,and3units.
. The subject; here it seems to be land that Amaziah
privatelyowned.
. Prepositionalphrasewithinstrumental .Thedistribu-
tionofhislandviaameasuringlineindicatesthathislandisbroken
upinanofficialprocessbyanewadministrationthathasnoregard
forhispriorclaimtotheland.Inotherwords,itisnotsimplyoccu-
piedbysquatters.ThisimpliesthefallofthegovernmentofJeroboam
II,Amaziahspatron.Also,itisfittingthatmembersoftheelite,who
Amos7:17 227
Garrett Amos final.indd 227 6/6/08 2:25:51 PM
usedjudicialmeanstotakethelandofthepoor,shouldhavethesame
donetothem.
. Pualyiqtol 3fsof,bedivided.Amaziahappar-
ently owned an estate large enough for it to be divided and appor-
tionedoutbytheconquerors.ThissuggeststhatAmaziahhimselfwas
oneofthewealthyaristocratsthatAmosinveighsagainst.
Line d:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Thesubject.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .The
unclean land is a Gentile land where Israelite concerns for kosher
foods,sabbathregulations,andsoforthwerenotobserved.Wesome-
times imagine that the prophets opponents were so paganized that
they had no regard for Torah requirements, and sometimes this is
so (cf. 8:5). But Amaziah appears to have taken some aspects of his
priesthoodseriously.
. Qalyiqtol 2msof.
Line e:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predica-
tor, 3 constituents, and 5 units. This line repeats Amaziahs charge
aboutthecontentofAmosprophecies(see7:11),implyingthatAmos
isassertingbacktoAmaziahthathisprophecywillinfactcometrue.
. Thesubject;thefinalexileofIsraeltookplacec.722,
anditappearsthatAmosministrywasnolaterthanc.755B.C.We
neednotassume,however,thatallaspectsofthisoraclewerefulfilled
atthesametime.Hischildrensdeathandwifeshumiliation,andhis
owndeath,couldhaveoccurredearlierandatdifferenttimes.
. Qalinfinitiveabsoluteandyiqtol 3msof.The
infinitiveabsolutehereimpliescertaintyandisincontrasttoAmazi-
ahsrefusaltolistenandimplieddenial.
. Prepositional phrase with and , implying
removalfromtheirhomeland.
228 Amos7:17
Garrett Amos final.indd 228 6/6/08 2:25:51 PM
8:1-3: A Basket of Summer Fruit
Thisvisionisstructurallyparalleltotheenigmaticthirdvision,butits
meaningismuchmoreclear.
8:1-2a: Prose Narrative: Asbefore,Amosnarratestheessential
detailsofthevisioninprose.

Prose Clause:
See7:1.
Prose Clause:
This is a clause with an implied , there was. intro-
ducesAmosperspectiveonthevisionandprovidesthesettingforthe
narratedconversationthatfollows.Intheconstructchain ,
the term , literally summer, connotes the produce of summer
(cf.Jer40:10).Thelatesummerharvestwouldbefigsandalategrape
harvest(Mic7:1). isalsofoundintheseventhandlastlineofthe
GezerCalendar(spelledas;seealsoRhatjen1964).


Therearefiveproseclauseshere;see7:8aforadiscussionofthe
grammar.Closelyparallelingthethirdvisionreport,thisintroduces
aneworacle.
8:2b-3: Oracle of Doom: Sixlinesinonestrophe.Theseriesof
visionsendswithanoraclethatforetellstheendofthekingdom.After
a general statement to the effect that disaster is sure to come (lines
a-b),thereisaprophecyofwailinglamentationattheshrines(linec)
and,afteraparentheticaldivinespeechformula(lined),thelyricsof
thelamentsongsaregiven(linese-f ).
Amos8:1-3 229
8:1
8:2a
Garrett Amos final.indd 229 6/6/08 2:25:51 PM






Line a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Qalqatal 3msof.
. The subject, the end, is obviously a word-play on ,
summerproduce.Thetwowordsarefromdifferentroots( from
, and from ; Paul 1991, 254) but they would have been
pronounced the same in Samaria and, if the Gezer Calendar is any
indicationandunlessmatres lectionis werealreadyemployedinAmos
day,theywerespelledthesame(seealsoWolters1988).Also,thefact
thatthetimeof isattheendoftheagriculturalyearisapropos
tothewordplay.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .
Line b:See7:8.
Line c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,3constituents,and5units.
. Hiphilweqatal 3mpof,forfuturetense(mainline
clauseinananticipatorytext).Theverbisgenerallyintransitive,like
the English wail, but here it seems to be transitive, taking
ironically as its direct object. But just as the English counterpart,
theyshallwailtemplesongs,isunusualbutnotunintelligible,the
sameistrueoftheHebrew.
. The direct object in a construct chain. ,
song,occurstwelvetimesintheMTbutonlyhereintheplural(the
8:2b
8:3
a
b
c
d
e
f
230 Amos8:2-3
Garrett Amos final.indd 230 6/6/08 2:25:52 PM
masculine plural occurs seven times), but that is no reason
to emend. Many interpreters (e.g., Noble 1998, 43233) do emend
to ([female] singers; thus, the female singers of the
templeshallwail),butthisisunpersuasive,anditistypicalofhow
emendation often flattens the vivid language of the prophets. The
phrase is,asdescribedabove,anironicdirectobjectto
theverb.Themeaning,ofcourse,isthatinsteadofharmonioussing-
ingthereshallbewailing.
. Prepositionalphrasewith inatemporalphrase.
Line d:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:0pred-
icators,3constituents,and3units.
. A divine speech formula using a construct
chain.
Line e:Thisline,asproposedhere,doesnotfollowtheMTcantil-
lation.Theconstraintsare:1predicator,4constituents,and4units.
Therearetwoclauses, and .
. Adjectiveusedasapredicate.
. Thesubject;acollectivenoun,itrepresentsaplurality.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative onaconstruct
chain.
. Hiphilyiqtol 3msof.Theimpliedobjectis .
The subject could be YHWH, but it is more likely that the verb is
usedimpersonallyandisavirtualpassive.
Line f:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predica-
tor,1constituent,and1unit.Thisviolatestheconstraintsforhaving
a one-unit line, but it is a dramatic end to the oracle. Most signifi-
cantly,settingthiswordbyitselfdramaticallyrecallsthegrimscene
in6:10.
. TheimperativeHush!hasherepreciselythesameconcep-
tual context as in its use in 6:10: Samaria is filled with corpses and
thusacityundertaboo;itissodefiledthatGodsnamemustnoteven
bementionedthere.
Amos8:2-3 231
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8:49:15: final Condemnation and redemption
TheconclusionofAmosisapairoflengthypoems(8:4-12;9:1b-15).
These poems are separated by a prose conclusion to the first poem
(8:13-14)andaproseintroductiontothesecondpoem(9:1a).Butthe
textdividesintothreemajorparts,asfollows.
1. 8:4-6 is an introduction describing briefly the sins of the
people. The offenses described here are the basis for the
appropriatepunishmentGoddecreesinsubsequentverses.
2. 8:79:6givesYHWHsfinaljudgmentagainstIsrael.Thisis
intwoparts,8:7-14and9:1-6.
3. 9:7-15 predicts Israels diaspora and recovery. It compares
Israeltothenations,indicatingthatIsraelisnotreallydif-
ferent from them in Gods eyes (9:7-10). But then the text
predicts the redemption of Israel and also draws the Gen-
tilesintothatredemption,assertingthatGodwillbringthe
nations into Israel (9:11-12). The book ends with a prom-
iseofagreatharvestandarobustpopulationforthenation
(9:13-15).
Severalrepeatedthemesbindthistexttogether.
A. There is focus on what may be called the fate of the Isra-
elites. First, the fate of impoverished Israelites is abuse and
suffering.Themorewell-offmembersofsocietyhuntthem
down and sell them into slavery (8:4,6). Second, and as a
fittingjudgment,Godwillhuntdowntheentirenationand
slaughterIsraeliteswherevertheyhide(9:1b-4),andtheywill
wander among the nations and face slaughter everywhere
(9:9-10). Third, however, these judgments will be reversed
andIsraelwillbesecureinitslandforever(9:14-15).
B. Anotherthemeofthetextmaybebroadlydefinedasfood.
First,themerchantscheatpeoplewhentheysellgrain(8:5).
Second,thejudgmentonIsraelisdescribedasafaminefor
thewordofGod(8:11-13).Intherestoration,however,Israel
willexperienceamiraculouslygreatharvest(9:13).
232 Amos8:49:15
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C. The matter of oaths appears three times. First, YHWH
swearsanoathbytheprideofJacobin8:7.Second,thepeo-
pleswearbytheirshrinesin8:14.Third,YHWHmakesa
solemn decree against Israel while standing by an altar in
9:1,anactthatisimplicitlyanoath.
D. Theupheavalofthelandlike the Nile istwotimesasignof
thedayoftheYHWH(8:8;9:5c).
E. The theme of YHWHs cosmic power appears three times:
in his darkening of the daytime sky (8:9), in his causing
the earth to melt (9:5a), and in the fact that his dominion
extendsfromheaventoearth(9:6).
F. Themourning ofthepeopleismentionedtwice,in8:10and
9:5b.
G. Finally, the theme of Israel and the Gentiles is taken up in
9:7-8, 11-12. First, Israel is declared to be no better than
the pagan nations (9:7-8). Second, however, the ancient
promise that Davids dynasty will have dominion over all
the nations is reaffirmed, and even Gentiles are called the
people of YHWH (9:11-12). This theme is also important
forthestructureofthewholebook,asitcreatesaninclusion.
ThebookbeginswithIsraelnobetterthantheGentilesand
likethemfacingYHWHswrath(1:32:16).Thebookalso
endswithIsraelnobetterthantheGentiles,butitincludes
theGentilesintheblessingsofYHWHssalvationofIsrael
(9:11-12).
Thetablebelowlaysoutthestructureofthispassage.Ontheleft
side,onecanseehowthetwopoemsaredividedintostanzasaswellas
wheretheproseboundarytextsareplaced.Ontherightside,thetext
isdividedaccordingtocontent,showingthemajorpartsofthisfinal
divisionofthebook.Thethematiclinksdescribedabovearealsopre-
sentedhere.Theselinksarelaidouttoshowwherethevariousthemes
are located and to provide a map for following how Amos develops
thesethemes,asdescribedabove.Onecansee,infact,thatthethemes
ofPartI(thefateoftheIsraelitesandfood)aretakenupagainin
Amos8:49:15 233
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Part III (with the addition of Israel and the Gentiles). Also, every
themePartIIaistakenupagaininPartIIb,exceptthatPartIIadeals
withthethemeoffoodbutPartIIbdoesnot,whereasPartIIbgives
attentiontothefateoftheIsraelitesin9:1b-4.Thus,oneseessome-
thingofaninclusionpatternorchiasmusinthisdivision,withPartI
mirroredbyPartIIIandPartIIamirroredbyPartIIb.

Stanza1(8:4-6)
A.FateofIsraelites(8:4)
B.Food(8:5)
A.FateofIsraelites(8:6)
Stanza2(8:7)
C.Oath(8:7)
Stanza3(8:8) D.LandlikeNile(8:8)
Stanza4(8:9-10)
E.YHWHsCosmicpower(8:9)
F.Mourning(8:10)
Stanza5(8:11-12)
B.Food(8:11-13)
Prose(8:13-14) C.Oath(8:14)
Prose(9:1a) C.Oath(9:1a)
Stanza1(9:1b-4) A.FateofIsraelites(9:1b-4)
Stanza2(9:5-6)
E.YHWHsCosmicpower(9:5a)
F.Mourning(9:5b)
D.LandlikeNile(9:5c)
E.YHWHsCosmicpower(9:6)
Stanza3(9:7-8) G.IsraelandGentiles(9:7-8)
Stanza4(9:9-10) A.FateofIsraelites(9:9-10)
Stanza5(9:11-12) G.IsraelandGentiles(9:11-12)
Stanza6(9:13-15)
B.Food(9:13)
A.FateofIsraelites(9:14-15)
F
i
r
s
t

P
o
e
m

(
8
:
4
-
1
4
)
I
.

S
i
n

(
8
:
4
-
6
)
I
I
a
.

J
u
d
g
m
e
n
t

(
8
:
7
-
1
4
)
234 Amos8:49:15
S
e
c
o
n
d

P
o
e
m

(
9
:
1
-
1
5
)
I
I
b
.

J
u
d
g
m
e
n
t

(
9
:
1
-
6
)
I
I
I
.

R
e
c
o
v
e
r
y

(
9
:
7
-
1
5
)
Garrett Amos final.indd 234 6/6/08 2:25:53 PM
8:4
Hear this, you who sniff after the poor
And who annihilate the impoverished in the land,
5
while saying:
When will the new moon be over
So that we may sell grain,
And the Sabbath, so that we may open up the grain business
By shrinking the ephah and enlarging the shekel,
By making twisted balance scales that deceive,
6
For obtaining poor people because of silver
And a poor man because of sandals
And so that we may sell the bottom-of-the-barrel grain?
7
YHWH has sworn by the pride of Jacob,
I will never forget all their deeds!
8
Isnt it for this reason that the earth will shake
And all who dwell on it will mourn,
And all of it will rise like the Nile,
And it will overflow and subside like the Egyptian Nile?
9
And it shall be on that day
An oracle of Lord YHWH
That I shall bring down the sun at noon
And I shall bring darkness to earth on a bright day.
10
And I will turn your festivals into mourning
And all your songs into lamentation.
And I shall bring sackcloth up around every waist
And baldness on every head.
And I shall make it as the mourning for an only son
And (I shall make) its outcome into a truly bitter day.
11
Behold, days are coming
An oracle of Lord YHWH
When I shall release a famine upon the earth.
(It will) not be a famine for bread and not be thirst for water.
Rather, (it will be a famine) for hearing the words of YHWH.
Amos8:49:15 235
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12
And they will wander from sea to sea
And from the northlands to the rising of the sun.
They will rove about to seek the word of YHWH but not find (it).
13
On that day they will collapse from thirstthe beautiful maidens
and the fine young men
14
who swear by the guilt of Samaria and say, As
your gods live, Dan! and As the way of Beersheba lives!and they
will fall never to rise again.
9:1
I saw the Lord standing at the altar, and he said,
Strike the capital so that the door-frames shake!
And sever them at the topall of them!
And I will slay the rest of them with the sword.
Not one of their fugitives will get away,
And not one of their refugees will escape.
2
If they dig into Sheol,
From there my hand shall get them.
And if they ascend into heaven,
From there I shall bring them down.
3
And if they hide on the top of Carmel,
From there I will hunt them down and get them.
And if they are concealed from before my eyes on the floor of the sea,
From there I will command the serpent to bite them.
4
And if they go into captivity in the presence of their enemies,
From there I will command the sword to slay them.
And I shall set my eye upon them
For evil and not for good.
5
The Lord YHWH Sabaoth:
Who touches the earth and it melts,
So that all who inhabit it begin mourning,
And itall of itconvulses like the Nile
And then sinks like the Nile of Egypt;
6
Who builds in the heavens his (thrones) stairway
While laying his (thrones) foundation platform upon the earth;
236 Amos8:49:15
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Who calls to the waters of the sea
And then pours them out on the surface of the earth;
His name is YHWH!
7
Are you not like the sons of the Cushites as far as I am concerned,
Sons of Israel? The oracle of YHWH.
Didnt I raise up Israel from the land of Egypt
And the Philistines from Caphtor and Aram from Kir?
8
Behold, the eyes of Lord YHWH are on the sinful kingdom
And I shall annihilate it from the surface of the ground,
Except that I will not altogether annihilate the house of Jacob.
The oracle of YHWH.
9
For behold I am issuing a command,
And I shall make the house of Israel wander among all the nations,
Just as when there is a jostling in a sieve
Without a pebble falling to earth.
10
They shall die by the swordall the sinners of my people
Who say,
Trouble will not overtake or approach us.
11
In that day
I will raise up the collapsing booth of David.
And I shall wall up its breaches
And raise up its ruins;
And I shall build it up as in the days of old,
12
So that they may possess the remnant of Edom and all the nations
Who are called by my name.
The oracle of YHWH, who does this.
13
Behold the days are comingthe oracle of YHWH
When a plowman will be present with the harvester
And a grape treader will be present with the seed-spreader.
And the mountains will flow with grape juice
And all the hills will melt.
Amos8:49:15 237
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14
And I shall bring about a restoration of my people, Israel.
And they will rebuild desolate cities and inhabit them.
And they will plant vineyards and drink their wine.
And they will make gardens and eat their fruit.
15
And I shall plant them on their ground.
And they will never again be pulled up from their ground
That I gave to them,
Says YHWH your God.
8:4-14: First Poem and Prose Conclusion
8:4-6: First Stanza. Thisstanzaisintwostrophes.Thefirststro-
phe,intwolines,callsonthemerchantandaristocraticclasstolisten,
andinsummaryfashionitmakesanaccusation(8:4).Thesecond,in
eightlines,makesacaricaturedquotationofthemerchantsandinso
doingsetsforthadetailedaccusationoftheircrimes(8:5-6).Thereis
noreasontobreakthesecondstropheintotwoparts,asisdoneinthe
MTversedivision.
8:4: First Strophe.Twolines,withthecalltohearinitiating8:4
9:15.


Line A1a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 2
predicators,4constituents,and4units.
. Qalimperativempof.
. Thedirectobjectof .
. Qalactiveparticiplempabsoluteof withdefi-
nite article; it functions as a vocative relative clause and also as the
subject of , and it takes a direct object. See the discussion at
2:7a,whereemendationofthisverbisrejectedanditissuggestedthat
238 Amos8:4-6
8:4
Garrett Amos final.indd 238 6/6/08 2:25:55 PM
itmetaphoricallyrepresentstheupperclassofSamariaasdogssniff-
ingatthegroundwhiletheyhunttheirprey.
. The direct object of , the poor are the meta-
phoricalpreyofthepowerful.
Line A1b:Thecolon-markersilluq attheendof8:4isdisregarded
hereinfavorofattaching tothisline,andtheconstraintsare:2
predicators,2constituents,and3units.
. The hiphil infinitive construct of . One would
expect to see this as (Ps 8:2), but the preposition has
caused syncopation in a manner analogous to how the yiqtol form
syncopatesfromhypothetical to (GKC 53a).Theverb
heremeanstoputanendtoandthustoexterminate.Using
with this meaning is somewhat odd, but it is a wordplay on
(the Sabbath), which these persons are eager to see over accord-
ing to line A2c. The infinitive construct could be taken as a clause
expressingpurposeormotive(acomplementto ).Ifso,the
conjunctionmightbeeitheremphatic(even)orexplanatory(that
is), but GKC 114p observes that the infinitive construct with the
conjunction and preposition can express the continuation of a
previousfiniteverb.Psalm104:21,
(thelionsareroaringattheprey,andseekfromGodtheir
food)isespeciallyanalogoushere.SeealsoIBHS 36.3.2,wherethis
constructionisdescribedastheequivalentofafiniteverb.Here,the
infinitiveservesasasecondrelativeclauseafter .
. Aconstructchainasthedirectobject.
. Qal infinitive construct of introducing a quota-
tion.Like ,thiscountsasapredicator.Notwithstandingthe
MTversedivision,thisworksbetterwiththisinsteadofthefollowing
strophe.Whatfollowsarethewordsoftheoppressivemercantileclass,
but it seems odd that is not preceded by some word associ-
atedwithspeech(suchasboastorspeak).But candescribe
what one says while doing some other act, as in Isaiah 4:1
(Andseven
Amos8:4 239
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womenwillgrabonemanonthatdaywhilesaying,Wewilleatour
bread...).
8:5-6: Second Strophe. Eight lines. This entire strophe (after
) portrays itself as a quotation of the evil merchants. It seems
unlikelythattheyweresobrazenastoactuallysaythesethings;Amos
isusingthiscaricatureortravestyasaliterarydevicetoportraytheir
attitudesasbetrayedbytheiractions.








Line A2a: The colon-marker is pashta and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Temporalinterrogativepronoun.
. Qalyiqtol 3msof.Themerchantslongfortheholy
daystopassbysothattheyresumecorruptbusinesspractices,but
ironicallyYHWHhasjustsaidthathewillpassbyIsraelnolonger
(8:2).
. Thesubject.TheTorahdoesnotcommandIsraelitesto
desistfromlaboronthedayofthenewmoon,butapparentlythiswas
thestandardpractice(1Sam20:5;2Kgs4:23).
Line A2b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and2units.
8:5
8:6
A2a
A2b
A2c
A2d
A2e
A2f
A2g
A2h
240 Amos8:4-6
Garrett Amos final.indd 240 6/6/08 2:25:55 PM
. Hiphil weyiqtol 1 c p of with paragogic ; it
hereexpressespurposeorintent,sothatwemaysell.
. Thedirectobject,acognateaccusativewiththeverb.The
dagheshinthe isanexampleofadaghesh forte conjunctivum (GKC
20c).
Line A2c: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.Thereisgappingof from
lineA2a.
. Asecondsubjectfor ,theverbfromA2athatis
gapped.
. Qalweyiqtol 1cpof withparagogic;ithere
expressespurposeorintent,sothatwemayopen.Thestoragejarsof
grainwouldbeopenedupsothatthecontentscouldbemeasuredout
andsold.Cf.Genesis41:56:
(and Joseph opened all [the storehouses] that were among
themandhesold[it]toEgypt).
. The direct object. III is threshed grain as opposed to
cut stalks ( ) or unthreshed grain. It appears that II and
IIIareessentiallysynonymous,referringtograinthatisthreshed
and suitable for purchase, but that is a more general term, as it
canrefertograineitherinthefields(Ezek36:29;Ps65:10[E9])or
threshedandreadyforeat(Lam2:12).
Line A2d:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
2predicators,4constituents,and4units.
. Hiphilinfinitiveconstructof with .Thisandthe
otherinfinitiveconstructformsinlinesA2d-ffunctionasgerundives
explainingthenatureoftheirgrainselling(seeIBHS 36.2.3e).Asthe
gerundivefunctionswithinaclausegovernedbyanactualorimplied
finiteverb,itisdebatablewhetheritcanbeconsideredapredicator.
But as every gerundive here has a direct object, they are counted as
predicators.
Amos8:5-6 241
Garrett Amos final.indd 241 6/6/08 2:25:56 PM
. Thedirectobject.Shrinkingtheephah,adrymeasure
ofcapacity,resultsingivingthecustomerlessgrainthanhepaidfor.
Theprecisesizeofanephahisunknown,butitwascertainlylessthan
abushel(forafulldiscussion,seeABD,WeightsandMeasures).
. Hiphilinfinitiveconstructof with andthecon-
junction.
. Thedirectobject.Enlargingtheshekel,aweightagainst
whichsilverwasweighed,resultsinchargingthecustomermorethan
theagreedprice.
Line A2e:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,2constituents,and3units.
. Pielinfinitiveconstructof (tobend)with and
conjunction.Apparentlythescalesweresubtlydistortedinamanner
thatcausedunequalweightstoappeartobeinbalance.
. An adjectival construct chain, with scales of
deceitmeaningdeceitfulscales.
Line A2f:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalinfinitiveconstructof with .Herethegerun-
divedescribesnotthemeansofcheatingbutthegoal,forgettingfor
silver....
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,whichcouldbeconsidered
a ofprice(IBHS 11.2.5d).Butthepointisnotthattheyarebuy-
ing slaves on the open market for silver, but that, by driving people
into poverty and then lending them money, they can seize them as
debt-slaves.
. Thedirectobject.
Line A2g: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 0
predicators,2constituents,and3units.Thereisgapping,with
inA2fgoverningtheobjectsinbothlines.Thislinerepeatsverbatim
alinein2:6,indicatingthatpeoplearesoldintoslaveryforassmalla
242 Amos8:5-6
Garrett Amos final.indd 242 6/6/08 2:25:56 PM
debtasthecostofapairofsandals(seethediscussionofA1din2:6b
above).
. Thedirectobject.
. See2:6b.
Line A2h: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.Thislinehasthepattern +
[x]+yiqtol,andassuchanswersweyiqtol verbofthesameroot()
in A2b. In addition, it also closes the above sequence of infinitive
constructformsbybreakingthechainofinfinitiveconstructforms.
Iteffectivelymeans:Andontopofeverythingelse,wewillsellthem
grainthatisalmostworthless.
. A construct chain as the direct object. (fall-
ings)referstograinfromthebottomoftheheapthatisheavilycon-
taminatedwithdirtandchaff.
. Hiphilyiqtol 1cpusedtoexpressintent.
8:7: Second Stanza. Thisstanzaisinonestropheoftwolines.


Line Ba: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Niphalqatal 3msof.
. Thesubject.
. Prepositionalphrasewith forthatbywhichhe
swears.ItissurprisingthatGodwouldswearbytheprideofJacob
sincehesaidin6:8thathehatesit.Assuggestedinourinterpretation
of that verse, however, there is probably ambiguity in the term
. The current and perverse pride of Jacob is their wealth and
fortifications,buttherightandproperprideofJacobistheircovenant
Amos8:6-7 243
8:7 Ba
Bb
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God.Inswearingbythe ,Godisswearingbyhimself,as
at4:2and6:8.
Line Bb:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.
. The particle in a truncated oath is a strong
negative.Theverbisqalyiqtol 1csof,forget.
. Theprepositionalphraseisadverbial(forever).
. Thedirectobject.
8:8: Third Stanza. Thisstanzaisinonestropheoffourlines.This
isacommentonthepreviousstanza:sinceGodhassoswornanoath
againstIsrael,isitanysurprisethatthelandreelsandheaves?




Line Ca:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Prepositional phrase with the explanatory (on
accountofthis)andtheinterrogative.
. Negated qal yiqtol 3 f s of , shake. The yiqtol
heresignifiesafuturetense.Thenegativerhetoricalquestiongener-
allydoesnotseparatetheinterrogative fromthenegative,but
writesitas .Butthereareotherexampleslikethisone,suchas2
Samuel19:22, (ShouldntShimeibeput
todeathonaccountofthis?).
. Thesubject.
Line Cb: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
244 Amos8:7-8
8:8 Ca
Cb
Cc
Cd
Garrett Amos final.indd 244 6/6/08 2:25:57 PM
. Qal weqatal 3 m s of in a mainline sequence with
theinitialverb .Thereisalinkheretotheopeningofthebook
at1:2,whereYHWHroarsandthepastureswither( II).Here,
YHWHswearsanoath,theearthshakes,andtheinhabitantsmourn
( I).
. Thesubject,aqalactiveparticiplemsof (used
substantively)and.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative ;theantecedenttothe
suffixis .
Line Cc:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 3fsof inamainlinesequencewith
theinitialverb.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .Thereisascribalerrorof
(likethelight)for (liketheNile).Cf.Vulgatequasi fluvius
(likeariver).
. Thesubject.Theantecedenttothesuffixis .
Line Cd:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:2predi-
cators,3constituents,and4units.
. Niphal weqatal 3 f s of in a mainline sequence.
AsisdoneinHALOT,theroot isoftendividedintotwoseparate
homonyms, I(todriveout)and II(tochurnup[water]),
butthisisneedlessandmisleading.Usedofariver,itdoesnotmean
to splash about or be unsettled, it means to overflow its banks and
sotossupmudandsilt(Isa57:20).Thisissimplyafunctionofthe
meaningdriveout.
. Niphalweqatal 3fsof inamainlinesequence.
The verb describes the subsidence of the river after the crest of the
flood.Thisistheqere here;thekethiv ,anelsewhereunattested
niphalof (togivewatertodrink)isplainlywrong.
. Prepositional phrase with on a construct
Amos8:8 245
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chainidentifyingthe specificallyastheNile.Theterm can
beusedofotherrivers;inDaniel12:5-7itreferstotheTigris.
8:9-10: Fourth Stanza. Thisstanzaisasinglestropheoftenlines.
Itisofcoursepossibletodivideintosmallerstrophes,butthatwould
seemarbitrary,asthereisnoclearstrophicdivision.Infact,thewhole
stanza is a single protasis (line Da) and apodosis (lines Dc-j) con-
struction. After the protasis and divine speech formula (Da-b), the
apodosisisajudgmentoracleofeightlines(notealsothatallofthe
verbsoftheapodosisarefirstsingularwithYHWHasthesubject).
Itisdominatedbyweqatal verbs,andinthisisanalogoustothefull
judgmentoraclesagainstthenations(1:4-5,7-8,14-15;2:2-3)except
that each of those has seven lines. It may be that the eight lines of
Dc-jcorrespondtothefactthatIsraelistheeighthnationjudgedin
1:32:16. Also, the eight lines of judgment correspond to the eight
linesofaccusationin8:5-6.










Line Da:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
246 Amos8:8-10
8:9 Da
Db
Dc
Dd
8:10 De
Df
Dg
Dh
Di
Dj
Garrett Amos final.indd 246 6/6/08 2:25:58 PM
. Qalweqatal 3msof introducinganoracleandalso
servingasaprotasis.
. Nounwithpreposition anddemonstrative.That
dayreferstothedayofYHWH;itmayincludeboththeimminent
destructionofSamariaandaneschatologicalfinalday.Thelanguage
ofthisstrophe,withthedaylightturningtodarkness,isstandardpro-
pheticlanguageforthecomingofthedayofYHWH.
Line Db:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0predicators,1constituent,and3units.
. Adivinespeechformula.
Line Dc: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Hiphilweqatal 1csof introducingtheapodosis
andservingasthemainlineverbinapredictivesequence.Usedwith
, the root means to go down (Gen 15:12; Exod 17:12).
Thus,thehiphilheremeanstobringdown.
. Thesubject.
. Prepositionalphrasewithtemporal ,atnoon.
Line Dd:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and4units.
. Hiphilweqatal 1csof continuingthepredic-
tivemainlinesequence.
. Prepositionalphrasewith servingeithertomark
astheobjectorusedinadirectional sense,asinbringdarkness to
theearth.
. Prepositionalphrasewithtemporal .Thegenitiveis
adjectival,meaningabrightday.
Line De:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qal weqatal 1 c s of continuing the predictive
mainlinesequence.
Amos8:9-10 247
Garrett Amos final.indd 247 6/6/08 2:25:59 PM
. Thedirectobject,yourfestivals.Inlightof5:26,these
feastsmayrelatedtoastraldeities.Attheleast,theyprobablyweretied
toastronomicaleventsinthecalendar.Thus,thecosmicdarkeningof
theskyisdirectlyrelevant.
. Prepositional phrase with indicating the outcome of
the transformation described by , as in the English to turn
XintoY.
Line Df:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0 predicators, 2 constituents, and 2 units. There is gapping, with
fromlineDealsogoverningthisline.
. Thedirectobject.
. Anotherprepositionalphrasewith indicatingtheresult
ofthetransformation.A isasongoflament.
Line Dg:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Hiphilweqatal 1csof continuingthepredictive
mainlinesequence.
. Prepositional phrase with locative . The
word referstothehips,lowerabdomenandcrotch,andthus
thesackclothreferredtoherewasapparentlywornasaloincloth.
. Thedirectobject.Jeremiah48:37alsoatteststothewear-
ingofsackclothaboutthewaistandtheshavingofthehead(seeline
Dh)asasignoflamentation.SeealsoIsaiah3:24.
Line Dh: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 0
predicators,2constituents,and2units.Thereisgappingof .
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .
. Thedirectobject,baldness.Womenpullingouttheir
hairasasignoflamentismentionedasearlyastheSumerianlament
overthefallofUr(ANET 461:299).
Line Di:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and3units.
248 Amos8:9-10
Garrett Amos final.indd 248 6/6/08 2:25:59 PM
. Qalweqatal 1csof anda3fssuffixcontinuing
the predictive mainline sequence. But what is the antecedent of the
femininesuffix?OnecouldtakeittobeeitherthecityofSamariaor
thelandofIsrael,butitprobablyisaneutrumreferringtoanunspe-
cificantecedentortothewholesituation,liketheEnglishit.
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,forananalogy,ona
constructchaininanobjectivegenitiverelationship;thatis,the
(onlyson)iswhatismourned.Butthisisnotmerelyasimile;in
2:14-16weseethatmanysonswillinfactneedtobemournedbecause
theywillhavefalleninbattle.
Line Dj:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,2constituents,and3units.
. Again,the3fssuffixprobablyreferstotheentire
situation.LiterallyItsoutcomeorTheendofit,thiscouldbethe
subjectofanominalclause,butprobablyitistheobjectof
duetogapping.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .Thisisthekaph veritatis,
a preposition with an event that literally comes to pass. In other
words,itisnotsimplylikeabitterday,itisabitterdayinthefullest
sense.GKC 118xissomewhatskepticalaboutthekaph veritatis,but
itisclearthatthisisnotsimplyananalogy.IBHS 11.2.9bdescribes
kaph veritatis as follows: The agreement of the things compared is
complete, insofar as the discourse is concerned. It aptly illustrates
thiswithNehemiah7:2: (Forheisineveryway
anhonestguy).
8:11-12: Fifth Stanza. Likethepreviousstanzathisbeginswitha
reference to the coming days serving as an initial protasis (compare
lineDatoE1a),anditrepeatsthesamedivinespeechformula(com-
parelineDbtoE1b).Unlikethepreviousstanza,however,thisisin
twostrophes.Thefirststrophebeginstheapodosiswithafirstperson
weqatal verb,justaswasdonebefore.Butthesecondstrophe(8:12)is
markedbyachangetothirdpluralverbs.
Amos8:10-12 249
Garrett Amos final.indd 249 6/6/08 2:25:59 PM
8:11: First Strophe.Fivelines.LinesE1aandE1c,servingrespec-
tively as the protasis and apodosis, are the structural heart of this
strophe.





Line E1a:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.
. The expression occurs three times in
Amos,alwaysattheheadofadivinejudgmentregardingthefutureof
Israel.In4:2itannouncesthejudgmentthatwillbefallthewomenof
Samariawhenthecityfalls,andin9:13itannounceseschatological
salvationforIsrael.Here,itannouncesaprolongedperiodofdiaspora
duringwhichtimeIsraelwithbewithoutthewordofGod.
. Thesubjectoftheperiphrasticsentencewith .
. Qalactiveparticiplempof;itishereusedperiphras-
ticallyasapredicator.
Line E1b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0predicators,1constituent,and3units.
. Adivinespeechformula.
Line E1c: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Hiphilweqatal 1csof.Ithereintroducesthe
apodosis.Thehiphilof isusedfivetimesintheHebrewBible
(Exod8:17;Lev26:22;2Kgs15:37;Ezek14:13;here).Godisalways
thesubject,anditalwaysinvolvesthedispatchofaplagueorcalam-
250 Amos8:11
8:11 E1a
E1b
E1c
E1d
E1e
Garrett Amos final.indd 250 6/6/08 2:26:00 PM
ityuponGodsenemy.Thisisincontrasttotheotherstemsof,
whichoftendonotimplyhostileaction(wheretheverbmightbeused
forsendingamessenger,thereleaseofaperson,etc.)Especiallyillus-
trativeisExodus8:17,whereYHWHsaystothepharaoh,Orelse,
ifyouwillnotdismiss( piel)mypeople,behold,Iwilldispatch
( hiphil)swarmsoffliesonyou.
. Thedirectobject.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .
Line E1d:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0predicators,4constituents,and4units.Thislineisparenthetical,
explainingthenatureofthefaminepredictedinE1c.
. Thesubject fromthepreviouslineisrepeatedin
ordertoclarifywhatkindoffamineismeant.
. Prepositionalphrasewith markingtheobjectofhun-
ger.
. Thirst is here used in parallel with famine, as
thetwooftengotogether.Seealsothedescriptionofthirstin4:7-8.
. Samepatternas .
Line E1e:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0pred-
icators,2constituents,and3units.Theentirelineafter quali-
fiestheimpliedtopicword :Rather,(itisafamine)forhearing
thewordsofYHWH.
. The particles , as is common, here
togethermeanbutorrather.Theqalinfinitiveconstructof
with preposition here parallels the usage of in the previous line
( and );theinfinitivehasagerundfunctionastheobject
of (forhearing).
. Thedirectobjectof .
8:12: Second Strophe.Threelines.Thisstropheexplainshowthe
people will respond to the famine for the word of God with which
YHWHwillafflictthem.
Amos8:11 251
Garrett Amos final.indd 251 6/6/08 2:26:00 PM



Line E2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 3cpof,wander.Itisamainlinepredic-
tive text. The action of this verb is subsequent to and follows upon
theconditiondescribedinthepreviousstrophe,thattherewouldbea
famineforthewordofGod.
. Prepositional phrase with locative . The preposition
referstothebeginningpointoftheirwandering.
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,indicatingtheendpointof
theirwandering.Buttheidentitiesofthetwoseasisleftunstated,and
the verb wander by definition implies a lack of specificity regard-
ingonesoriginanddestination.Thus,itisunlikelythatoneshould
identify the seas mentioned here as some specific seas. Some inter-
pretersbelievethat,ontheanalogyofJoel2:20,thetwoseasarethe
Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. The idea is that the people will
wanderabouttheterritoryofJudah(Paul1991,266).Anotherview
isthatAmoshasthefourcardinaldirectionsinmind,andthatsince
lineE2bclearlyreferstonorthandeast,thislinemustrefertowest
andsouth(AndersenandFreedman1989,82526).Onthisreckon-
ing,oneoftheseasmustbetheMediterranean(west)andtheother
must be either the Dead Sea or perhaps the Gulf of Aqaba (south).
Neitherinterpretationisconvincing.Againstthefirstinterpretation,
itisreallyratherabsurdtopicturethefugitiveswanderingthesmall
space between the Dead Sea and Mediterranean. Also, unlike this
text,Joel2:20specificallyidentifiesitstwoseasastheeasternand
westernseas.Amosrefusaltospecifyaparticularseacannotbe
disregarded. Against the second interpretation, it is not at all clear
thatAmoshasthepointsofthecompassinmind(seethecomments
252 Amos8:12
8:12 E2a
E2b
E2c
Garrett Amos final.indd 252 6/6/08 2:26:01 PM
onthenextline).Rather,asinZecheriah9:10andPsalm72:8,
ineffectmeanstothemostdistantregionsoftheearthand
is not confined to the southern Levant. Why does Amos speak of
wandering from sea to sea instead of saying from land to land?
Probablybecauseheisimplyingthattheywillcrossmanyseasandgo
farawayintounknownterritory.
Line E2b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 0
predicators,2constituents,and2units.
. Prepositional phrase with . Although means
north,itconnotesmorethanacompasspoint. istheplaceof
the divine mountain (Isa 14:13; Ps 48:3 [E 2]). It stretches out into
agreatvoid(Job26:7).Towander impliesnotjustbeingsome-
whereinthenorthbutbeingunimaginablyfaraway.Itisthesenseof
greatdistance,notthegeographicaldirection,thatistherealpoint.
. Prepositionalphrasewith andtheconjunction.
is the sunrise and therefore by extension the east, but it is by
implicationalimitlessdistance,asnohumancanevergettotheplace
fromwhichthesunrises.Thus,thislinealsospeaksofwanderingfar
andwideandnotstrictlyofcompasspoints.
Line E2c:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:2pred-
icators,4constituents,and5units.
.Polelyiqtol 3mpof.Beingayiqtol,ratherthan
anotherweqatal,thisverbintroducesnotanothermainlinepredictive
clause but an offline clause, a prediction that summarizes and con-
cludes the message of the whole stanza. The polel of connotes
goingbackandforth,movingallaboutaterritory,asifinsearchof
something.Cf.2Chr16:9: (For
YHWHseyesroveaboutinalltheearth).
. Pielinfinitiveconstructof (seek)usedasacom-
plementwiththemainverb.
. Thedirectobjectof .
. Negated qal yiqtol 3 m p of with conjunc-
Amos8:12 253
Garrett Amos final.indd 253 6/6/08 2:26:01 PM
tion.Thisofflineclauseiscontrastivetothepreviousclauseheaded
by .
8:13-14: Prose Conclusion:Thestructureofthispassageindicates
thatitisprose.Ifitweretreatedaspoetry,thecolonbreakwouldhave
tobeafter .Thisfitstheformalrequirementsoftheconstraints,
butitisunusuallylongforalineinAmos,andtheessentialpreposi-
tionalphrase doesnotappearuntilthenextline.Thesecond
colonwouldhavetobe ,whichwouldbeabsurdly
truncatedafterthepreviousline.Inaddition,thecantillationsuggests
thattheMasoretesdidnotregardthisaspoetry(notethelackofany
majordisjunctiveinv.13beforethesilluq).Inordertoseetheclause
structure,thetwoversesmustbeconsideredtogether.




Prose Clause:

Allofv.13isasingleclause.Themainverb (hithpael
yiqtol 3 f p of , to faint) has both and as
subject. The word (by thirst) is adverbial and it applies to
bothsubjectnouns.Ithasthepreposition (usedinstrumentally)to
describewhatcausesthehealthyyoungpeopletocollapse.Thedefi-
nitearticleson and aswellason refertoa
classortypeandnottosomespecificpersonsorthing. (young
man) is derived from (choose) and refers to young men of
quality(seeNIDOTTE, ).
Prose Clause:
254 Amos8:12-14
8:13-14
Garrett Amos final.indd 254 6/6/08 2:26:01 PM
Thebeginningofv.14, ,isheadedby
aniphalparticiplempof servingasarelativeclausewhoseante-
cedentisboth and (theparticipleismasculineby
virtue of the gender of the nearer antecedent, just as , the
main verb, is feminine by virtue of the nearer subject noun). Thus,
although is a relative clause, it is closely
boundtotheprecedingclauseasitfunctionsasanadjectivalphrase
withthesubjects,andatranslationneedstoreflectthat.Thephrase
is emended by some to (by [the
deity]AshimaofSamaria).ButAshimawasnotintroducedintothe
landuntilafterthedestructionofSamariain722(seeABD,Ashima),
and there is no reason to suppose that Ashima was ever known as
Ashima of Samaria. should be left as is, by the
guiltofSamaria.ItreferstorivalshrinessuchasthatsetupatDan,
elsewherereferredtoinsimilarterms,suchasthethesinsofJeroboam
the son of Nebat (2 Kgs 15:9, etc.). That is, the god of Dan and
thewayofBeershebathatarementionedbelowtogetherconstitute
examplesoftheguiltofSamariabywhichtheyswear.
Prose Clause:
Aqalweqatal 3cpof,thisverbislinkedtotheparticiple
andgivesthecontentoftheoathsspokenbythemenand
womenofSamaria.Thetextcouldhaveusedthefamiliar for
thispurpose,buttheweqatal morestronglysuggeststhattheyusethe
oathformulasrepeatedlyorroutinely.
Prose Clause:
Averblessoathclause.Theform isnormallyusedforswearing
byYHWHwhiletheform isusedforswearingbymen(e.g.,2Kgs
2:6, , as YHWH lives and as your soul lives).
ButwedohavetheexampleoftheangelsoathinDaniel12:7,
,andhesworebythelifeoftheeternal,soperhapswe
should not make too much of this. could be taken to mean
yourgodsandtorefertoshrinesforpagandeitiesatDan.Onthe
Amos8:13-14 255
Garrett Amos final.indd 255 6/6/08 2:26:02 PM
other hand, it could mean your God and refer to YHWH. If the
latter, it implies that the Israelites regarded YHWH as a localized
shrinedeity.
Prose Clause:
Anotherverblessoathclause.SwearingbythewayofBeersheba
seemsodd,andinterpretershaveproposedvariousemendations,none
ofwhichisconvincing(seeWolff1977,32324,andPaul1991,271
72). hereapparentlyreferstothepilgrimagetoBeershebaandby
extensiontotheGodthere(Paul[1991,272]comparesittoaMuslim
custom of swearing by the pilgrimage to Mecca). As Beersheba was
relativelyfarfromSamaria,itmakessensethattheymightswearby
thepilgrimageasaeuphemismforthedeity.
Prose Clause:
Formallythisistwoclauses,butthenegatedqalyiqtol 3mpof
in servestomodifyadverbially andcould
betranslated,nevertoriseagain. ,aqalweqatal 3cpof,
resumes the mainline of the prophecy after , a verb with
whichitsharessomesemanticoverlap.
9:1-15: Second Poem with Prose Introduction
9:1a: Prose Introduction: ThistextdescribesavisionofYHWH
andassuchgivescontexttothefinaloraclesofthebook.

Prose Clause:
Theinitialverb,aqalqatal 1csof,indicatesthatthisisa
visionreport,althoughthisreportisformallydifferentfromtheother
four(7:1-9;8:1-3).YHWHdoesnotaddressAmosdirectly,andthere
isnowordplaybasedonsomeobjectinthevision.YHWHisstand-
ing(niphalparticiplemsof;anadjectivalparticiple) thealtar.
Does here mean upon? This is possible but not necessary; the
256 Amos8:149:1
9:1a
Garrett Amos final.indd 256 6/6/08 2:26:02 PM
meaningbesideiswellattested(e.g.,Jer17:2).Thepattern
asstandbesideappearsinGenesis24:13;Numbers23:6andelse-
where.Thealtarinquestionisprobablyatoneofthemajorshrines,
suchasBethelorDan.
Prose Clause:
The qal wayyiqtol 3 m s of continues the mainline of the
narrativeofthevision.AlthoughcontextindicatesthatYHWHisthe
speaker,thisisnotadivinespeechformula.
9:1b-4: First Stanza. Thisstanzaisinthreestrophes.Itdescribes
YHWHspurposetohuntdownandexterminatetheIsraelites(par-
ticularlytheleaders)inresponseto8:5-6.Thefirststrophespeaksof
thedestructionofthepeopleunderthemetaphorofstrikingapillared
structure, the second declares that none will escape, and the third
elaboratesonhowitisthatnonewillgetaway.
9:1b: First Strophe.Threelines.Itisacommandtocutdownthe
pillars of some edifice, such as a shrine or palace, and to so bring
downthewholestructure.Itismetaphoricalforbringingdownallof
society,startingwithitsmosthigh-rankingmembers(thecapitalsof
thepillars).



Line A1a:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:2pred-
icators,4constituents,and4units.
. Hiphilimperativemsof.
. Thecapital,thedirectobjectof .Ithasthedefi-
nitearticle.
. Qalweyiqtol 3mpof.Theweyiqtol ishereapur-
poseclause,sothattheyshake.
Amos9:1 257
9:1b A1a
A1b
A1c
Garrett Amos final.indd 257 6/6/08 2:26:03 PM
. Thesubjectof ,itmeans,thedoor-frames.
Line A1b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalimperativemsof with3mpsuffixandcon-
junction. The verb means to sever; it does not mean to shatter
(ESV)orbringdown(NIV).SeeHALOT .
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .Thecolumnsare
tobeseveredatthetop(themeaningof inthiscontext;this
is Iandnot II,poison,contrarytoCathcart1994[one
cannot sever with poison]). Many interpreters take to be a
constructbefore andreadthelinetomean,andseverthemon
thehead(s)ofallofthem(i.e.,onalltheirheads).Cf.ESV,NIV,
RSV,NRSV.Thepatternconstructnoun+ +suffixdoesappear;
cf. Judges 7:16, and he placed shofars in the hands of each one of
them( ),wherethepatternhasadistributivefunction.But
and sever them on(to) the head(s) of all of them is very awkward,
and one would expect, if the meaning were that the pillars were to
beseveredandfalldownontoalloftheirheads,thatthetextwould
insteadusethepattern (seeEzek7:18[ ];
alsocompareNehemiah9:32[ ];Psalm143:5[ ];
Jeremiah 16:17 [ ]). It is better (notwithstanding the
accentmunah)toread asanabsolutenounandtake tobe
in apposition to the pronoun suffix on the verb : and sever
themattheheadallofthem!AnanalogouscaseisinMicah3:7,
,andtheyshallcovertheupperlipallofthem
( clearly is notin construct). We have another similar example
inthisverycontext,inAmos9:5, ,and(theland)
shallriseliketheNileallofit,where obviouslyisnotincon-
struct.
. As stated above, this is in apposition to the suffix on
.
Line A1c: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
258 Amos9:1
Garrett Amos final.indd 258 6/6/08 2:26:03 PM
. Thisdoesnotformamerismwith fromline
A1b.,headortop,isnottheantonymto ,ending
or remainder. The two terms appear together in Isaiah 2:2; Amos
8:10; 9:1; Micah 4:1 and in the Aramaic of Daniel 2:28, but they
neverformamerism.Thereisakindofmerisminthistext,butnot
specificallywith.Rather,thepillars,thataccordingtolinesA1a-
b,aretobestruckdownaremetaphoricallytheleadingmembersof
society(cf.Gal2:9),and referstotherestofthepopulace,
thecommonpeople.
. Prepositionalphrasewithinstrumental .
. Qalyiqtol 1csof.Thepattern +[X]+yiqtolused
hereprobablymarksthislineasanofflinefuturefollowingtheimper-
ative inlineA1a.Itisanadditionalcommentmakingthepoint
that God will deal with the rest of the people after his command
concerningtheleadersiscarriedout.
9:1c: Second Strophe.Twolines.Thisbicolonwithsyntacticand
semantic parallelism makes the point that no one will escape. The
third strophe elaborates on this theme in much more detail. The
impossibilityofflightfromdeathanddisasterlooksbackto2:14-16
(wheretheverbs and areprominent)andformssomethingof
aninclusionforthebook.


Line A2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Negatedqalyiqtol 3msof.
. Prepositionalphrasewith anda3mpsuffix.Thiscould
beanethicaldative(GKC 119s),butonewouldexpectthesuffixto
besingular,liketheverb,ifthatwerethecase.Itisprobablyfunction-
ingasapartitivegenitive,asinnooneofthem.
Amos9:1 259
9:1c A2a
A2b
Garrett Amos final.indd 259 6/6/08 2:26:04 PM
. Qalactiveparticipleof usedsubstantivelyasacognate
nominativewiththemainverb.
Line A2b: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Negatedniphalyiqtol 3msof.
. SameasA2a.
. Thesubject;itisnotcognatewithitsverb( ),butit
hasassonancewithit,creating anotherlayerofparallelismwiththe
previousline.
9:2-4: Third Strophe. Twelve lines in six sub-strophe couplets.
This has a series of five protasis-apodosis bicola, with A3a, c, e, g,
ibeingtheprotasislinesandA3b,d,f,h,jbeingtheapodosislines.
The last two lines of the strophe, A3k-l, do not follow this pattern
and could be regarded as a separate strophe, but in Hebrew poetry,
a lengthy parallel series is often terminated by a final element that
breakstheformalpattern.Throughoutthestrophe,untiltheendat
lineA3k,theverbsareprimarilyyiqtol,markingthepotentialfuture
conditionsoftheprotasesandapodoses.










260 Amos9:1-4
9:2
9:3
9:4
A3a
A3b
A3c
A3d
A3e
A3f
A3g
A3h
A3i
A3j
Garrett Amos final.indd 260 6/6/08 2:26:04 PM


Line A3a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalyiqtol 3mpof (dig)with marking
theprotasis.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocativeordirective .Sheol,
liketheGreekHades,ishereconceivedofasbeingunderground.In
lines A3a-j, the first four hiding places are vertical in nature: Sheol
(down), heaven (up), Mt. Carmel (up), and the bottom of the sea
(down).Sheolisoftenthoughtofastheplacewhereoneisultimately
andfinallyremovedfromGod(Ps6:6[E5];9:18[E17],butseealso
Ps139:8).
Line A3b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Prepositionalphrasewith ,fromthere.
. Thesubject.
. Qalyiqtol 3fsof with3mpsuffix.
Line A3c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalyiqtol 3mpof with markingthepro-
tasis.
. HeavenishereinamerismwithSheolrepresentingthe
hypotheticalhighestandlowestplacesinthecosmos,andsoindicat-
ingthatthereisnoplacewheretheycangotohide.Thisisanironic
treatmentofwhatweseeinPsalm139:8,whichtakescomfortinthe
factthateveninheavenandinSheolnooneisbeyondGodsreach.
Here,thatfactisathreat.
Line A3d: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
Amos9:2-4 261
A3k
A3l
Garrett Amos final.indd 261 6/6/08 2:26:05 PM
. Prepositionalphrasewith .
. Hiphilyiqtol 1csof (bringdown)with3mp
suffix.ThisverbmaybeusedofGodbringingdowntheproud(e.g.,
Jer 49:16: [although you, like
theeagle,makeyournesthigh,fromthereIwillbringyoudown]).
Here,however,thepeopleareuphighnotoutofpridebutoutofa
desiretoescapeGod.
Line A3e:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Niphal yiqtol 3 m p of (hide) with
markingtheprotasis.
. Prepositional phrase with on a construct
chain.ButwhyisMt.Carmelmentionedasaplaceofhiding?Cren-
shaw suggests that it was because of its height (second only to Mt.
Tabor in Israel), its dense forests and its many caves. He notes that
the classical geographer Strabo says that robbers hid there. Also,
sinceCarmeljutsoutintotheMediterranean,itsetsthestageforthe
nexthidingplace,thebottomofthesea(Crenshaw1975,133).Itis
remarkable, however, that a local and certainly accessible mountain
ismentionedasahidingplaceamongthreeotherplacesthatinvolve
mythologicalvoyages(intoSheol,heaven,andthebottomofthesea).
ItmaybethatCarmelwasconsideredasacredplaceatthistime(note
especiallytheassociationofMt.CarmelwithElijah[1Kgs18],who
diedsome40yearsbeforeAmosministry).
Line A3f: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 2
predicators,3constituents,and3units.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .
. Pielyiqtol 1csof.Thepielof oftenmeans
toseekoutinahostilesense(Gen44:12;1Sam23:23;1Kgs20:6;
2Kgs10:23).ThisforcefullydevelopsthemetaphorofGodhunting
downthefleeingIsraelites.
. Qal weqatal 1 c s of with 3 m p suffix. The
262 Amos9:2-4
Garrett Amos final.indd 262 6/6/08 2:26:05 PM
weqatal adds a second prediction to the apodosis verb . This
shouldnotberenderedasapurposeclause;ifthatwerethemeaning,
aweyiqtol verbprobablywouldhavebeenused.
Line A3g:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and5units.
. Niphal yiqtol 3 m p of (hide) with
markingtheprotasis.
. The idiom occurs five times in the Old
Testament.Intheseexamples,italwaysconnotesbeingoutofGods
sightandthuspresumablyoutofhisthoughtsaswell.Isa1:16exhorts
the people to remove their evil deeds from before Gods eyes, and
Jeremiah16:17saysthattheiriniquityisnothiddenfromGodseyes.
InJonah2:5andPsalm31:23,thepsalmistisalarmedatthethought
ofbeingremovedfromGodssight(i.e.,abandonedbyhim).Herein
Amos,however,thepeopletrytoremovethemselvesfromGodssight,
asthoughtheywanthimtoforgetaboutthem.
. On the floor of the sea. In Gilgamesh, the
herodivestothebottomoftheseatorecovertheplantofeternallife
(ANET 96).Here,insteadofbeingonaherosquest,Israeliterefugees
plungeintothedeeptoescapeGod.Thebottomoftheseacouldalso
representtherealmofthedeadinparallelwithSheolinlineA3a(cf.
Rev20:13).Ofcourse,itdoesnotseemtomakesensethatsomeone
whoisalreadyintherealmofthedeadwouldbepunishedbybeing
puttodeath.Butrationalcoherenceofthatsortisnotthepointhere;
rather,themessageisthatthereisnoplacetohide.
Line A3h: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 2
predicators,4constituents,and4units.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .
. Pielyiqtol 1csof.
. Thedirectobjectof .Againthereisaparallel
toGilgameshsquest,inthatitwasaserpentthatthwartedhisquest
bycarryingawaytheplantofeternallife(ANET 96).Here,theser-
Amos9:2-4 263
Garrett Amos final.indd 263 6/6/08 2:26:06 PM
pentisanagentofGodanditattackstheIsraelitesdirectly.Inaddi-
tion,thisparallelsAmos5:19,wheretheserpentsbitefrustratesthe
flightofthemanseekingrefugefromalionorbear.
. Qalweqatal 3msof with3mpsuffix.Theweqa-
tal againindicatesasecondprediction,whichhereistheoutcomeof
Godscommand.
Line A3i:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Qalyiqtol 3mpof.
. Thelasthidingplace,thecaptivity,isremarkableintwo
ways.First,itisnotahypotheticalvoyageescapeGodbutcorresponds
totherealityofIsraelsexileanddiaspora.Second,Israelitesarehere
portrayedasthinkingofexileanddiaspora,theultimatepunishment
fromGod,asawaytohidefromGod.Itisasthoughttheywantedto
meldintothecrowdofGentilesanddisappear,hopingthatGodand
theythemselveswouldforgetthattheyarethecovenantpeople.
. The preposition , in the presence of,
insteadof ,in,or ,inthemidstof,suggeststhattheywill
stillstandoutasJews.Thechoiceof ,theirenemies,instead
of a more neutral term such as , the nations, reminds them
thattheirhostsretainalevelofhostilitytowardthem.
Line A3j: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 2
predicators,4constituents,and4units.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .
. Pielyiqtol 1csof.
. The direct object of , the sword is here per-
sonifiedastheagentofGodswrath,anditisconcretelyrealizedin
theliteralswordsoftheenemiesofthediasporaJews.
. Qalweqatal 3fsof with3mpsuffix. isa
femininenoun,inagreementwiththisverb.Theweqatal againindi-
catestheoutcomeoftheactionoftheapodosisverb.
264 Amos9:2-4
Garrett Amos final.indd 264 6/6/08 2:26:06 PM
Line A3k:Thecolon-markeristevir andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and3units.Tevir doesnotnormallysignalaline
break,butitwouldviolatetheconstraints(toomanyconstituents)to
havenobreakbetweenA3kandA3l.Thebreakispreferable,more-
over,becauseA3kcreatesasuspension(TowhatendwillGodkeep
hiseyeuponthem?)thatA3lbringstoatragicresolution.
. Qalweqatal 1csof .Thisactsasamainlineverb
continuingthesequenceofpredictionsinalltheapodosislinesabove.
Breakingthepatternofprotasisandapodosisline-pairsandbeingthe
last verb of this lengthy strophe, moreover, it describes the abiding
conditioninwhichtheIsraeliteswillfindthemselvesvis--vis God.
. ReferencetoYHWHseyerecallslineA3g.
. Prepositional phrase with . My eye upon you has
abenevolentsenseinPsalm32:8,andthereadermightanticipatethe
samemeaninghere,butthenextlineshowsthatithasahostilesense
here.
Line A3l:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0pred-
icators, 2 constituents, and 2 units. This line is dependent on the
previousline.
. Prepositional phrase with here denoting goal or pur-
pose.Thisisineffectanabbreviatedwayofsaying,forthepurpose
ofharmingthem.
. Amosdirepredictionisreversedintheeschato-
logicalredemptionpredictedinJeremiah24:6:Iwillsetmyeyeson
themforgood( ).
9:5-6: Second Stanza. Thisdoxologicalstanzaisinonestrophe.
ThestanzaisopenedinBawith ,andisclosed
inBjwith ,forminganinclusion.Settingasidethesetwo
lines,therearethreesub-stropheseachheadedbyadefiniteqalactive
participle( inBb, inBf,and inBh).Itistempting
tobreakthisintothreestrophesateachparticipleline,butthisstanza
isinfactasinglesentence(TheLordYHWHSabaoth...,hisname
Amos9:4-6 265
Garrett Amos final.indd 265 6/6/08 2:26:06 PM
is YHWH) within which there are three complex relative clauses,
eachformedbyaparticipleandoneormorefiniteverbs.Amosten-
dencytohaveoneormoreparticipleslinesfollowedbylinesheaded
bytheconjunctionandpredicatedwithafiniteverbhasalreadybeen
noted; see 6:3-6. He does the same thing here in Bb-e (one parti-
ciple line and three finite verb lines), Bf-g (one participle line and
onefiniteverbline)andBh-i(oneparticiplelineandonefiniteverb
line).Ineachofthesewehaveaparticipialrelativeclauseextendedby
theadditionofoneormorefiniteverblines.Thedivinetitle(
)servesastheantecedentforallthreecomplexrelative
clauses.ThisstanzaassertsGodsauthorityoverallthingsbyvirtueof
hisintrinsicpower(firstrelativeclause[Bb-e])andhisroyalauthority
(secondrelativeclause[Bf-g]).Thesetwoconceptsarecombinedin
thethirdrelativeclause(Bh-i),whereGodcalls()thewatersup
fromtheseaandpoursthemonearth.Thestressondivineauthority
arisesfromtheprophetsassertionthatGodwoulddealwithIsraelby
issuingjudgmentalcommands(notetheuseof in9:3,4,9).










266 Amos9:5-6
9:5 Ba
Bb
Bc
Bd
Be
9:6 Bf
Bg
Bh
Bi
Bj
Garrett Amos final.indd 266 6/6/08 2:26:07 PM
Line Ba:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,1constituent,and3units.
. YHWHsnameisproclaimedinapleo-
nasticmannertopreparethereaderfortheattributesandpowersthat
willbepredicatedtohiminthefollowinglines.Thisisatitle(Lord
YHWH of the Sabaoth), not a clause (YHWH of the Sabaoth is
Lord). Since appears as a title almost 300 times in the
Hebrew Bible (twenty times in Amos), it is impossible that is
hereapredicate.
Line Bb:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
2predicators,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalactiveparticiplemsof (touch)withthearticle.
Itisapredicator,asindicatedbythewayyiqtol verbcoordinatedwithit
inthisline.Asindicatedabove,itservesasarelativeclause.
. Prepositional phrase with locative . The earth is here
thedomainofhumanhabitation,unlikeseaandsky.
. Qalwayyiqtol 3fsof (melt).Thesubjectis .
Theperfectivewayyiqtol isheregnomicandnotinreferencetopast
action, although the choice of a wayyiqtol (instead of a pattern +
[X]+qatal)makesthepointthattheactionofthisverbissequential
totheactionoftheprecedingparticiple.Themeltingoftheearth
probablyreferstoanearthquake.
Line Bc: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 3mpof.Theuseofaweqatal aftera
wayyiqtol isnoteworthy.Theactionisbothresultativeandingressive
(sothattheybegintomourn).
. After,theqalactiveparticiplempconstruct
of isjoinedtoaprepositionalphrasewith .Theuseofacon-
structbeforethepreposition isunusualbutnotwithoutanalogy.
Cf. Isaiah 5:11, (Woe to those who rise early
inthemorning...),and9:1, (inhabitantsin
Amos9:5-6 267
Garrett Amos final.indd 267 6/6/08 2:26:07 PM
a land of deep darkness). In each of these cases, the construct is a
participle.
Line Bd:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 3fsof.Theimperfectiveweqatal here
describesrepeatedaction;thelanddoesnotsimplyheaveuponcebut
risesandfallsmanytimes.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .
. Thisisinappositionto inlineB1b,theimpliedsub-
jectoftheverb .
Line Be:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 3fsof.Again,theweqatal expresses
repeatedaction.
. See8:8.
Line Bf:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Therelativeclause,likethefirst,beginswithaqalactive
participlems(hereof)withthearticle.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .
. Thedirectobject.Theword consistentlyrefers
to the steps of a stairway (Exod 20:26; 1 Kgs 10:19; etc.), although
it can refer metaphorically to the direction of ones thoughts (Ezek
11:5).Thismayexplainthemysteriouspsalmdesignation
(songofascents).ButitseemsoddthatGodwouldbuildhisstepsin
heaven.Somethereforeemendto ,hisupperchamber( );
thusHALOT .ButMurXII(88)8:16(fromtheWadiMurab-
baattextsfromtheJudeanDesert)atteststothereading,and
thisrendersemendationdoubtful.Oneshouldnotsimplytranslatethe
wordasupperchamberasthough and meantthesame
thing.Butif meanshisstairsteps,itobviouslycannotrefer
268 Amos9:5-6
Garrett Amos final.indd 268 6/6/08 2:26:08 PM
to a stairway to some higher place (What could be above heaven?).
However,in1Kings10:19and2Kings9:13thetermreferstostepsup
toathroneorplaceofroyalauthority.Thus,itmaybethatthesteps
arepartofYHWHsthroneorjudgmentseatandthatbysynecdoche
thestepsrefertothethroneitself.
Line Bg: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Thedirectobjectwitha3mssuffixandaconjunction.
Thenoun referstosomethingthatiscloselyboundtogether(it
isapparentlyfromtheroot II,tojointogether).Itcanreferto
abunchofhyssop(Exod12:22)ortoadisciplinedbodyoftroops(2
Sam2:25).Englishtranslationspersistentlyrenderthisasvault,but
itisnotclearwhattheymeanbythat.Avaultisoftenanarchedor
domedstructureoftheRomanesquetype,butsucharchitecturedid
notexistinIronAgeIsrael.Avaultmaybeanundergroundchurch
crypt, but this, too, does not exist in Israelite architecture. Stuart
(1987,393)takesittomeanstoreroombuthedoesnotindicatewhat
ishisevidenceforthisrendering(nordoeshesaywhatissupposedto
bekeptinthisstoreroom).Maystranslatesitwithoutexplanationas
reservoir(Mays1969,151),possiblyjustifyingthistranslationfrom
thenextline.Butthisiswrong;theparticiple inlineBhbelow
indicatesthatthisisaseparate,thirdrelativeclauseandisunrelated
to the . The is here apparently some architectural fea-
ture which, in keeping with the root meaning of the word (bound
together), is made very secure and uniform. Since it is founded
() we might speculate that the is the foundation itself, a
platformthatispreciselyjoinedtogethersothatitisverysecure,like
a well-made footing of cut stone or wood. Furthermore, if
in2BareferstoGodsthrone,the maybetheplatformforthe
throne.Thisconcept,thattheupperpartofGodsthroneisinheaven
andthelowerpartonearth,maybebaseduponaconceptsuchasin
Deuteronomy 4:39,
(YHWHisGodinheavenaboveandonearthbelow).Thus,
Amos9:5-6 269
Garrett Amos final.indd 269 6/6/08 2:26:08 PM
lines Bf-g assert that Gods throne occupies heaven and earth, as in
Isaiah66:1,Heavenismythroneandtheearthismyfootstool.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .
. Qalqatal 3msof (fix,establish)with3fssuffix
(antecedentis ).
Line Bh:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator, 2 constituents, and 3 units. Lines Bh-j repeat verbatim three
linesfrom5:8.
. Qal active participle of with definite article; it is
coordinated with the following wayyiqtol in line Bi and is
thereforeapredicator.Theuseof hereisanalogous,ontheone
hand, to a king who issues commands to his subjects, and on the
other hand, to a conjuror who summons up the power of the deep.
SeeAmos7:4.
. Prepositional phrase with and a construct chain;
indicatestheaddressee.
Line Bi:Thecolon-markeristifha andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalwayyiqtol 3msof (pourout)with3mp
suffix.Thewayyiqtol isheresequentialbutgnomic(notpasttense).
. Prepositionalphrasewithdirectional .The
construct isnotprepositionalbutisliterallythefaceof (i.e.,the
surfaceof )theground.
Line Bj:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:0predi-
cators,2constituents,and2units.
Seethediscussionofline1fin5:8.
9:7-8: Third Stanza. This stanza is in two strophes. There is an
inclusion structure here; appears at the beginning of the
stanzainC1bandatitsendinC2e.ThisstanzaconcernsIsraelsplace
asoneofthenations,statinginthefirststrophethatIsraelcannotcite
theexodusasproofthatGodespeciallyfavorsIsrael,sinceGodalso
led other nations in something of an exodus. Significantly, the last
270 Amos9:5-8
Garrett Amos final.indd 270 6/6/08 2:26:09 PM
twonationsnamedinstropheone(thePhilistinesandAraminC1d)
arethefirsttwonationsjudgedinAmos1:3-8,creatinganotherinclu-
sion for the beginningand endingof the book. The second strophe
indicates that like those Gentile nations, Israel, too, will be judged,
butitalsoassertsthatIsraelwillnotbeeradicated.
9:7: First Strophe. Fourlines.Astoundingly,theexodus,elsewhere
describedasthesingulareventthatmarkedIsraelastheelectpeople,
isheredemotedtothelevelofbeinganalogoustotheearlymigrations
ofotherpeoples.WhydoesAmosdothis?AgainstHoffman(1989),
itisnotbecauseAmos,asarepresentativeofthesouthernkingdom,
rejectedthebelief(supposedlyparticularlypredominantinthenorth-
ernkingdom)thattheexoduswasaconstitutivetheologicalevent.If
onetakes9:7tomeanthatAmosdidnotregardtheexodusasacrucial
event in redemption history, then one would also have to conclude
thatAmosrejectedalsotheveryideaofIsraelselection(seelinesC1a-
b below). This he manifestly does not do (3:1-2). Rather, Amos is
continuingtoattacktheexaggeratedandperversesignificanceIsrael
attached to its election and exodus. Negatively, he had argued that
just as God judges the Gentiles, so he will also judge Israel (Amos
12).Here,hearguesmorepositivelythatjustasGodhadcreatedand
redeemedIsrael,soalsohesupervisedthebirthsoftheothernations.
In short, the distance betweenelect Israel and the Gentile outsiders
wasnotnearlysogreatasAmosaudiencehadimagined.




Line C1a:Thecolon-markeristevir andtheconstraintsare:0pred-
icators, 3 constituents, and 3 units (taking as a proper
name).Thisisaverblessclause.
Amos9:7 271
9:7 C1a
C1b
C1c
C1d
Garrett Amos final.indd 271 6/6/08 2:26:09 PM
. After the rhetorical interrogative marker
andthepreposition ,theconstructchainsonsoftheCushites
headsthisstrophe,givingrhetoricalprominencetotheCushites.In
otherwords,bynamingtheCushitesfirst,theyaremademorepromi-
nentandIsraelis,bycomparison,diminished.
. Thesubject.
. Tomeheremeans,asfarasitconcernsme.Cf.theidiom
(or, ),Whatdealingsaretherebetweenme
andyou?asinJudges11:12;2Samuel16:10;2Kings3:13.Thepoint
here is not simply that the Israelites are like the Cushites in Gods
opinion,butthattheIsraeliteshavenogreaterclaimonGodthando
theCushites.
Line C1b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. A vocative (a predicator according to the con-
straints).Byusingthesameformulaforbothpeoples( and
),theprophetrhetoricallyremovesanydistinctionbetween
them.
. Adivinespeechformula.
Line C1c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. The second rhetorical question (also
headed by ) here places Israel first, making it the focus. Rhe-
torically,thisdeliberatelymisdirectsthereader.BymakingIsraelthe
focusandreferringtotheexodus,itappearstobereadytoaffirmthat
IsraeldoesindeedhaveauniquerelationshiptoGod.Thefollowing
line,however,undercutsthiscompletelybyassigningthesamestatus
toPhilistiaandSyria.
. Hiphilqatal 1csof.Amosusesthehiphilof
to refer to God taking Israel from Egypt in the exodus also in 2:10
and3:1.
272 Amos9:7
Garrett Amos final.indd 272 6/6/08 2:26:10 PM
. Prepositional phrase with on a construct
chain.Thisobviouslyreferstotheexodus.
Line C1d: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 0
predicators,4constituents,and4units.Thereisgappingoftheverb
.Thisgappingisrhetoricallyeffective;theoneverbrefersto
themovementsofIsrael,Philistia,andSyria,andthusthepossibility
oftherebeingaqualitativedifferenceamongthemiseliminated.
. Thesubjectofthe(gapped)secondclause.
. Prepositionalphrasewith forplaceoforigin.Crete,
Cyprus,andCiliciahaveallbeensuggestedasthelocationofCaphtor,
butCreteisprobablycorrect(RaineyandNotley2006,108).
. Thesubjectofthe(gapped)thirdclause.
. Prepositionalphrasewith forplaceoforigin.OnKir,
seecommentson1:5.
9:8: Second Strophe.Fourlines.ThetextspeaksofGodsdeter-
mination to destroy the sinful kingdom (which can be any sinful
kingdom)butassertsthatIsraelwillnotbetotallydestroyed.Israelis
thereforebothlikeandunliketheothernationsofearth.




Line C2a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0 predicators, 3 constituents, and 6 units. This violates the normal
constraints(toomanyunits),butallthelinesofthisstrophe(except
thedivinespeechformulainC2d)areunusuallylongforAmos.
. As always, draws attention to what follows. In this
case,however,itprobablyalsolooksbacktotheprecedingcontext,in
Amos9:7-8 273
9:8 C2a
C2b
C2c
C2d
Garrett Amos final.indd 273 6/6/08 2:26:10 PM
whichIsraelenjoysnofavoritismfromGodoveragainstCush,Philis-
tiaandSyria.Thus, functionsherealmostasifitwere
(cf.Gen12:19;Num24:14;Josh9:12;Jer40:4,etc.,where
occupiesakindofJanusposition,lookingbacktotheformerreality
andaheadtowhatfollows).
. Aconstructchainservingasthesubjectofa
verblessclause.After9:4,itisclearthattheeyesofYHWHareon
peopleforevilandnotforgood.
. Prepositional phrase with locative or
objective on a noun with adjective. The sinful kingdom is not
identifiedhere.AftertheprecedingindictmentsofIsrael,therecanbe
nodoubtthatIsraelisincludedinthisconcept.ButIsraelisnotthe
only sinful kingdom, as the opening oracles of the book indicate.
Thus,IsraelisonceagaingroupedtogetherwithsinfulGentilestates
thatGodisreadytodestroy.
Line C2b:Thecolon-markerisathnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Hiphilweqatal 1csof (destroy).
. Thedirectobject.
. Prepositionalphrasewith and .This
expressionisoftenusedtodescribethedivineannihilationofaperson
orpeople(Gen6:7;7:4;Exod32:12;Deut6:15;1Kgs9:7;Jer28:16;
Zeph1:2).
Line C2c: The colon-marker is tifha and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and4units(taking asaproper
name).
. ThisidiomappearshereandinNumbers13:28;Deu-
teronomy15:4;Judges4:9;and2Samuel12:14.Itmeansneverthe-
less.
. Negated hiphil infinitive absolute of
withHiphilyiqtol 1csof.Theinfinitiveisusedadverbi-
allytoindicatetotality;here,ofcourse,itisnegated.Itseemsaself-
274 Amos9:8
Garrett Amos final.indd 274 6/6/08 2:26:11 PM
contradictiontosayinonelinethatGodwillwipethemofftheface
oftheearthandinthenextlinesaythathewillnotutterlydestroy
them.Note,however,thatYHWHdidnotspecifyinlinesC2a-bthat
hewouldutterlydestroyIsrael;rather,hewouldutterlydestroythe
sinfulkingdom.Israel,AramandPhilistiaallfallintothiscategory,
butYHWHmakesapartialexceptionIsraelscase.
. Thedirectobject.
Line C2d: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 0
predicators,1constituent,and2units.
. Adivinespeechformula.
9:9-10: Fourth Stanza. Thisstanzaisintwostrophes.Thestanza
isintroducedby inD1a,alinethatactsasapro-
tasisforthewholestanza.Theapodosis,thecontentofwhatYHWH
commands, is in two parts, the first apodosis being at D1b and the
secondatD2a.SettingasidetheprotasisatD1a,eachstrophehasa
three-lineapodosis.ThecontentofthestanzaconcernsIsraelindias-
poraamongthenations.
9:9: First Strophe.Fourlines,makingthepointthatexiledIsrael
willnotstopwanderingfromplacetoplace.




Line D1a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.Thislineisidenticaltothe
firstlineof6:11exceptthatthesubjectisfirstperson.
. The expression is almost always explanatory
(as opposed to by itself, which has a wide range of meanings). It
isoftenusedintheprophetstointroducesomepredictedactofGod
Amos9:8-9 275
9:9 D1a
D1b
D1c
D1d
Garrett Amos final.indd 275 6/6/08 2:26:11 PM
thatisthebasisforawarning,exhortation,orappeal(e.g.,Isa26:20;
60:2;65:17;Jer1:15;25:29;49:15;Amos6:11).
. Notethat appearswithafirstpersonsubjectin9:3-4
also.
. Pielparticiplemsof.Thisparallelstheuseof
in6:11and9:3-4,whereGoddecreesjudgmentonIsrael.Here,asin
6:11, hasnoaddressee.
Line D1b: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units(taking asaproper
name).
. Hiphilweqatal 1csof.Thehiphilof isused
with to mean, to shake the head (as a sign of derision), as
inLam2:15.Theverbalsomeanstomakesomethingtotter(before
brining it down) in Psalm 59:12 (E 11). In 2 Kings 23:18 it is used
fordisturbingthebonesofadeceasedperson.InNumbers32:13and
2 Samuel 15:20 (qere) it is used for making people wander about.
In general, the root means either to wander (of people; Gen
4:12,14;Ps109:10;Lam4:14)ortosway,trembleorquiver(of
trees[Judg9:9],orofapersonshand[Zeph2:15]orlips[1Sam1:13],
orofapersonorhisheart,signifyingfear[Exod20:18;Isa7:2]).In
itsotherusesinAmos(4:8;8:12)itreferstothewanderingofpeople.
Thatisthemeaninghereaswell.
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .
. Thedirectobject.
Line D1c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. As is normal, this means just as. It here sets up an
analogy.
. Niphalyiqtol 3msof.UsedonlyhereandinNahum
3:12,theniphalmeanstobeshakenaboutorjostled.Thesubject
isnotindicated;itcouldbe (pebble)fromthenextline.The
subjectcannotbe fromtheprecedinglinesincethisline
276 Amos9:9
Garrett Amos final.indd 276 6/6/08 2:26:12 PM
describestheanalogyandnotthethingitself.Probably,however,an
impersonaltranslationisbest:Justaswhenthereisashaking....
. Prepositionalphrasewithlocative .Theword
ishapax legomenon intheHebrewBible. occursonajarstamp
from Tell el-Judeideh, but this is probably a homonym with no rel-
evance toAmos9:9 (seeBliss1900, 22122). Thestandard transla-
tionfor here,sieve,isbasedonlaterHebrew.Severalscholars
believethatSirach27:4mayrefertothe .TheLXXofthattext
readst v oti ooi |oo|i vou iot vti |opi o(Whenasieveisshaken,
dungremains).Wolff(1977,349)indicatesthattheHebrewforthe
Sirachtextis ,butheprovidesnosourcefor
this. In fact, no extant Hebrew manuscript of Sirach contains 27:4
(seeSkehanandDiLella1987,5253;seealsoLevi1951;Yadin1965),
andnoextantHebrewtextofSirachcontainstheword (accord-
ingtoBen-Hayyim1973).ItappearsthatWolff sHebrewtextishis
ownretroversionandthusisofnovalueforlexicalanalysis.AUgaritic
parallel,kbrt,appearsintheBaalmyth(CTA 6:v:16),wheretheline
istranslatedbyDennisPardeeasonaccountof[you]Iexperienced
[beingstrained]withasieve.However,onlyasinglelettertheverbis
extant([y];seeCOS 1,272[especiallyn.270]),makingthisinter-
pretation less certain and perhaps dependent on later Hebrew texts.
Thus,theUgaritictextaddslittleclarity. hasseveral possible
cognatesinbiblicalHebrew,including ,agoat-hairquiltorpil-
low(1Sam19:13,16), ,anotherkindofquilt(2Kgs8:15),and
,thebronzegratingfoundinthebronzealtar(Exod27:4;35:16;
38:4,5,30;39:39).Thecommonelementinallofthesemayhavebeen
aninterlacedconstruction.Ontheotherhand,theconstructionand
purposesofthesevariouscognatenounsvarysignificantlyandtheir
relationshiptooneanotherisuncertain.Thenatureandpurposeof
the is particularly opaque. If it was a sieve, it is not certain
whetheritwassomethinglikeabasketwithalatticebottom,orabag
madewithcrisscrossedcords,orsomethingentirelydifferent.Shalom
Paularguesthatitwasusedforcleansinggrain,andsaysthatthegrain
wouldfallthroughthelatticeworkwhiletheimpuritieswouldremain
Amos9:9 277
Garrett Amos final.indd 277 6/6/08 2:26:12 PM
inthe (Paul1991,286n.39;seealsoStuart1987,393).This
isimplausible;itisunlikelythatkernelsofgrainwouldfallthrougha
sievebutthatpebbles,whichwouldoftenbesmaller,smoother,and
heavier,wouldnot(seelineD1d).Ontheotherhand,othersclaimthat
thegrainwouldremaininthesievewhiletheimpuritiesfellthrough.
Ifso,whydoesAmospointoutthatnopebblesfallthrough?Infact,
thereisnoindicationherethatthe wasusedforsiftinggrain.
Line D1d: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Negated qal yiqtol 3 m s of with conjunction.
Thenegatedyiqtol hereadverbiallymodifiestheprecedingverb
andcouldbetranslated,withoutapebblefallingtoearth(lit.,and
apebbledoesntfalltoearth).
. From 2 Samuel 17:13, where the word describes what
remains after a wall is brought down, this word probably means
small stone or pebble. It does not mean kernel (of wheat),
againstAndersenandFreedman(1989,87071)(whoappeartowant
toemendonthebasisoftheLXXto II,butthisemendationis
far-fetched)andSmith(1998,367).
. Alocativesense,totheearth,isimplieddespitethelack
ofaprepositionordirective.Thestandardinterpretationofthese
lines is that there will be a sifting out the good or elect from the
evilorrejected.Butproblemsherearenumerous.Isthepebblethe
goodorthebad?Whatisthesubstance(apartfromthepebbles)that
is being sifted? What falls through the sieve? Is it something good
(wheat)orsomethingbad(dirt)?Isthefactthatnotapebblefallsout
a judgment or salvation? Issues in the interpretation of the analogy
areequallyobscure.Ifthereisasifting,areIsraelitesbeingseparated
from Gentiles? Are sinful Israelites being separated from repentant
ones?Inshort,everyaspectofthesiftinginterpretationisunclear
both in terms of the details of the cultural analogy and in terms of
thetheologicalmeaningofitssymbols.Wolff(1977,349)argueson
thebasisofSirach27:4thatthepebblesaresinnersandthattheones
278 Amos9:9
Garrett Amos final.indd 278 6/6/08 2:26:12 PM
thatfalloutaretheremnant(alsoPaul1991,286).Butthistextsays
nothingaboutaremnant;itonlydescribesthejostlingofthepebbles.
ElsewhereintheBible,whenthereisananalogyinvolvingsiftingor
separating, it is generally separating grain from chaff, and it is at a
threshing floor or using the wind, a sledge or a threshing fork, and
notasieve.Insuchtexts,theanalogyistransparentinbothcultural
contextandinterpretation(e.g.,Job21:18;Ps1:4;Isa29:5;41:15;Mal
4:1; Luke 3:17). The present text is nothing like that. We therefore
concludethatthistextdoesnotmentioneithersiftingoraremnant.
Rather,thepebblesshakingaboutwithinthe isitselfthepoint.
The meaning, following the usage of in Amos 8:12, is that the
Israeliteswillwandertoandfroamongthenations.Thereasonthat
asieve(ifthatisthemeaningof )ismentionedissimplythat
thisissomethingwhichislikelytobeshaken.Thestatementthatno
pebblefallstoearthonlymeansthatnoJewwillescapethebuffeting
ofbeingbouncedaboutfromplacetoplace.Thatis,theywillnotbe
releasedfromtheirwandering.Thisisapredictionofdiaspora,notof
separatingoutaremnant.
9:10: Second Strophe.Threelines.Thestanzadescribeshowthe
Israelites/Jewswillfindthemselvesviolentlyattackedinplaceswhere
theythoughtthattheyhadobtainedrefuge.TheslaughterofJewsin
diaspora,andnotjustthedestructionofSamaria,isinviewhere.



Line D2a:Thecolon-markerisathnach andtheconstraintsare:1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Prepositional phrase with instrumental use of . The
swordisheremetonymyfortheviolenceofanenemy.
. Qalyiqtol 3mpof.
Amos9:9-10 279
9:10 D2a
D2b
D2c
Garrett Amos final.indd 279 6/6/08 2:26:13 PM
. This is a construct chain and the subject of
. The word appears to be absolute but it is construct; cf.
Amos 3:2 and 4:6. An important question is whether the construct
chain createsapartitivegenitive,indicatingthatGodwill
selectoutthesinnersofthenationandsetthemasideforpunishment
but spare the rest, who might be defined as a remnant. Analogous
constructchainsappearatExodus23:11( )1Samuel15:30
( );Isaiah3:14( );10:2( );14:32( );
Psalm113:8( );andRuth4:4( ).Ineachofthesethe
genitiverelationshipwouldbebetterdefinedasfocalthanasparti-
tive.Inotherwords,thosewhoaredefinedasthepoororelders
ornoblesofthepeoplearethefocus oftheirrespectivesentences,but
theyarenotconceivedofasbeingsomehowseparatedfromtherestof
thepopulation.Forexample,in1Samuel15:30,whenSaulasksSam-
ueltohonorhimbeforetheeldersofmypeople,hedoesnotmean
that the elders are to be set apart from the rest of Israel, much less
thathewillnotbehonoredbytherestofthenation;hemerelygives
focustothemenofhighstanding(Saulsfullrequestis
[Honormebeforetheeldersofmypeopleand
beforeIsrael]).Similarly,whenIsaiah10:2criticizesthosewhorob
thepoorofmypeople,itdoesnotmeanthattherobberssingleout
thepoorforrobberyorthatitisofnoconsequenceiftheyrobpeople
whoarenotpoor;thetextmerelyfocusesontheheinousnatureofthe
crimeascommittedagainstthepoor.Amosdoesnotmeanthatonly
apartofIsraelwillbesingledoutforpunishment.Thephrase
focusesonthosewhohavecommittedthecrimesthischapterhas
described.Amosonlyleavesthedooropenforthesurvivalofsome,
buthehasherenothingherelikeafull-fledgedremnanttheology.See
alsoNoble(1997).
Line D2b: The colon-marker is revia and the constraints are: 1
predicator,1constituent,and1unit.Thisviolatestheconstraintsbut
seemsthebestsolutionforthecolometryofthisstrophe.
280 Amos9:10
Garrett Amos final.indd 280 6/6/08 2:26:13 PM
. Qalactiveparticiplempof witharticle;itserves
asarelativeclausewith asitsantecedent.
Line D2c: The colon-marker is silluq and the constraints are: 2
predicators,4constituents,and4units.Thisisreportedspeech.
. Hiphil yiqtol 3 f s of . But the hiphil (offer,
bringnear)makeslittlesensehere,anditmaybebettertoemendit
totheqal (approach,comenear).ThehiphiloftheMTmaybe
accountedforbyattractionto .Thesubjectisleftundefined
untilthelastwordoftheline.
. Hiphilweyiqtol 3fsof (meet).Thisdoesnot
functionasaweyiqtol normallydoes(e.g.,tointroduceafinalclause).
Instead, is a compounded verb clause, with the
negative governingbothverbs.Notetheconjunctiveaccentdarga
in .
. Prepositional phrase with . The word generally
connotesbeingbehindoraroundsomethingeithertoentrapit(Jonah
2:7) or protect it (Zech 12:8). It can also mean for the sake of or
beyond.Inthiscontext,itseemstoimplyentrappingorcatchingup
withthepeople.
. Thesubject.Thetroublehereconnotestheproblems
andviolencethataristocracyofIsraelsupposesitcanescape.
9:11-12: Fifth Stanza. This stanza is a single strophe headed by
in line Ea and concluded with in
line Eh. A predictive text, this stanza has a series of weqatal verbs
at Ec-e, analogous to how weqatal verbs dominate the predictions
of doom in Amos 12. Also, this stanza has eight lines, analogous
to the seven-line doom predictions in 1:45, 7-8, 14-15; 2:2-3. The
eight-line stanza here may reflect the fact that in Amos 12 Israel
is the eighth nation named. In content, however, this text reverses
theothersinthatitisapredictionofrestoration.Manyscholars,of
course, believe that 9:11-15 is a secondary addition to the book (cf.
Hasel1991,10520),butthatconclusionisunnecessary.Structurally,
Amos9:10 281
Garrett Amos final.indd 281 6/6/08 2:26:14 PM
this material is integrated into the whole of 8:49:15, as illustrated
bythefocusonmattersinvolvingfoodandagriculturein8:5,11-13
and9:13.Also,8:49:10isessentialtounderstanding9:11-15.After
GodspromisetohuntdownandslaughterIsraeliteswherevertheygo,
thesurvivalandrenewalofIsraelisasurprisingworkofGodandso
dramaticareversaloftheforegoingpronouncementsofdoomthatthe
lattertextcanonlybeexplainedasaresurrection.Thisismorefully
developedinlaterprophets,especiallyEzekiel37.But9:11-15depends
upontheearliersentenceofdeath.Theastonishing,counter-intuitive
natureofthetextisintentional.








Line Ea:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
0predicators,1constituent,and2units.
. Thefamiliarprophetictemporalmarkerhererefers
tosometimeattheendofIsraelsdiaspora.
Line Eb: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and4units.
. Hiphilyiqtol 1csof.
. A construct chain with a participle
( :qalactiveparticiplefsof withdefinitearticle)serving
asanattributiveadjectiveto .A iseitheralean-tomadeof
282 Amos9:11-12
9:11
9:12
Ea
Eb
Ec
Ed
Ee
Ef
Eg
Eh
Garrett Amos final.indd 282 6/6/08 2:26:14 PM
branchesoratent;itissomekindoftemporaryshelter.(Richardson
1973arguesthatthewordherereferstothetownSuccoth,butthis
isnotpersuasive.Similarly,interpretingthe asashrineby
tying it to the discredited idea that in the Tel Dan inscription
is a god [Davies 1994] should be rejected.) Davids house ( , a
dynastyin2Sam7:11)isherecalleda toindicatethewretched
stateintowhichtheDavidicdynastyandempirehadfallen.
Line Ec:Thecolon-markerisrevia andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qalweqatal 1csof (towallup).Itisamainline
verbinapredictivetext.
. The direct object. The breaches function on
twolevelshere.Theyarethebreachesinthewallsoftheconquered
cityandsoreflectthedestructionofIsraelsgreatcities,buttheyare
also breaches in the walls of a decrepit house, a metaphor for the
Davidicdynasty.
Line Ed:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Thedirectobject. ishapax legomenon inthe
HebrewBible,butitisderivativeof,toruinorteardown,so
itsmeaning,ruins,isnotindoubt.
. Hiphilyiqtol 1csof.Thislineandclausehasa +
[X]+yiqtol patternandisnotmainline(whichwouldrequireaweqa-
tal).Instead,lineEdisboundtolineEcasaparallelclause.
Line Ee:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalweqatal 1csof with3fssuffix.Theante-
cedent to the feminine suffix is (line Eb). This resumes
themainlineprediction.LinesEc-ddescribethemakingofessential
repairs;thislinedescribestheenlargementandaggrandizementofthe
houseofDavid.
Amos9:11-12 283
Garrett Amos final.indd 283 6/6/08 2:26:15 PM
. Prepositionalphrasewith .Theconstructchain
createsanadjectivalgenitive,inwhichasindaysofagemeansas
inancienttimes.
Line Ef:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1 predicator, 3 constituents, and 5 units. should be counted as
a unit only if it is in the absolute or is suffixed; thus this line con-
formstotheconstraintsandhasonlyfiveunits.TheLXXherereads
oo t|qqoooiv oi |ooioioi ov ovpoov |oi ovo o
tvq,sothattheremainingonesofthepeoplesandallthenations
mayseek.Thisisanunintelligibletranslationbecauset |qq oooiv
has no direct object unless |oi o vo o t vq be treated as the
object,butthisisunlikelybecauseofthe|oi(andalsobecausethe
resultantsentence,theremainingonesofthepeoplesmayseekalso
all the nations, makes no sense). The citation of this line in Acts
15:17emendsthedifficultybyinsertingov |upiovasadirectobject.
TheGreekappearstohaveasitsVorlage for and
(humanity)for.TheLXXofAmos,however,isofpoorqual-
ity,andoneshouldnotemendthetextonthebasisoftheGreek.
. Qal yiqtol 3 m p of (possess) with ,
indicatingpurpose.
. Thedirectobject.Thenoun sug-
geststhatEdomwilldeclinetothepointthatithasonlyafractionof
itsformerglory.Ontheotherhand, isusedforanelectrem-
nantsavedfromdestruction(e.g.,Mic2:12).Thereisatensionhere,
as throughout the Old Testament, between an eschatology in which
IsraelrulestheGentilesandoneinwhichGentilesarebroughtintothe
blessingsofthecovenant(e.g.,Ps87).InNewTestamenttheology,this
tensionisresolvedbythecomingofGentilesintothechurch(thereby
submittingthemselvestotheDavidicMessiah)andbytheeschatologi-
cal dominion of Christ in the new earth (thereby placing a Davidic
kingoverallthenationsofearth).ButwhyisEdomsingledoutatall,
since the next words tell us that Israel will possess all the nations?
ProbablyEdomishererepresentativeofallGentilehostilitytoIsrael.
284 Amos9:11-12
Garrett Amos final.indd 284 6/6/08 2:26:15 PM
. Aseconddirectobject.Havingwanderedamongall
thenations,Israelwillpossessallthenations.Thissoundsimperialis-
ticinnature,butthefollowinglinegivesnewmeaningtotheIsraelite
possessionoftheGentiles.
Line Eg: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.ThislinespeaksoftheGen-
tilesnotasconqueredpeoplesbutastheelectofGod.
. . . . Relativewitharesumptivepronounonthe
preposition ,uponwhom.
. Niphalqatal 3ms(orparticiplems)of.
. The subject of . The expression, upon whom my
nameiscalled,meansthattheGentilesaretreatedasGodsownpos-
session(2Chr7:14, [mypeopleupon
whomismynamecalled]).
Line Eh:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1predi-
cator,3constituents,and4units.
. Adivinespeechformula.
. Theqalactiveparticiplemsof.Itisprobablybestto
takethisasarelativeclausewithanimplied .
. Thedirectobject.Thefemininesingularpronounisherea
neutrum,representingallthatispredictedinthisstanza.
9:13-15: Sixth Stanza. Thisstanzahasthreestrophes.Oneshould
note that in this stanza, as in the previous, the lines are dominated
bytheweqatal thatdescribethegloriesoftherestoredkingdom.This
recallsthelongjudgmentstrophesinchapters12,inwhichlineswere
dominatedbytheweqatal (1:4-5,7-8,14-15;2:2-3).Thus,thesuffer-
ingsofIsraelsjudgmentarerepaidintherestoration.Inresponseto
theearlierfaminemotif(8:11),theimageofagriculturalabundance
dominatesthisstanza.
9:13: First Strophe.Fivelinesdepictingagriculturalbounty.
Amos9:12-15 285
Garrett Amos final.indd 285 6/6/08 2:26:16 PM





Line F1a:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,4constituents,and5units.
. In Amos, often introduces a statement of judgment
(4:2;6:11,14;7:1,4,7,8;8:1,11;9:8,9).Here,itintroducesamessageis
ofsalvation.
. This masculine plural of is the subject of the peri-
phrasticparticiplethatfollows.
. Qal active participle m p of . The temporal clause
ishereaprotasis.
. Adivinespeechformula.
Line F1b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Niphalweqatal 3msof.Theweqatal istheapodosis
tolineF1a.AsinIsaiah29:13andJeremiah30:21,theverbmeansto
approachorcomecloseto.
. Qalactiveparticiplemsof (toplow)usedsub-
stantively.
. Qalactiveparticiplemsof (toharvest,usedsub-
stantively)withpreposition anddefinitearticle.Inthistextalone
theniphalof seemstohave withitsobject;itisusuallyused
absolutely or has with its object. Isaiah 65:5 and Job 41:8 have
with the qal of and so are not fully parallel. For further dis-
cussion, see comments on the next line. In the Israelite agricultural
year,plowingtookplaceinOctober-Novemberandthegrainharvest
286 Amos9:13
9:13 F1a
F1b
F1c
F1d
F1e
Garrett Amos final.indd 286 6/6/08 2:26:16 PM
occurredinApril-May,whichmeantthattherewasadormantperiod,
sofarasthegraincropswereconcerned,fromJuneuntilearlyOcto-
ber.Inthenewecosystem,plowingforthegraincropwillbeginagain
immediatelyaftertheharvest.
Line F1c: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 0
predicators,2constituents,and4units.Thereisgappingoftheverb
fromthepreviousline.
. Qal active participle m s construct of (to
tread,usedsubstantively)withconjunction.
. Qalactiveparticiplemsconstructof (used
substantively) with preposition . The word (which normally
meanstopullordrag)heredescribesthesowerleavingatrailof
seedbehindhimself.Theparticipleisdefinitebyvirtueoftheabsolute
noun .Thus,inbothF1bandF1c,thefirstparticipleisindefi-
niteandthesecondparticiplehas andisdefinite.Butwhyis
(and inthepreviousline)indefinite?Thepointmaybe
thattherearesomestartingtodothefirstactivitywhilethesecond
activityisstillinfullswing.Thismayalsohelpustounderstandthe
peculiar niphal of with . The here does not really mark a
directobject;theverbisusedabsolutely.Theproximityistemporal,
notspatial. heremeanswithandthemeaningisthatamanmight
begintoploworspreadseedwhiletheharvestersorgrape-treadersstill
haveplentyofworkaheadofthem.Thegrapeharvestandsubsequent
treadingofthegrapestookplaceinattheendoftheagriculturalyear
in August-September, with the sowing of new crops taking place in
November-December.Inthenewecosystem,thegapbetweentheend
ofoneagriculturalyearandthebeginningofthenextwillbeelimi-
nated,withtheresultthatcropswillbeenormous.
Line F1d:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Hiphilweqatal 3cpof.Literallytocausetoflow,
thepointhereisthatthehillswillbesofertilethatthegrapesupon
themwillbenumerousandwillswelltothepointofbursting.There
Amos9:13 287
Garrett Amos final.indd 287 6/6/08 2:26:17 PM
appearstobelittledifferencebetweentheqalandhiphilforthisroot;
seeJoel4:18.
. Thesubject,herereferringtothehillcountryofIsrael.
. The direct object. The word refers to unfermented or
freshgrapejuice.
Line F1e:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,2constituents,and2units.Thisformsachiasticcoupletwith
thepreviousline.
. Thesubject;inparallelwith .
. Hithpolelyiqtol 3fpof.The +[X]+yiqtol
patternisoffline,implyingherethatthislinedoesnotmovethepre-
dictionforwardtoasubsequenteventbutisparalleltotheprevious
line. In Amos 9:5, the verb described chaotic upheavals of the
landasadivinejudgment.Here,thehillsmeltinthataharvestof
plentyflowsdownfromthem.
9:14: Second Strophe.Fourlinesdepictingtherebuildingofcities
andfarms.




Line F2a: The colon-marker is segholta and the constraints are: 1
predicator,3constituents,and4units.
. Qalweqatal 1csof.Theweqatal resumesamain-
linesequenceofpredictions.
. A construct chain direct object. The word
functionsasacognateaccusativetotheverb;itshouldberen-
dered,Iwillbringaboutarestorationof...andnot,Iwillbring
backthecaptivityof...(seePaul1991,294).
288 Amos9:13-14
9:14 F2a
F2b
F2c
F2d
Garrett Amos final.indd 288 6/6/08 2:26:17 PM
. Apropernameinappositionto .
Line F2b:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
2predicators,3constituents,and4units.
. Qalweqatal 3cpof.Thisisamainlineclauseandis
sequentialtothepreviousclause.
. Plural noun (from ) with adjectival
niphal participle f p of , desolate. It here serves as the direct
object.
. Qal weqatal 3 c p of . As another weqatal, this is
anothermainlineprediction.Itcouldbeafinalclause,sothatthey
may inhabit (them). The weyiqtol would more clearly mark a final
clause.
Line F2c: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 2
predicators,4constituents,and4units.
. Qalweqatal 3cpof.Thisisanothermainlinepre-
diction.
. Thedirectobject.
. Qal weqatal 3 c p of . As with in F2b, this
couldbeafinalclause.
. Thedirectobject.
Line F2d:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:2pred-
icators,4constituents,and4units.
. Qalweqatal 3cpof.
. Thedirectobject.
. Qalweqatal 3cpof.Thisisanotherpossiblefinal
clause.
. Thedirectobject.
9:15: Third Strophe. Four lines, using an agricultural metaphor
depictingIsraelasaplantthatYHWHplacesinthegroundneverto
beuprootedagain.
Amos9:14 289
Garrett Amos final.indd 289 6/6/08 2:26:18 PM
290 Amos9:15




Line F3a: The colon-marker is athnach and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and2units.
. Qal weqatal 1 c s of with 3 m p suffix. Agri-
cultural language dominates this text; Israel plants vineyards and
YHWHplantsIsrael.
. Prepositionalphrasewith .Theuseof
(arableground)insteadof (land) isprobablyafunctionof
theagriculturalimage.
Line F3b: The colon-marker is pashta and the constraints are: 1
predicator,2constituents,and3units.
. Negatedniphalyiqtol 3mpof withcon-
junctionandadverb.Althoughtheverbisoftenusedtodescribe
theuprootingofpeoplesfromtheirhomelands(e.g.,Jer12:14-17),itis
fundamentallyanagriculturaltermthatdescribespullingaplantup
fromthesoil.Cf.Ezekiel19:12,but(thevine)wasuprooted( )
inanger.
. Prepositionalphrasewith and .Again,the
pictureisofaplantpulledoutofthesoil.
Line F3c:Thecolon-markeriszaqeph qaton andtheconstraintsare:
1predicator,3constituents,and3units.
. Relativepronounservingasthedirectobjectof .The
antecedentis .
. Qalqatal 1csof.Thisisprobablynotaprophetic
perfectbutatruepasttense.Itlooksbacktotheoriginalgivingof
thelandtoIsrael.
9:15 F3a
F3b
F3c
F3d
Garrett Amos final.indd 290 6/6/08 2:26:18 PM
Amos9:15 291
. Indirectobject;preposition with3mpsuffix.
Line F3d:Thecolon-markerissilluq andtheconstraintsare:1pred-
icator,2constituents,and3units.
. Qalqatal 3msof inthelastdivinespeechformula
ofthebook.
. Thesubject.Herealoneinthedivinespeechfor-
mulasYHWHiscalledyourGod.Thisindicatesthatintheresto-
ration,IsraelspriorrelationshiptoGodisresumed.
Garrett Amos final.indd 291 6/6/08 2:26:18 PM
Glossary
Adjectival genitive:Aconstructioninwhichthegenitive(absolute)
substantiveisinsomemanneradjectivallymodifyingthegoverning
(construct) substantive, as in Amos 6:4, , beds of ivory,
where describesthematerialthatdecorates .
Appositional genitive:Aconstructioninwhichthegenitive(abso-
lute) substantive is in apposition to the governing (construct) sub-
stantive,asinAmos6:1, ,designatedasfinest,where
isinappositionto .
Constituent:Oneofthepoetic constraints.Itisawordorphrase
thatfillsonegrammaticalslot.Exampleswouldbeasubject,apredi-
cate, or a prepositional phrase. A construct chain functioning as a
subjectordirectobject,forexample,isasingleconstituent.
Dependence:Atropeinwhichalineisgrammaticallyincomplete
anddependsuponeitherthepreviousorfollowingline.Forexample,
in1:3,linesAaandAcbothdependonlineAb.
Gapping:Atropeinwhichawordinonelinealsogovernsormod-
ifiesanadjacentline.Forexample,theverb inlineBdof1:5
alsogovernslineBe.Thisistraditionallydescribedasaworddoing
double-duty.
Hapax legomenon:AwordthatoccursonlyonetimeintheHebrew
Bibleandthusisdifficulttodefine.
Hendiadys:Expressingasingleideabymeansoftwowords.
,emptyandvoid,inGen1:2isanexample.
Mainline: In Hebrew discourse, mainline clauses make up the
basicstructureofthetext.Inhistoricalnarrative,forexample,clauses
predicated by the wayyiqtol generally form the mainline sequence,
givingtheessentialchainofeventsinastoryline.Inapredictivetext,
theweqatalgenerallygivesthemainlinesequence.Mainlineclauses
generally form a chain that is either logically or chronologically
sequential.Forexample,inAmos1:4-5,aseriesofweqatalverbssets
upasequenceofpredictions,thatGodwillsendfireonDamascus,
thatitwillconsumethecity,thatthefortificationswillbedestroyed,
292 Glossary
Garrett Amos final.indd 292 6/6/08 2:26:19 PM
andthethatthepeoplewillgointoexile.Mainlineclausesgenerally
donothaveprominence.
Neutrum:Apronounsuchasthisoritusedtorefertoanasser-
tionorasituationratherthantoaconcreteitemoraspecificnoun.
Forexample,inAmos2:11(this)referstothepriorassertion
thatGodhadsentprophetsandNaziritestoIsrael.
Objective genitive:Aconstructioninwhichthegenitive(absolute)
substantiveisthedirectobjectofthegoverning(construct)substan-
tive,asinAmos1:8, ,and(the)holderof(the)scepter.
Offline: In Hebrew discourse, offline clauses in some way add
detailtoorqualifythemainlineclauses.Anofflineclausemaygive
backgroundinformation,oritmaydescribeanactthatisconceptu-
allyorchronologicallyconcurrentwiththepreviousmainlineclause,
or it may in some way have prominence. In historical narrative,
+ [X] + qatal clauses are often offline, and in predictive texts,
+[X]+yiqtolclausesareoftenoffline.Negatedclausesandcopu-
larclausesarealmostalwaysoffline.Forexample,inAmos7:9,the
clause (AndthehighplacesofIsaacwillbelaid
desolate)ismainlineandtheclause (And
thesanctuariesofIsraelwillbelaidwaste)isoffline.Inthiscase,
thetwoclausesareconceptuallysimultaneous.
Partitive: A grammatical function in which a subset is separated
fromalargergroup.Aconstructchainmayhaveapartitivefunction,
asin ,finestofthenations,inAmos6:1.Thepreposi-
tion sometimesispartitive,asin ,someofyouryoung
men,inAmos2:11.
Poetic constraint: Following the research of Michael OConnor,
this model asserts that a line of Hebrew poetry generally will have
from0to3predicators,from1to4constituents,andfrom2to5
units.Thatis,forexample,alineofHebrewpoetrywillnotcontain
only1unit,orhave5constituents.
Predicator: One of the poetic constraints. A predicator may be
afiniteverb,aninfinitiveabsolutethatfunctionsasafiniteverb,an
infinitive construct phrase functioning as a finite verb, a participle
Glossary 293
Garrett Amos final.indd 293 6/6/08 2:26:19 PM
functioningasaperiphrasticfiniteverb,andtheparticles and ,
oravocative.
Prominence:Aclause, phrase or wordthat is prominent insome
waystandsoutfromthetextaroundit.Theprominencemaybeacon-
trasttothecontext,orthesentencestructuremaydrawattentionto
somethingunexpectedordramatic,orsomeindividualitemorperson
maybegivengreaterattention.
Qatal:Theconjugationtraditionallycalledperfect.
Semantic matching:Atropeinwhichawordorphraseinoneline
issynonymousornearlysynonymouswithawordinanadjacentline.
Seelinebof1:2.
Semantic parallelism:Atropeinwhichonelinemore-or-lesshas
thesamemeaningasanadjacentline.Seelinesaandbin1:2.usually
the second line in some way advances or in some way modifies the
thoughtofthefirst.
Substantival:Whenaparticiplefunctionsasanounratherthanas
verb,itissubstantival.Forexample, ,judge,isasubstantival
useoftheverb.
Syntactic parallelism: A trope in which two adjacent lines have
thesamegrammaticalstructure,asinlinescanddin1:2.
Trope: In this commentary, this refers to devices used in con-
structingalineofHebrewpoetry.Commontropesincludegapping,
dependence,semantic matching,andsyntactic parallelism.
Unit: One of the poetic constraints. A unit is basically a word,
butsmallparticlessuchas or orprepositionssuchas donot
countasunits.Inthiscommentary,isregardedasanon-unit,and
iscountedasaunitonlyifitisabsolute.
Volitive:Averbformusedtoexpressthedesireofthespeaker.Voli-
tivesincludecohortatives,jussives,andimperatives.
Wayyiqtol: The conjugation traditionally called vav conversive
orvavconsecutive.
Weqatal:Theconjugationtraditionallycalledimperfectwitha
simpleconjunction,asin .
294 Glossary
Garrett Amos final.indd 294 6/6/08 2:26:20 PM
Weyiqtol: The conjugation traditionally called perfect with a
simpleconjunction,asin .
Yiqtol:Theconjugationtraditionallycalledimperfect.
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301
InDEx of moDErn AuTHors
Andersen,FrancisI.,174,184,
214,252,278
Barr,Michael,39
Barton,John,18,25,47
Ben-Hayyim,Z.,277
Bliss,F.J.,277
Boyle,MarjorieORourke,3
Bronznick,Norman,60
Cathcart,KevinJ.,111,258
Cooper,Alan,198
Coote,Robert,39
Crenshaw,JamesL.,129,262
Cripps,RichardS.,174,214
Davies,PhilipR.,283
Dell,KatharineJ.,114
DiLella,AlexanderA.,277
Fishbane,Michael.,39
Freedman,DavidNoel,174,184,
214,252,278
Garrett,DuaneA.,174
Gelston,A.,178
Giles,Terry,223
Gitay,Yehoshua,78
Gordon,RobertP.,111
Hammershaimb,Erling,32,99,
112,213
Hasel,Gerhard,14,281
Hayes,JohnH.,71,111,113
Hoffman,Yair,271
Holladay,William,9,177
Hoop,Raymondde,8
Isbell,Charles,175
Kleven,Terence,112
Koch,Klaus,3
Kugel,JamesL.,11
Landy,Francis,214
Limburg,James,3,4,209
Maag,Victor,213
Maeir,ArenM,181
Markert,Ludwig,112
Mays,JamesLuther,148,174,
269
Garrett Amos final.indd 301 6/6/08 2:26:23 PM
Miller,CynthiaL.,4
Mller,Karl,2,78
Noble,PaulR.,3,204,231,280
Notley,R.Steven,181,273
OConnell,RobertH.,3
OConnor,MichaelP.,9,293
Paas,Stefan,206
Park,Aaron,2
Paul,Shalom,19,30,34,39,
40,57,58,60,72,83,90,92,
97,98,99,103,111,112,125,
128,142,148,151,174,175,
182,194,207,213,222,230,
252,256,277,278,279,288
Priest,John,36
Rainey,AnsonF.,181,273
Rhatjen,Bruce,229
Richardson,H.Neil,283
Rosenbaum,StanleyN.,14,223
Rottzoll,D.U.,2
Rudolph,Wilhelm,214
Skehan,PatrickW.,277
Smalley,WilliamA.,112
Smelik,Willem,196
Smith,GaryV.,155,174,278
Snyman,S.D.,92
Stager,LawrenceE.,195
Steinmann,AndrewE.,18
Stuart,DouglasK.,48,113,127,
183,184,185,207,214,269,
278
Waard,Jande,,112,131
Williams,A.J.,114
Wolff,HansWalter,2,114,123,
148,164,174,184,185,209,
226,256,277,278
Wolters,Al,230
Wood,JoyceRilett,2
Yadin,Yigael,277
Youngblood,Ronald,126
Zalcman,Lawrence,98,148,223
302 IndexofModernAuthors
Garrett Amos final.indd 302 6/6/08 2:26:23 PM
303
suBJECT InDEx
adjectivalgenitive,186,189,284
Amaziah,2045,21628
Ammon,1721,4049
Amos(book),Redactionand
Structure,27
Amos(person),1,1415,21828
appositionalgenitive,179
Ashdod,20,2932,79,9192,
100
Ashkelon,20,2932
Assyria,28,30,3233,4849,
91,103,11213,176,182
Bashan,104,1078
Beersheba,139,141,236,25556
Ben-Hadad,19,2627
Calneh,18081
Caphtor,273
Carmel,17,261,262
concatenation,19
Cush,272,274
Damascus,1728,176,180,201
Dan,221,236,255,257,283
David(kingofIsrael),15,36,
134,233,237,28384
dependence,23,25,30,34,37,
43,44,47,52,56,98,265
Edom,9,1721,31,35,3744,
4748,237,284
Egypt,22,29,79,9192,100,
105,123,162,203,237,241,
272
Ekron,29,31
Esarhaddon,25
gapping,57,65,68,9193,110,
11516,138,154,161,167,
172,186,198,200,
24142,24849,273,287
Gath,29,33,178181
Gaza,1720,2932
Gilead,19,21,25,43
Gilgal,104,115,131,139,141
Gomorrah,124
Hamath,13435,18081,
2034
Garrett Amos final.indd 303 6/6/08 2:26:23 PM
Hazael,2527,123,18081
hendiadys,107,121,220
hymn,126
Isaac,205,216,225,293
Israel,1,13,15,1718,2429,
3436,55295
Jacob,197,208,210
Jacob,prideof,192,243
Jeroboam,1,13,124,159,176,
182,189,201,2035
Jerusalem,14,19,21,38,54,
140,178
Joseph,132,134,143,159,189
Judah,1,6,1319,33,35,
3840,5154,65,95,141,
180,224,252
Karnaim,202
Kerioth,4950
Kir,28,273
lamentation,12737,15963,
196,202,229,248
liturgy,196
Lo-Debar,201
Moab,14,1719,4751
Nile,23336,24546
objectivegenitive,32,76,127,
128,155,249
partitive,68,81,116,186,189,
259,280
Philistia,17,20,2933,91,134,
237,27175
Poetry,Hebrew,811
Rabbah,45
Samaria,18,59,7879,84,
91100,103108,114,127,
141,160,17785,19093,
201,230,231,236,239,247,
249,250,25556,279
semanticparallelism,259
Sikkuth,17576
Sodom,124,209
syntacticparallelism,17
Tekoa,14
Teman,42
Tiglath-pileserI,25,30,32,
18081
Tyre,17,1920,3337,95
Uzziah,32,180181
volitive,80
Zion,16,54,178,182
304 SubjectIndex
Garrett Amos final.indd 304 6/6/08 2:26:25 PM